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  • Jen
  • One minute. This session is centred around these five key AfL strategies and we’ll be going through methods and ideas that relate to each strategy over the next three hours. Jen
  • What are we doing today Miss? Pupils are usually more interested in what they are going to do rather than what they can expect to learn from doing it. It’s natural to start with this in a lesson and teachers are generally good at explaining what pupils are expected to do. But it’s also important to explain to students WHY they are doing a task and specifically what they can be expected to learn from doing that task this time. Teachers are often not good at this and this can partly account for the fact that pupils often do not see the point in what they are doing.
  • The second kind of information we are talking about sharing with pupils is evidence of success. How will they know they have been successful in learning what they set out to learn? This could be a product they have produced or a performance they have given. Or simply something they can demonstrate they know or can understand something that they did not know or understand before. What helps, of course, is to have evidence of that new knowledge and understanding. Sometimes the evidence of what success may look like will be provided by the teacher at the start of the lesson as something to aim at. Indeed the teacher might elicit from the pupils why something is good rather than simply telling them. The teacher should talk about quality all the time and help them develop a ‘nose for quality’.
  • Jen
  • Natalie
  • Another point you might want to make is that the evidence shows that it does work. Shirley Clarke has done a lot of work over the years on this area and has many testimonies from teachers and pupils about how successful it is. These are all comments that teachers have made.
  • Another point you might want to make is that the evidence shows that it does work. Shirley Clarke has done a lot of work over the years on this area and has many testimonies from teachers and pupils about how successful it is. These are all comments that teachers have made.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Making a differenceAssessment for Learning John Morris Ardleigh Green Junior School Hornchurch UK
    • 2. Ardleigh Green Junior School London Borough of Havering County of Essex
    • 3. Assessment for Learning “If children don’t learn the way we teach,perhaps we should teach the way they learn.” Teaching for Learning
    • 4. Assessment Task…Draw a house
    • 5. What is Assessment ? Formative Summative Improvement AccountabilityForward Looking and part of the Backward looking at the end of thelearning process learning processAssessment designed to give Assessment designed tofeedback on how to improve measure and compareOn going and used to aid future Usually at the end of the learningprogress process to judge achievement Assessment for Learning Assessment of Learning
    • 6. Icelandic ProgressCurriculum Equality A S Literacy S E Health S Sustainability Welfare S M E N TCreativity Teaching Learning
    • 7. FormativeAssessment Targets Where they R are E AfL P O How to get R Where they are going there T I N G TeachersSummative PeersAssessment Parents
    • 8. Formative v Summative AssessmentFormative Assessment is an integral part of teachingand learning and its aim is to promote learning andmotivate learners.Summative Assessment is the summing up orchecking of learning at particular stages ofeducation.
    • 9. Why Formative Assessment?Formative Assessment has a positive impact onteaching and Learning and uses evidence to adaptteaching to meet the needs of a pupil.Formative assessment:1. Increases teacher’s understanding of pupils2. Provides feedback to improve learning3. Builds on prior learning4. Develops capacity for self and peer assessment5. Fosters motivation and raises self esteem
    • 10. Assessment for LearningAssessment for Learning is any assessment forwhich the priority in its design and practice is toserve the purpose of promoting pupils’ learning. Such assessment becomes formative when the evidence is actually used to adapt teaching to meet the learning needs. Black
    • 11. Five Key StrategiesClarifying, understanding and sharing Learning Objectivesand Success CriteriaEngineering effective classroom discussions,tasks and activities.Providing feedback that moves learning forward.Activating students as learning resources for eachother.Activating students as owners of their own learning.
    • 12. The Learning JourneyDo we have the necessary equipment PlanningIs the car roadworthy EvaluationMap? PlanningHave people have taken the journey before? Prior KnowledgeEnjoy (Endure!) the journey ParticipationArrival Evaluation
    • 13. The Learning Journey Teaching for LearningChallenge PACE LEARNING What’s your vision for Learning?
