UNIT- IV
• Software Documentation              Mr. M. E. Patil         S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
Software Documentation• Identifies all relevant documentation which  concerns development, verification,  validation, use ...
Documentation            Documentation is often seriously neglected by software programmers.            Many projects and ...
Reasons to document•   1) So that you can understand the software•   2) So that the software can be understood by other pe...
IEEE std 730, A minimum Documentation                   must include•   Software Requirement Specification (SRS)•   Softwa...
Software Requirement Specification (SRS)• Describe the capabilities, states and functionality of  all aspects of the syste...
Software Design Description• This includes major components,  subcomponents and interface of the software  and may include...
Software Interface Documentation• It describes capabilities and functionality of all  interfaces between any two component...
Software Test documentation• It includes the test cases and test case specifications• The test case specification includes...
Software Development Plan• There is no good standard for this• Whatever format you choose to use, come  with a format , ge...
User Documentation• Ex. Manuals , Guides and so on.• It specifies and describe the required inputs, options  and other use...
Document distribution•   Process interface to configuration mgt.•   Distribution to internal project personnel•   Distribu...
Types Of Documentation• Architecture/Design – Overview of software. Includes  relations to an environment and construction...
Standards, Practices,Conventions and Metrics
StandradsTo be applied by every step of product development• Documentation• Variable and module naming• Software programmi...
MetricsMetrics refer to the collection and use of data which    reflect productivity and quality of the products    produc...
ISO 9000Paragraph 4.4 of standard (ISO 9000) states  following :“ The supplier shall establish and maintain  documented pr...
ISO 9000The list includes :• Design and development planning (4.4.2)• Organizational and technical interfaces (4.4.3)• Des...
ISO 9000• This is very broad coverage• The coverage is good, but it is difficult to  understand and implement             ...
Are all standards, practices, conventions and metrics     which are to be applied, identified? - Is compliance with these ...
Quality Assurance Techniques
Nine Techniques•   Reviews•   Standardization•   Simulation•   Testing•   Analytical Modeling•   Execution Analysis•   Ind...
Reviews• There are four review techniques• 1) Auditing  – Desk checking of development documents for    accuracy, clarity ...
Reviews• 2) Inspection  – It is a highly disciplined and formal technique of    group of dynamics used for finding the err...
Reviews• 3) Reviewing   – Called as Peer reviews or management reviews     depending on the method used for selection of  ...
Reviews• 4) Walkthrough  – Intermediate deliverables can be tested for    completeness and verified against peer    docume...
Standardization• It is the process of creation of formal operational  criteria that establish a model against which  deliv...
Simulation• This is the process of studying system behavior  through use of measurable computer models• Usually performed ...
Testing• Most commonly used and misused verification  method• 45% or more budget are spent on testing.                    ...
Types of Testing• Acceptance Testing  – Overall check of final products at and/or prior to    delivery to ascertain that t...
Types of testingSystem Testing– Overall check of final products at and/or prior to  delivery and is the final technical su...
Types of TestingLogical testing– It is used to discover errors in the system  computation and logical functions..Path Test...
Types of TestingStress Testing  -Test to demonstrate at which point the system can  be caused to overload ie. The extreme ...
Analytical modeling• Analytical modeling attempt to develop  mathematical representations of the system.• It is similar to...
Execution Analysis• Technique of analysis of an execution.• Usually used to find the efficiency bottlenecks.              ...
Independent verification, validation            and testing• This form of testing involves the utilization of totally  ind...
Correctness Proofs.• These are the techniques used for formally prove the  correctness of programs or algorithms, similar ...
Reviews and Audits
Reviews and Audits• Reviews and audits are to ensure that the  product meets all client needs and  requirements and to fin...
Reviews and Audits•   Management Review Process•   Technical Review Process•   Software Inspection Process•   Walkthrough ...
Software Inspection Process               Mr. M. E. Patil          S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
Software Inspection Objectives• To detect and identify software element defects.• It is conducted by a group of 3-6 partic...
Special ResponsibilitiesModerator- He is the chief planner- Meet the manager for the inspection process.Reader- At the mee...
Special ResponsibilitiesRecorder- The recorder is charged with documenting defects at  the meeting and recording inspectio...
