To what extent were the 1920s and 1930s the most important period of progress for organised labour in the USA from 1865-1992?

  • 2,482 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,482
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
42
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Plan To what extent were the 1920s and 1930s the most important period of progress for organised labour in the USA from 1865-1992?
  • 2. 1920s and 30s
    • 1920’s
    • 1930’s
    • Increase in unskilled workers
    • Mass production, credit, increased demand
    • Formation of giant corporations
      • Welfare capitalism
      • Yellow dog contacts
    • Rise in wages, fall in unemployment
    • Divided leadership
    • BSCP
      • Only legitimate union for porters in the Pullman Company
    • No real advancement
    • Some change
    • Greater conflict
    • National Industry Recovery Act
      • Blue eagle symbol
    • Wagner Act
      • National legislation
      • Constitutional
      • Right to join union
      • Spies banned
      • Expansion of union membership
      • National Labor Relations Board
        • Reinstate unfairly dismissed workers
      • Fair Labor Standards Act
        • Min weekly wage
        • Prohibited employment of children under 16
  • 3. The Flint Strike 1937
    • “ quantum leap for economic democracy”
    • GM workers had irregular work
    • Welfare capitalism – GM
    • Workers staged a sit-in but it seemed radical
      • Communist support unwelcomed
    • Violence occurred
      • Emergency Women’s Brigade
    • Unions worked with for the first time
      • Nationwide recognition
      • Steel industry followed (surprise)
  • 4. Technology – 1960s and 70s
    • AFL-CIO (1955)
      • Made unions more powerful and undivided
      • Bargain successfully
      • Wages rose
      • Won growing list of benefits
    • Increasing need for skilled workers
      • Wages rose significantly
      • Welfare scheme from employers
    • Unskilled protective of jobs and unwilling to strike
      • Divided culturally and ethnically
    • Fall in wages and a rise in unemployment
    • Increase in foreign competition
    • Reduction in the demand for home produced goods
      • Reduction in productivity
    • Affirmative Action and Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970)
    • Decline in need and thus membership
    • Unions still existed
  • 5. World Wars
    • WWI - Fed govt recognised unions and negotiated with them through the National War Labour Board
    • WWI - In return for workers’ cooperation and not striking, NWLB guaranteed rights of workers to join unions and to collective bargaining
    • WWI - Employers agreed to implement 8 hour working day
    • WWII – control of industry taken away from employers – tipped control in favour of workers
    • 1943 – President given power to seize control of any factory threatening to strike
    • 1943 – became illegal to instigate strike and unions required to give at least 30 days notice of strikes
    • More employment opportunities for women, the disabled and African Americans
    • FDR issued an executive order banning discrimination when it came to employment in Federal Government
    • After the war old tensions between employers and workers reappeared
    • Divisions between skilled and unskilled workers and gender and racial divisions remained as barriers which prevented workers from working together in solidarity as one united movement for their rights
  • 6. Pullman and Homestead Strikes
    • The Homestead Strike (1892): A Turning Point?
    • Most serious industrial dispute in American labour history
    • Relationships between workers and managers worsened
    • It was organised and purposeful - set standard for future industrial disputes to be settled by strike action
    • Workers in other Carnegie plants also went on strike in support of those at the Homestead plant
    • Men divided themselves into units along military lines
    • Managers fired at workers, killing two and wounding 11 – crowd responded by killing 2 and wounding 12
    • Strike broke AA as a force
    • 1900 – not a single steel plant in Pennsylvania was still unionised
    • strike had an adverse effect on getting rights for workers – impact wasn’t restricted to steel
    • Employers in other industries became nervous of accepting unionisation of workers
    •  
    • The Pullman Strike (1894): A Turning Point?
    • passenger trains began to pull mail cars
    • Federal govt and federal troops got involved in strike action to break it – was first time federal govt had gotten involved
    • leaders of strike weren’t given their jobs back after strike ended – showed employers couldn’t be trusted to hold up their end of a deal
    • shows lengths to which employers were willing to go to ensure workers weren’t granted rights
    • showed how employers refused to recognise rights of workers’ right to bargain collectively
    • shows how far federal govt was willing to go to suppress workers gaining rights
    • Supreme Court legalised use of injunctions – gave employers a powerful weapon to use against workers
    • aggressive conservative authorities and employers united to thwart attempt to build a working class movement
    • employers continued to use injunctions against workers until 1932
    • federal govt superseded authority of state govts
  • 7. Air Strike
    • Negative turning point, but v significant
    • showed Reagan’s hostility towards TUs – AFL-CIO called him a “union buster”
    • employers changed tactics in dealing with industrial disputes – deployed scab labour for first time
    • other workers showed no signs of solidarity – air traffic controllers were already quite well-paid
    • lack of public support for strike
    • caused dramatic fall in TU membership and no of strikes
    • workers broke 1955 law saying government workers cannot go on strike
    • employers gained upper hand over TUs
    • response of fed govt and FAA meant a redefinition in US labour relations
    • other unions were angry with PATCO for bringing all unions into disrepute
    • all striking workers were fired and replaced with other workers, leaders of strike sent to prison for breaking injunctions, and PATCO was destroyed