    • 14. A Vision for Ardleigh GreenWorking Together, Learning Together and Growing TogetherImagine an Adventure Park for the mind that keeps on growing and improving. The park belongs to acommunity of people who are responsible, caring, considerate and committed to learning.Notice how adults and children respect and value each other and how well they work together as a team.Notice how they relate positively with one another through their work, the problems they solve together andthe hopes and dreams they have for the future. Marvel at the music, drama and artwork on display and beamazed at the talents of adults and children as they are encouraged to develop their abilities and achievetheir personal best.Feel the calm, purposeful atmosphere of the park and smile as you hear the children, happy and confidentas they play, learn and achieve together. Notice the high expectations, the fun, laughter, the highstandards of work and behaviour. Notice the awards received the special events and celebrations ofachievement and the appreciation of visitors and the general public. Notice too the infectious enthusiasm,dedication and commitment of adults and children who are proud to be associated with the AdventurePark.This is Ardleigh Green Junior School! An Adventure Park for the mind, with staff, children, parents andgovernors, Working Together, Learning Together and Growing Together as lifelong learners.Admission is free, opening hours are 8.00am to 6.00 pm Mondays to Fridays, with special evening andweekend events throughout the year. Activities take place throughout term time but the lessons learnt, thefriends made, and the memories created last a lifetime.OFSTED found this vision to be a reality we hope you do too. “ Ardleigh Green Junior School is an outstanding school. Very effective teaching and an excellent curriculum ensure that pupils of all abilities and needs are well motivated to learn and make very good progress. Pupils’ achievement is outstanding and builds on their above average attainment on entry to reach standards by Year 6 which are exceptionally high.” OFSTED 2008
    • 15. The 5 R’s of Learning at Ardleigh Green Readiness Being prepared to learn, ask questions and adapt to new learning situationsResilience Sticking at tasks even when they become difficult and using a range of strategies to overcome a problem.Resourcefulness Being ready, willing and able to learn in different ways. Being prepared to take risks even if there is a possibility of failureReflectiveness Being able to think and talk about what has been learnt and how it has been learntResourcefulness Being prepared to work individually and within a group. Understanding personal targets and how to achieve them.
    • 16. 1 The Learning Outcome, W A LT Intention or Objective WALT What pupils can expect or are expected to learn by the end of the lesson or series of lessons This can be thought of as the ‘goal’ or the ‘end’ – the reason why they are doing a specific task or undertaking a particular piece of work What are we intending to learn from doing this task?
    • 17. 2 The Success Criteria or W IL F evidence of success WILFThis is the evidence both pupils and teachers will needto know whether or to what extent they have beensuccessful.They describe ‘what both the teacher and the pupil arelooking for in the product the pupil produces or theperformance the pupil gives.’ How will we know we have succeeded in learning?
    • 18. Back to your houses…I asked you to draw a house and you arenow going to self assess your work.Give your self:•1 mark if it had a roof•Another mark if it had a front door•Another mark if it had 4 windows•Another mark if it had a chimney
    • 19. Back to your houses…I asked you to draw a house,which you all did. Youcompleted the task but did youknow the success criteria?If we had told you to draw ahouse with a roof, 4 windows, afront door and a chimney thenyou all could have got fullmarks.
    • 20. Feedback Verbal Written PeerSummative FormativeThree Stars and a Wish Targets Highlighters Tickled Pink Grumbling Green
    • 21. Teacher marking
    • 22. Peer marking
    • 23. Self marking
    • 24. Putting the ‘meat’ on the bones! Alex chose to use a skeleton to plan his story before he started
    • 25. Introduction I am going to be discussing whether fireworks should be banned in the UK Points for Points againstPoint 1 Many injuries are It’s only those who misuse caused each year fireworks who get injuredPoint 2 Many pets and animals are Pets could always be kept in terrified of fireworks doorsPoint 3 There are many others Fireworks are a traditional form ways to celebrate of celebration and do no harm Conclusion I have discussed the point for and against the use of fireworks in the UK and now leave you, the public to decide – should they be banned?