Special ResponsibilitiesAuthor-The author is responsible for the software  elements meeting its inspection entry criteria-...
Software Inspection Input• Software Elements to be inspected.• Approved software element specification and  inspection che...
Entry CriteriaAuthorization  - Inspections are planned for and documented in  the appropriate project planning documents.I...
Minimum Entry Criteria.     -The software elements must confirm to project standard of content and format.     -All prior ...
Software Inspection ProcedurePlanning -The author assembles the inspection package materials for the moderator -The modera...
Software Inspection ProcedurePreparation -Each inspector must become thoroughly familiar with the software element.Examina...
Software Inspection ProcedureRework  -The author revises the materials, addressing all  items on the inspection defect lis...
Software Inspection Exit Criteria• All the defects that have been detected are resolved.• This single exit criteria is app...
Software Inspection Output• Defect list containing the defect location ,  description, categorization .• Inspection defect...
Software Inspection Audit ability• It is provided by the following  -Documented inspection procedures  -Retained inspectio...
Data Collection Requirements• Defects are categorized by the followingType- It identifies s/w element attributesClass- It ...
Walkthrough Process
Walkthrough Objective• To evaluate software for defects , omissions, and  contradictions & to consider alternative  implem...
Special ResponsibilitiesModerator     -Is responsible for conducting specific walkthroughRecorder -Responsible for writing...
- omissions     - contradictions     - suggestions for improvements oralternative approaches.   Author   -The author is re...
Walkthrough Input• Statement of objectives for the walkthrough• The software element under examination.• Standards• Specif...
Entry Criteria   Authorization– Walkthrough are planed for, and documented in  the appropriate project planning documents....
Walkthrough Procedures1) Planning – Moderator identifies the team – Schedules the meeting – Distributes all necessary mate...
4) Examination    -The presenter makes an overview presentation    -The author walks through the specific software element...
Walkthrough Output• It contains statement of objectives, a list of  – deficiencies,  – omissions,  – contradictions  – sug...
Auditability• The walkthrough report meeting minutes, and  other materials on which conclusions are  based, shall become p...
Software Audit
Audit Objective• Compliance confirmation of products and processes  to certify adherence to standards, guidelines,  specif...
Audit Input    Following inputs are required•   Purpose and scope of the audit•   Objective audit criteria•   The software...
Entry Criteria• A special project milestone has been reached• External parties demand an audit• A local organizational ele...
Audit Procedures•   Planning•   Overview•   Preparation•   Examination•   Reporting                       Mr. M. E. Patil ...
Planning•   Project processes to be examined•   Software required to be examined•   Reports shall be identified•   Report ...
Overview• Overview meeting with the audited  organization is recommended                      Mr. M. E. Patil             ...
Preparation    Preparations required by the audit team•   Understand the organization•   Understand the products and proce...
Examination• Review procedures and instructions• Examine the work breakdown structures• Examine evidence of implementation...
Reporting• Audit team will issue a draft report for review  and comments• It will have deficiencies, findings and  recomme...
Audit Exit Criteria•   Each element is examined•   Findings are presented•   Response to draft audit is received•   Final ...
Audit Output    The draft and final audit report shall contain•   Audit identification•   Scope•   Conclusions•   Synopsis...
ISO 9000 Quality Standards
ISO 9000• Is a family of standards for quality  management systems• It is maintained by ISO, the International  Organizati...
ISO 9000    Some of the requirements in ISO 9001 would include    :•   A set of procedures that cover all key processes in...
ISO 9000• A company or organization that has been  independently audited and certified to be in  conformance with ISO 9001...
ISO 9000• Certification to an ISO 9000 standard does not  guarantee the compliance i.e. quality of end  products and servi...
ISO 9000  ISO 9001 : 2000 is the standard that provides a   set of standardized requirements for a quality   management sy...
ISO 9000  Why an organization should implement ISO 9001 :  2000• Without satisfied customers, an organization is in  peril...
Comparison of ISO 9000 Model with SEI’s CMM
Both models deal with methods ofaccessing the ability of suppliers to    meet their commitments
Capability Maturity Model, CMM• CMM is a five level framework for measuring  Software Engineering Practices• They determin...
ISO 9000• It defines a minimum level of generic  attributes for a quality management program• CMM addresses only software,...
Model’s Orientations• Orientation of CMM is software development  process• The CMM was specifically developed for software...
Model’s Orientations• The Orientation of ISO 9000-3 is a quality  system management• The objective of ISO 9000 series is t...
ISO 9000 Weaknesses  Issue 1 : Complexity• ISO 9000 itself is not simply a standard but a   set of standards  Issue 2 : Re...
ISO 9000 Weaknesses  Issue 3 : Inherent Structure• A software organization is not audited  according to ISO 9000-3 but onl...
ISO 9000 Weaknesses  Issue 4 : Key audit factors• They are very limited and most KPAs are not  even mentioned• E.g. requir...
ISO 9000 Weaknesses  Issue 5 : Process/product improvement• Some concepts are nonexistent• ISO 9000 has become a very impo...
CMM Weaknesses  Issue 1 : Granularity• It is too small• It allows some sort of shading for instances   when a site excels ...
CMM Weaknesses  Issue 2 : People/process/technology• The CMM is based on   people/process/technology• This is insufficient...
CMM Weaknesses  Issue 3 : CMM Focus• The focus of the CMM is still on technology,  not problem solving                    ...
CMM Weaknesses  Issue 4 : Site Comparisions  The following must be proven for validity• Graduating to the next level• Impr...
CMM Weaknesses  Issue 5 : Objective measurements• The model does not sufficiently include  objective measurements of real ...
CMM Strengths• Very strong control over the auditors• The SEI is maintaining a “public database” of  the data collected by...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Smqa unit iv

509
-1

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
509
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
41
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Smqa unit iv

  1. 1. UNIT- IV
  2. 2. • Software Documentation Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  3. 3. Software Documentation• Identifies all relevant documentation which concerns development, verification, validation, use and maintainance of the software.• It states how documents will be checked for accuracy and describes criteria for document distribution. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  4. 4. Documentation Documentation is often seriously neglected by software programmers. Many projects and companies have failed due to poor qualitydocumentation. If you find your programmer does not, or will not, document theirsoftware, then it is best to get rid of them now. If the software is undocumented and they leave, the only option is to startagain and rewrite it all. Picking up the pieces of poorly documented software is a very expensiveand a time consuming exercise, it’s cheaper to start from scratch. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  5. 5. Reasons to document• 1) So that you can understand the software• 2) So that the software can be understood by other people• 3) So that advanced projects can be undertaken• 4) So that you can use parts of the code for other projects• 5) To make life easier for your self Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  6. 6. IEEE std 730, A minimum Documentation must include• Software Requirement Specification (SRS)• Software Design Description.• Software verification and validation plan (SVVP)• Software verification and validation report. (SVVR)• User documentation• Software configuration management plan.• Software test plan.• Software test report Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  7. 7. Software Requirement Specification (SRS)• Describe the capabilities, states and functionality of all aspects of the system• This includes major components, subcomponents and interface of the software and may include databases.• It includes the specially required items by the users.• Documentation needs to be prepared for each deliverables and non deliverable item of the software, firmware and hardware. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  8. 8. Software Design Description• This includes major components, subcomponents and interface of the software and may include databases• This process should be carried out by the standard procedure which has been agreed on.• This process may include use of computerized tools. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  9. 9. Software Interface Documentation• It describes capabilities and functionality of all interfaces between any two components of the system.• This include the major components , subcomponents and external systems• Both internal and external interfaces of the software should be described. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  10. 10. Software Test documentation• It includes the test cases and test case specifications• The test case specification includes all information directly needed for performing the actual testing of the various software modules.• The software test documentation include – Test design specification. – Test log – Test summary report Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  11. 11. Software Development Plan• There is no good standard for this• Whatever format you choose to use, come with a format , get everyone to agree on it , and stick to it. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  12. 12. User Documentation• Ex. Manuals , Guides and so on.• It specifies and describe the required inputs, options and other user activities necessary for the successful use and application of the system.• The user documentation have two objectives – Tutorial objective -to train the user – To provide the on-going reference from the usage of the system Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  13. 13. Document distribution• Process interface to configuration mgt.• Distribution to internal project personnel• Distribution to external project personnel• Security limitations of documents. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  14. 14. Types Of Documentation• Architecture/Design – Overview of software. Includes relations to an environment and construction principles to be used in design of software components• Technical – Documentation of code, algorithms, interfaces and APIs• End User – Manuals for the end-user, system administrators and support staff• Marketing – Product briefs and promotional collateral Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  15. 15. Standards, Practices,Conventions and Metrics