    • 26. Strategies for Teaching and Learning 1.Learning Objectives and Success Criteria 2. Feedback/Targets/3 Stars and a Wish 3. Peer Assessment 4. Thinking Time 5. No hands up rule 6. Lollipop Sticks! 7. Individual White Boards 8. Talk Partners 9. Highlighters10. Secret Learner
    • 27. Tuesday 19 February 2013 19/02/13Objective: To write persuasively • Brief introduction (tells • Brief introduction (tells the reader • Brief introduction (tells the reader what you are writing about) and what you are writing about) and the reader what you are conclusion (appeal to the reader) conclusion (appeal to the reader) writing about) and • Simple and complex sentences used • Simple and complex sentences used • Support your reasons with evidence, conclusion (appeal to the • Support your reasons with evidence, use statistics or quotes use statistics or quotes reader) • Try to get the reader on your side • Try to get the reader on your side • Simple sentences used • Full stops, capital letters, commas • Full stops, capital letters, commas, apostrophes and semi-colons and apostrophes • Support your reasons •Usually in the present tense •Usually in the present tense with evidence • Use of sub-headings and paragraphs • Use of sub-headings and paragraphs to organise writing (one point and to organise writing (one point and • Try to get the reader on supporting evidence in each) supporting evidence in each) your side • Use of logical connectives • Use of logical connectives (therefore, however, nevertheless, (therefore, however, nevertheless, • Full stops, capital consequently) consequently) letters, some use of • Use connective phrases to link • Use connective phrases to link paragraphs (Firstly, secondly, in commas paragraphs (Firstly, secondly, in addition, furthermore, finally) addition, furthermore, finally) •Usually in the present •Use of emotive language •Use of emotive language • Use of technical vocabulary tense • Use of technical vocabulary • A varied range of vocabulary to
    • 28. Assessment for Learning Research Findings• Students are clearer about how to go about the task• Students are more focused on task• Students will persevere for longer• The quality of students’ work improve• The dialogue between students while they are working is more likely to focus on the learning intention rather than their own interests• Students become automatically self evaluative• Marking is easier
    • 29. Assessment for Learning Pupils’ Views• I know what to do before I start• I know how to make my work better• The highlighter lets me know what is good• My talk partner gives me help when I need it• Two brains are better than one• My talk partner gives me ideas to help me with my work• Talking about my work gives me more ideas and makes the writing easier• I like marking my friends work
    • 30. Students write Questions Pupils ask Questions Comment-only marking Mid-unit assessment ‘Might’Wait-time Exemplar Work Student Marking Making aims clear Lesson Target Student Review Traffic Lights 2 stars and a wishSelf-assessment Targets Open v closed Articulate then Answer Scene-Setting Tell your neighbourIdea Thoughts Bouncing Wait and recap Incorrect Discussion KWLDevising Questions Learning Journal Redrafting Key features Invert the QuestionImprovement Guidance Comment Follow-up Group feedback Peer Marking ThumbsTeach Collaboration Traffic-Light Revision Generate and Answer Student Mark-Scheme Group AnswersX and Y All you know Corrections Laminated Criteria Conveying ProgressDiscuss Words Communication Feedback Sandwich Active Students Plenary PyramidWhat is good? Self-evaluation What is a ‘good’ question? Graphic OrganisersTalk Partners Post-It Response Partners Hands DownRegulating Learning ABCD Why is it best? Show and TellLong and Short Term Minute Paper Enquiry Question
    • 31. Back to AFL Tools Students write QuestionsFor example –• About what they would like to know on a new topic• To ask the teacher or other students in order to assess their learning• To demonstrate their learning/misconceptions/areas they would like to further exploreThe classroom could have a question boxwhere students drop questions at theend of a lesson.Or, a plenary could involve students writing questions that the class then work ontogether, or forms the basis of the next lesson.
    • 32. Back to AFL Tools Students ask QuestionsCreate opportunities for students toask questions. This could be of theirpeers, of the teacher or as a meansto develop discussion.A ‘question box’ for written questionsoffers a different means ofcommunication for studentsAllow time for students to askquestions about pieces of work. Thishelps open up assessment andeliminate ambiguity
    • 33. Back to AFL Tools Comment-only markingComment-only marking provides studentswith a focus for progression instead of areward or punishment for their ego (as agrade does).Comments could be made in books, in atable at the front of books, in a learningdiary or journal. The latter are helpful forteacher and student to track theprogression of comments and seeimprovement.Comments should make it clear how thestudent can improve.Plan activities and work with feedback inmind – let the design assist the process.