  16. 16. StandradsTo be applied by every step of product development• Documentation• Variable and module naming• Software programming standards• Software inspection procedures• Software testing standards and procedure• Software quality metrics Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  17. 17. MetricsMetrics refer to the collection and use of data which reflect productivity and quality of the products producedThe unit of labour is LOCSoftware quality metrics must include• Branch metric• Decision point metric• Domain metric• Error message metric• Requirements demonstration metric Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  18. 18. ISO 9000Paragraph 4.4 of standard (ISO 9000) states following :“ The supplier shall establish and maintain documented procedures to control and verify the design of the product in order to ensure that the specified requirements are met.” Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  19. 19. ISO 9000The list includes :• Design and development planning (4.4.2)• Organizational and technical interfaces (4.4.3)• Design input (4.4.4)• Design Output (4.4.5)• Design Review (4.4.6)• Design Verification (4.6.7)• Design Validation (4.4.8)• Design Changes (4.4.9) Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  20. 20. ISO 9000• This is very broad coverage• The coverage is good, but it is difficult to understand and implement Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  21. 21. Are all standards, practices, conventions and metrics which are to be applied, identified? - Is compliance with these items monitored and assured? - Are the following standards all provided:• Documentation standards?• Logic structure standards?• Coding and commentary standards? Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  22. 22. Quality Assurance Techniques
  23. 23. Nine Techniques• Reviews• Standardization• Simulation• Testing• Analytical Modeling• Execution Analysis• Independent verification and validation technique• Correctness proof Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  24. 24. Reviews• There are four review techniques• 1) Auditing – Desk checking of development documents for accuracy, clarity and standards conformance as well as for errors by the individuals – Least expensive – Excellent way to detect and correct the errors – It is very Talent dependent Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  25. 25. Reviews• 2) Inspection – It is a highly disciplined and formal technique of group of dynamics used for finding the errors in deliverables, such as documents and source code. – All participants have well defined role, while management is specifically excluded from the participation . – Most expensive but most effective at finding errors. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  26. 26. Reviews• 3) Reviewing – Called as Peer reviews or management reviews depending on the method used for selection of participants – It is the technique of displaying results of a development process. – The audience will usually consists of few developers , managers and user representatives – Very expensive when large number of peoples are involved . Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  27. 27. Reviews• 4) Walkthrough – Intermediate deliverables can be tested for completeness and verified against peer documents. – Some times called as document testing – Least expensive . Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  28. 28. Standardization• It is the process of creation of formal operational criteria that establish a model against which deliverables and the procedures can be compared and measured.• This is critical technique for any installation Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  29. 29. Simulation• This is the process of studying system behavior through use of measurable computer models• Usually performed utilizing specialized tools such as simulation language. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  30. 30. Testing• Most commonly used and misused verification method• 45% or more budget are spent on testing. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  31. 31. Types of Testing• Acceptance Testing – Overall check of final products at and/or prior to delivery to ascertain that the product is according to the contractual requirements – Is simply judged as more of a legal act than a technical one. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  32. 32. Types of testingSystem Testing– Overall check of final products at and/or prior to delivery and is the final technical survey and evaluation of the viability and quality of the system, as produced.Functional Testing-- This is the technique to discover discrepancies between the functional definitions of the system and the actual operating system. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  33. 33. Types of TestingLogical testing– It is used to discover errors in the system computation and logical functions..Path Testing--This testing is used to confirm test effectiveness( coverage), based on control topology of the code.-- this technique demands the knowledge about the internal structure of the source code. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  34. 34. Types of TestingStress Testing -Test to demonstrate at which point the system can be caused to overload ie. The extreme conditions.Regression testing - This involves old tests to be run (previously run and achieved) -Is used to demonstrate that the new release still performs everything the old one did. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  35. 35. Analytical modeling• Analytical modeling attempt to develop mathematical representations of the system.• It is similar to (and frequently a part of ) simulation. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  36. 36. Execution Analysis• Technique of analysis of an execution.• Usually used to find the efficiency bottlenecks. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  37. 37. Independent verification, validation and testing• This form of testing involves the utilization of totally independent agency to find critical errors during the development process.• It is very expensive but very efficient technique.• Used for large and/or critical projects. particularly involving the danger of loss of life• Ex. Atomic reactor control system. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  38. 38. Correctness Proofs.• These are the techniques used for formally prove the correctness of programs or algorithms, similar to mathematical theorems• These are not suitable for the real-life systems. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  39. 39. Reviews and Audits
  40. 40. Reviews and Audits• Reviews and audits are to ensure that the product meets all client needs and requirements and to find development anomolies as early and inexpensively as possible. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  41. 41. Reviews and Audits• Management Review Process• Technical Review Process• Software Inspection Process• Walkthrough Process• Audit Process• Document Verification Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  42. 42. Software Inspection Process Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  43. 43. Software Inspection Objectives• To detect and identify software element defects.• It is conducted by a group of 3-6 participants.• Defect data shall be systematically collected and stored in the inspection data base.• Most powerful mechanism for finding defects in documents and the program code Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  44. 44. Special ResponsibilitiesModerator- He is the chief planner- Meet the manager for the inspection process.Reader- At the meeting the reader leads the inspection team through the software elements in comprehensive and logical fashion. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  45. 45. Special ResponsibilitiesRecorder- The recorder is charged with documenting defects at the meeting and recording inspection data required for process analysis.Inspector - Identifies and describes defects in the software element. -Must be knowledgeable of the inspection process -should represent viewpoints at the meeting Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  46. 46. Special ResponsibilitiesAuthor-The author is responsible for the software elements meeting its inspection entry criteria-Responsible for contributing to the inspection based on special understanding of the software elements for performing any rework required Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  47. 47. Software Inspection Input• Software Elements to be inspected.• Approved software element specification and inspection checklist.• Standards and guidelines.• Any inspection reporting forms. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  48. 48. Entry CriteriaAuthorization - Inspections are planned for and documented in the appropriate project planning documents.Initiating the Event - The inspection process is triggered by -Software elements availability -Project plan compliance -SQAP or SVVP schedule compliance. -scheduled re-inspection -At the request of management Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  49. 49. Minimum Entry Criteria. -The software elements must confirm to project standard of content and format. -All prior milestones must be satisfied. -All required supporting documentation must be available - For re-inspection all items noted on the defect list must be satisfied. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  50. 50. Software Inspection ProcedurePlanning -The author assembles the inspection package materials for the moderator -The moderator is responsible for assuring that they meet the inspection entry criteria.Overview -If scheduled an overview presentation of the software element is conducted by the moderator -The author makes the presentation. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  51. 51. Software Inspection ProcedurePreparation -Each inspector must become thoroughly familiar with the software element.Examination -The Inspection meeting follows this agenda -Introduce meeting -Establish preparedness -Review the inspection checklist -Read s/w elements & record defects. -Review the defect list. -Make the exit decision. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  52. 52. Software Inspection ProcedureRework -The author revises the materials, addressing all items on the inspection defect list.Follow-up -It provides follow-up on two levels. -Verifying rework per inspection -Reporting inspection data Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  53. 53. Software Inspection Exit Criteria• All the defects that have been detected are resolved.• This single exit criteria is applied to all inspections.• Each project shall develop its own criteria to meet the needs of its specific products and development environment. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  54. 54. Software Inspection Output• Defect list containing the defect location , description, categorization .• Inspection defect summary.• Inspection report containing number of participants, meeting duration, the size of material inspected, the total preparation time of the inspection team, the estimate of the rework effort and the rework completion date Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  55. 55. Software Inspection Audit ability• It is provided by the following -Documented inspection procedures -Retained inspection reports -Retained inspection defect data. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  56. 56. Data Collection Requirements• Defects are categorized by the followingType- It identifies s/w element attributesClass- It characterize evidence of nonconformance, and for example may be categorized as missing, wrong, or extra.Other Classes- Additional defect classes used when inspecting documents could include ambiguous and inconsistent.Severity- All defects are ranked by severity, such as major severity and minor severity. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  57. 57. Walkthrough Process
  58. 58. Walkthrough Objective• To evaluate software for defects , omissions, and contradictions & to consider alternative implementations.• The author makes an overview presentation of the software elements under review.• This is followed by the discussion from the participants after which the presenter walks through the software elements in detail.• It is useful but less effective than inspection Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  59. 59. Special ResponsibilitiesModerator -Is responsible for conducting specific walkthroughRecorder -Responsible for writing all comments made during the walkthrough that pretend to -error found - question of style Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  60. 60. - omissions - contradictions - suggestions for improvements oralternative approaches. Author -The author is responsible for the softwareelements being examined and presents thematerials. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  61. 61. Walkthrough Input• Statement of objectives for the walkthrough• The software element under examination.• Standards• Specifications for the software elements. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  62. 62. Entry Criteria Authorization– Walkthrough are planed for, and documented in the appropriate project planning documents. Initiating Event- it is conducted when the author indicates that thesoftware element is ready and when the moderatoris appointed. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  63. 63. Walkthrough Procedures1) Planning – Moderator identifies the team – Schedules the meeting – Distributes all necessary materials. 2) Overview -presentation is made by the author 3)Preparation -Each member must review the input materials during this phase. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  64. 64. 4) Examination -The presenter makes an overview presentation -The author walks through the specific software elements so that the walkthrough team may ask questions or raise issues regarding the software element.5) Exit Criteria -It will be complete when the entire software elements have walked through. -all the deficiencies , omissions , and suggestions for improvement have been noted and the walkthrough report has been issued. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  65. 65. Walkthrough Output• It contains statement of objectives, a list of – deficiencies, – omissions, – contradictions – suggestions and any recommendations regarding how to overcome the deficiencies Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  66. 66. Auditability• The walkthrough report meeting minutes, and other materials on which conclusions are based, shall become part of he project documentation Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  67. 67. Software Audit
  68. 68. Audit Objective• Compliance confirmation of products and processes to certify adherence to standards, guidelines, specifications and procedures• Audits are performed in accordance with documented plans and procedures• Two kinds of audits - individual, desk check type and - audit performed by a team It is the responsibility of the audit team leader to organize and direct the audit Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  69. 69. Audit Input Following inputs are required• Purpose and scope of the audit• Objective audit criteria• The software elements and processes to be audited• Background information for the products and processes being audited Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  70. 70. Entry Criteria• A special project milestone has been reached• External parties demand an audit• A local organizational element has requested the audit Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  71. 71. Audit Procedures• Planning• Overview• Preparation• Examination• Reporting Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  72. 72. Planning• Project processes to be examined• Software required to be examined• Reports shall be identified• Report distribution• Required follow-up activities• Requirements• Objective audit criteria• Audit procedures and checklists• Audit personnel• Organizations involved in the audit• Date, time, place, agenda and intended audience of overview session Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  73. 73. Overview• Overview meeting with the audited organization is recommended Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  74. 74. Preparation Preparations required by the audit team• Understand the organization• Understand the products and processes• Understand the objective audit criteria• Prepare for the audit report• Detail the audit plan Audit team leader should make arrangements for• Team orientation and training as needed• Facilities for audit interviews• Materials, documents and tools required• The software elements to be audited• Scheduling interviews Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  75. 75. Examination• Review procedures and instructions• Examine the work breakdown structures• Examine evidence of implementation and balanced controls• Interview personnel to ascertain the status and functioning of the processes and the status of the product• Examine element documents• Test the elements Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  76. 76. Reporting• Audit team will issue a draft report for review and comments• It will have deficiencies, findings and recommendations Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  77. 77. Audit Exit Criteria• Each element is examined• Findings are presented• Response to draft audit is received• Final findings are formally presented• The audit report is prepared and submitted• The recommendation report is prepared• The follow-up actions have been performed Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  78. 78. Audit Output The draft and final audit report shall contain• Audit identification• Scope• Conclusions• Synopsis• Follow-up Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  79. 79. ISO 9000 Quality Standards