    • 34. Back to AFL Tools Mid-unit assessmentHaving an assessment at the end of aunit may not provide time for you togo over areas students havestruggled with, or in which there aregeneral misconceptions.Timing assessment during a unit (i.e.lesson 5 of 7) allows time to review,reflect and revisit.It also gives the teacher anopportunity to focus explicitly onareas of weak understandingsupported by evidence.
    • 35. Back to AFL Tools ‘Might’When questioning, insert the word‘might’ to give students greateropportunity to think and explorepossible answers.e.g.What is meaning of democracy?What might the meaning ofdemocracy be? What might the Great Depression look like today?The first infers a single answer knownby the teacher whereas the second isinherently more open.
    • 36. Back to AFL Tools Wait-timeWait time allows students time to thinkand therefore to produce answers. Also,not everyone in the class thinks at thesame speed or in the same way – waitingallows students to build their thoughtsand explore what has been asked.2 types of wait time –i) Teacher speaks and then waits before taking student responses.ii) Student response ends and then teacher waits before responding. This gives the student space to elaborate or continue – or for another student to respond.
    • 37. Back to AFL Tools Open vs closedClosed questions can be usefulhowever are not great at facilitatingthe use of abstract thinking skills,encouraging talking or eliciting muchunderstanding. Open questions aremore likely to do this and thusimprove learning.e.g.Did you go out last night?What did you after school yesterday?
    • 38. Back to AFL Tools Exemplar WorkWhen setting students a piece ofwork, show them examples that makeit clear what it is they are being askedto do – and what they need to do inorder to meet the assessment criteria.Students could mark exemplar workusing the assessment criteria. Thiswill help model what is being askedfor and how it relates to the processof assessment.
    • 39. Back to AFL Tools Student MarkingBy taking part in the process ofassessment, students gain a deeperunderstanding of topics, the processof assessment and what they aredoing in their own work. This helps tomake them more aware of ‘whatlearning is’ and thus see their ownlearning in this way.Students could self- or peer- markhomework or assessments.This could be done in pairs orindividually with a student-made or‘official’ mark-scheme.
    • 40. Back to AFL Tools Making aims clear- Put lesson objectives on the board at the beginning of the lesson.- Talk to students about why they are studying what they are studying.- Contextualise short-term aims in long- term aims (e.g. analysing Shakespeare will contribute to a wider knowledge of the cultural canon and stronger analytical skills among other long term aims)- Check with students that they are clear about the aims of the lesson/unit/subject- Produce aims in conjunction with students
    • 41. Back to AFL Tools Lesson Target SettingMake the lesson more purposeful forstudents by setting targets at thebeginning about what you and theclass are going to do.These can be referred to through thelesson and/or revisited in the plenary.Students could have to show howthey have met targets in the plenaryand/or set targets for next lesson.
    • 42. Back to AFL Tools Teacher ReviewThe teacher leads the review of thelesson or unit using questioning toelicit understanding from students.Focus could also fall upon theeffectiveness of the lesson atfacilitating learning – i.e. can studentsthink of ways that it could be alteredto improve their learning?The teacher could model review byevaluating the lesson in relation totheir own objectives.
    • 43. Back to AFL Tools Student ReviewStudents review their own learningeither in groups or individually. Thiscould be done as a plenary, amini-plenary or as an activity to helpplanning for future revision or theremainder of the unit.
    • 44. Back to AFL Tools Traffic LightsUse traffic lights as a visual means ofshowing understanding.e.g.• Students have red, amber and green cards which they show on their desks or in the air. (red = don’t understand, green = totally get it etc.)• Students self-assess using traffic lights. The teacher could then record these visually in their mark book.• Peer assess presentations etc. with traffic lights
    • 45. Back to AFL Tools Self-assessment TargetsStudents give themselves targetsbased on their self-assessment.These learning goals could berecorded somewhere and revisited(i.e. inside cover of workbook)They could be compared to teachertargets and the two brought toconsensus if different.