  80. 80. ISO 9000• Is a family of standards for quality management systems• It is maintained by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization and is administered by accreditation and certification bodies Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  81. 81. ISO 9000 Some of the requirements in ISO 9001 would include :• A set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business• Monitoring processes to ensure they are effective• Keeping adequate records• Checking output for defects, with proper corrective action• Regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness• Facilitating continual improvement Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  82. 82. ISO 9000• A company or organization that has been independently audited and certified to be in conformance with ISO 9001 may publicly state that it is “ ISO 9001 certified ” or “ ISO 9001 registered ”. Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  83. 83. ISO 9000• Certification to an ISO 9000 standard does not guarantee the compliance i.e. quality of end products and services, rather it certifies that consistent business processes are being applied Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  84. 84. ISO 9000 ISO 9001 : 2000 is the standard that provides a set of standardized requirements for a quality management system regardless of• What the user organization does• It’s size• Whether it is in the private or public sector Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  85. 85. ISO 9000 Why an organization should implement ISO 9001 : 2000• Without satisfied customers, an organization is in peril!• To keep customers satisfied, the organization needs to meet their requirements• The ISO 9001 : 2000 standard provides a tried and trusted framework for taking a systematic approach to managing the organization’s processes so that they consistently turn out product that satisfies customers’ expectations Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  86. 86. Comparison of ISO 9000 Model with SEI’s CMM
  87. 87. Both models deal with methods ofaccessing the ability of suppliers to meet their commitments
  88. 88. Capability Maturity Model, CMM• CMM is a five level framework for measuring Software Engineering Practices• They determine the degree of technological maturity of an organization - by answers to some 101 questions• A CMM assessment usually takes five working days• It is conducted by a team of four people• The assessors must be highly-trained professionals with great development experience• The SEI takes care to control over who an assessor is and what rights the person may have Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  89. 89. ISO 9000• It defines a minimum level of generic attributes for a quality management program• CMM addresses only software, while ISO 9000 addresses the entire organization Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  90. 90. Model’s Orientations• Orientation of CMM is software development process• The CMM was specifically developed for software management and engineering process issues• The model describes a series of levels, five in number : key process areas (KPA) and their usages• Software QA is (a KPA of) level 2• Software quality management is (a KPA of) level 4 Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  91. 91. Model’s Orientations• The Orientation of ISO 9000-3 is a quality system management• The objective of ISO 9000 series is the structure and auditability of QA of organization Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  92. 92. ISO 9000 Weaknesses Issue 1 : Complexity• ISO 9000 itself is not simply a standard but a set of standards Issue 2 : Repeatability (Reliability of Audit)• One of the most pressing weakness is who audits the auditor?• There is no universally accepted system for certifying an ISO 9000 auditor Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  93. 93. ISO 9000 Weaknesses Issue 3 : Inherent Structure• A software organization is not audited according to ISO 9000-3 but only according to ISO 9001• The quality audit is performed according to ISO 9001 Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  94. 94. ISO 9000 Weaknesses Issue 4 : Key audit factors• They are very limited and most KPAs are not even mentioned• E.g. requirements, design, testing, project management• There are no agreed-upon metrics for any area Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  95. 95. ISO 9000 Weaknesses Issue 5 : Process/product improvement• Some concepts are nonexistent• ISO 9000 has become a very important marketing issue Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  96. 96. CMM Weaknesses Issue 1 : Granularity• It is too small• It allows some sort of shading for instances when a site excels in one technology but lacks in another Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  97. 97. CMM Weaknesses Issue 2 : People/process/technology• The CMM is based on people/process/technology• This is insufficient• What is demanded to produce software is : High Quality Useful On time and within budgets Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  98. 98. CMM Weaknesses Issue 3 : CMM Focus• The focus of the CMM is still on technology, not problem solving Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  99. 99. CMM Weaknesses Issue 4 : Site Comparisions The following must be proven for validity• Graduating to the next level• Improvements in productivity• Quality and customer satisfaction Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  100. 100. CMM Weaknesses Issue 5 : Objective measurements• The model does not sufficiently include objective measurements of real things Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  101. 101. CMM Strengths• Very strong control over the auditors• The SEI is maintaining a “public database” of the data collected by it’s accredited auditors Mr. M. E. Patil S.S.B.T COET, Bambhori
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×