    • 46. Back to AFL Tools 2 stars and a wishFor peer assessment, ask students togive two stars and a wish.Two stars = 2 things that are goodabout the piece of workA wish = something they can improveto make it even better
    • 47. Back to AFL Tools Articulate then AnswerGive students the opportunity toarticulate their thinking beforeanswering –• 30 seconds silent thinking before any answers• Brainstorm in pairs first for 2-3 minutes• Write some thoughts down before answering• Discuss with your neighbour first
    • 48. Back to AFL Tools Scene-SettingSet the scene for the lesson by usinga big, open question or problem-solving task that requires abstractthinking skills. Anticipate responsesand follow-up so as to work thesethrough.E.g. A lesson on the Vietnam Warcould begin with the question –Do Americans think they fight wars, or win them?
    • 49. Back to AFL Tools Tell your neighbourStudents ‘tell their neighbour’ as ameans of articulating their thoughts.- Ask a question, give thinking time and then ask students to tell their neighbour their thoughts.- Tell students what the new topic is and then ask them to tell their neighbour everything they know about it.
    • 50. Back to AFL Tools Idea ThoughtsWhen you have received an answerto a question, open up the thinkingbehind it by asking what others thinkabout the idea.e.g. “What do others think about _________’s idea?”
    • 51. Back to AFL Tools BouncingBounce answers around the room tobuild on understanding and havestudents develop stronger reasoningout of misconceptions.E.g.“Jimmy, what do you think ofSandra’s answer?”“Sandra, how could you developCarl’s answer to include more detail?”“Carl, how might you combine allwe’ve heard into a single answer?”
    • 52. Back to AFL Tools Incorrect DiscussionUse incorrect answers as adiscussion point.Rather then dismissing something I’m glad that’sbecause it is wrong, or saying ‘that’s the wrong answer… let’sinteresting’ etc. Use the discuss itmisconception in reasoning to drawthe process out into the open.This leads to improving onmisconceived reasoning and anatmosphere in which it is OK to beWrong.
    • 53. Back to AFL Tools Devising QuestionsDevise questions that –• Challenge common misconceptions• Create conflict that requires discussion• Explore ambiguity and encourage discussion and clarification
    • 54. Back to AFL Tools Learning JournalCreate a learning journal in whichstudents can reflect on and reviewtheir learning. It could include plenaryactivities, a target setting chart, aimsand goals etc.
    • 55. Back to AFL Tools RedraftingUse lesson time to redraft work.This allows students time to focus onthe feedback for improvement theyhave been given.It also reinforces the value of thefeedback and allows them to workat it in a supportive environment.
    • 56. Back to AFL Tools Key featuresWhen designing written tasks to goalongside oral work, intend for themto develop and show understandingof the key features of what studentshave learned.
    • 57. Back to AFL Tools Improvement GuidanceWhen making comments on pupils’work, treat them like guidanceshowing how the pupil can improve.Develop this by asking students towrite in the same way when peerassessing work.Discuss the notion of guidance andhow it differs from other types ofbehaviour (i.e. prescription,admonishment etc.)
    • 58. Back to AFL Tools Comment Follow-upGive students opportunities to followup comments -- Create time in the lesson to talk to individual students.- Have a written dialogue in the students’ book.- Use a comment tracker or targets sheet to formalise the dialogue in a workbook
    • 59. Back to AFL Tools Group feedbackGroup feedback to a teacherconcerning peer-assessment of workcan help make the teacher aware oflearning needs in a manageable way.If a group feeds back then it drawsmore attention and presentsinformation that has already beenordered and sorted (meaning lessrepetition for the teacher).
    • 60. Back to AFL Tools Peer MarkingStudents mark each others’ workaccording to assessment criteria.Encourages reflection and thought aboutthe learning as well as allowing studentsto see model work and reason pastmisconceptions.Opportunities to do this throughoutindividual lessons and schemes ofwork.
    • 61. Back to AFL Tools ThumbsCheck class understanding of whatyou are teaching by asking themto show their thumbs.Thumbs up = I get itThumbs half way = sort ofThumbs down = I don’t get it
    • 62. Back to AFL Tools Teach CollaborationPeer assessment requires students toact collaboratively. Indeed, AfL is acollaborative enterprise. Therefore,explicitly teach skills of collaboration.This process can be assisted bydiscussing collaboration with pupilsand making it visible as a part of theclassroom.
    • 63. Back to AFL Tools Traffic-Light RevisionWhen revising a topic or subject, workthrough the different areas withstudents and ask them to traffic lightaccording to their grasp of each.Subsequently, students should beable to target their revision morecarefully and engage in it actively,rather than simply reviewingeverything they have done or readingpassively over their entire notes.
    • 64. Back to AFL Tools Generate and AnswerWhen preparing for a test pupilsgenerate their own questions andthen practice answering them.This makes learners think explicitlyabout the underlying structures ofassessment, as well as the materialwhich they are being asked tomanipulate. Form as well as function!
    • 65. Back to AFL Tools Student Mark-SchemeAsk students to produce their ownmark-schemes working individually orin groups. They can then peer- orself-assess work in accordancewith these schemes.Talk about the purpose of a mark-scheme with students – judgement,communication, standardisation etc.
    • 66. Back to AFL Tools Group AnswersStudents work in small groups toagree on answers – when tests arereturned or in other situations.The process of agreeing shouldinclude reasoning over the validity ofthe consensus answer, as well asreasoned negation of misconceptionsor wrong answers.
    • 67. Back to AFL Tools Invert the QuestionInstead of asking a question thatrequires factual recall, invert it torequest explicit reasoning.e.g.‘Is France a democracy?’becomes‘What does it mean for a country to be a democracy?’
    • 68. Back to AFL Tools X and YAsk students why X is an example of Ye.g.Why is an apple an example of a fruit?Why is a fox an example of a mammal?Questioning in this way avoids factualrecall and asks for the underlyingreasoning to be made explicit.
    • 69. Back to AFL Tools All you knowStudents write down everythingthey know about ________ at thestart of the unit.The teacher can then teach the unitaccordingly, using existingknowledge and avoiding repetition.
    • 70. Back to AFL Tools CorrectionsReinforce the focus on redrafting andcomment-only marking by insisting onseeing evidence of studentcorrections on their own work beforelooking at it (have to allow time forthis).
    • 71. Back to AFL Tools Laminated CriteriaMake laminated, student-friendly assessment criteriacards.
    • 72. Back to AFL Tools Conveying ProgressFind a means of usingassessment to convey progress tostudents and thus make what theyare doing more meaningful.- Link learning between units- Use a learning journal- Refer to past targets and highlight where the student is achieving this- Have a target chart where it is visible how the student has progressed- Link assessment to student goal- setting
    • 73. Back to AFL Tools Discuss WordsWhen engaged in discussion take keywords and look at them specifically.Discuss how they are being used –Is there any ambiguity?Is everyone using the word in thesame way?
    • 74. Back to AFL Tools CommunicationAsk students to communicate thinkingthrough different mediums – not justwriting; drawing, drama, maps,sculpture etc.The medium is the message andtherefore circumscribes to someextent how communication can takeplace. Using alternative mediumsallows the teacher to ‘see’ students’understanding from different angles.
    • 75. Back to AFL Tools Feedback SandwichFeedback can be delivered indifferent ways, two feedback‘sandwiches’ are –i) Positive comment Constructive criticism with explanation of how to improve Positive commentii) Contextual statement – I liked….because…. Now/Next time… Interactive statement e.g. a question based on the work
    • 76. Back to AFL Tools What is good?Spend time ensuring that there isconsensus between yourself and thepupils over what makes a piece ofwork ‘good’, and how they areexpected to achieve it. Use questionssuch as –‘Can you tell me what makes a pieceof work good?’‘How do you feel about comments?’‘Do you always know what you need to donext/think about?’‘Do you know when you have done a‘good’ piece of work?’
    • 77. Back to AFL Tools Self-evaluationSelf-evaluation involves learning how welearn, whereas self-assessment iswhat we learn. To train pupils in self-evaluation, use questions such as:• Think about what has happened when the learning has taken place• What really made you think? What did you find difficult?• What do you need more help with?• What are you pleased about?• What have you learnt new about X?• How would you change the learning activity to suit another class?The teacher can model answers to theseto show the pupils how to self-evaluate.
    • 78. Back to AFL Tools What is a ‘good’ question?Discuss with students what makes a‘good’ question. The process canexplicitly show them the differencebetween open and closed questions.They can then come up withquestions on a topic and decidewhich are best, and then move onto discuss and answer these.
    • 79. Back to AFL Tools Graphic OrganisersUse graphic organisers to help pupils self-assess. All these are taken from http://www.aaia.org.uk/pdf/Publications /AAIAformat4.pdf (page 19)
    • 80. Back to AFL Tools KWLAt the beginning of a topic pupils create agrid with three columns –What They Know;What They Want To Know;What They Have Learnt.They begin by brainstorming and filling inthe first two columns and then return tothe third at the end of the unit (or referthroughout) .Variation – extra column ‘How Will I Learn’
    • 81. Back to AFL Tools Talk PartnersAs a plenary or a starter referring tothe last lesson, pupils share with apartner:• 3 new things they have learnt• What they found easy• What they found difficult• Something they would like to learn in the future
    • 82. Back to AFL Tools Post-ItUse post-it notes to evaluate learning.Groups, pairs or individuals cananswer:• What have I learnt?• What have I found easy?• What have I found difficult?• What do I want to know now?
    • 83. Back to AFL Tools Response PartnersPaired or partnership oral marking.Pupils invite a partner or a group todiscuss or comment on their work.For it to be effective, students shouldbe aware of learning objectives andsuccess criteria. They should alsoappreciate the role of a responsepartner – to offer positive andconstructive feedback around thelearning goals.Students could be given promptquestions to ask the person who hasdone the work.
    • 84. Back to AFL Tools Hands DownTell pupils they should only raise theirhand to ask a question, not to answer one.The teacher then chooses pupils toanswer, therefore gaining information onwhether everyone is learning.www.classtools.net – fruit machineprogramme on here where you can inputnames, save it and play it to choose pupilsat random.Write names on lollipop sticks and pull outat random to answer.Write numbers on balls or counters thattally to register or seating position and re-use with every class.
    • 85. Back to AFL Tools Good Question StemsWhy does…?What if…?How would you…?Could you explain…?What might…?
    • 86. Back to AFL Tools Regulating LearningCirculating through the room whilststudents are engaged in an activitymeans the teacher can collectinformation on learning, employdifferent assessment strategies andintervene where appropriate.
    • 87. Back to AFL Tools ABCDLaminate a set of cards so everymember of the class has four, withA,B,C and D written on them. Askquestions with four answers andpupils can show you their answer.Encourage them not to look at otherpeople’s response so as to copy.
    • 88. Back to AFL Tools Why is it best?For homework ask students to findtheir best piece of work and then totell you why it is their best. Thisexplanation could refer to successcriteria, levels, targets etc.
    • 89. Back to AFL Tools Show and TellUse mini-whiteboards so that verystudent can write or draw theiranswer and show it to you (or theirpeers) immediately.
    • 90. Back to AFL Tools Active StudentsKey to AfL is students being active,engaged participants in their learning.Think of ways in which content can bemanipulated for these ends, ratherthan the other way round.If the content seems boring thenmake the approach fun or interesting.
    • 91. Back to AFL Tools Long and Short TermTo draw together progression with thebig picture, students could set bothlong and short term targets.The short term targets could bereviewed weekly or fortnightly and thelong term targets at the end of term.Having a long term target may givemore cogency to the pupil’s andteacher’s short term targets. It mayalso allow the pupil to focus on whatReally motivates them about asubject.
    • 92. Back to AFL Tools Minute PaperStudents identify the most significant(useful, meaningful, unlikely) thingthey have learnt during the lesson orunit.
    • 93. Back to AFL Tools Enquiry QuestionUse an enquiry question to stimulatehigh-level thinking in the lesson orunit.e.g.How democratic is the United Kingdom?Why is our school so ethnically diverse?What is enquiry-based learning -http://www.campus.manchester.ac.uk/ceebl/ebl/

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