Russia to the USSR - Russia Under The Tsar

  • 19,468 views
Uploaded on

 

More in: Education , Travel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
19,468
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
282
Comments
0
Likes
4

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Russia under the Tsar
  • 2.
    • The Russian Empire in 1900
      • The land and climate
      • An empire of many peoples
    • The Government of Russia
      • The autocracy
      • Nicholas II and Alexandria
    • Russian Society
      • The peasants
      • The town workers
      • The rich
    • Opponents of the Tsar
      • Terrorism
      • The Social Revolutionary Party
      • The Social Democratic Party
      • Liberals
    • The 1905 Revolution
      • War against Japan
      • Bloody Sunday
      • The 1905 Revolution
    • The Aftermath of the 1905 Revolution
      • The Dumas
      • The Stolypin Reforms
      • Rasputin
    • Key Words
  • 3.
    • The land and climate
    • An empire of many peoples
    Contents
  • 4. Contents
  • 5.
    • Russia was ruled by Tsar Nicholas II
    • About 125million people lived in the Empire
    • Less than half of them were actually Russians
    • Most were Poles and Ukrainians
    • Most people had a different language and their own customs – 6/10 people
    • The population wasn’t evenly distributed
    • Most people lived on the 5% of land good for farming
    • Cities and farmland were often over-crowded because people couldn’t live in the harshness of the Ural Mountains and Siberia
    Population of the Russian Empire, according to a census in 1897 Contents Russians 55,650,000 Ukrainians 22,400,000 Poles 7,900,000 Byelorussians 5,900,000 Jews 5,000,000 Kirghiz 4,000,000 Tartars 3,700,000 Finns 2,500,000 Germans 1,800,000 Lithuanians 1,650,000 Letts 1,400,000 Georgians 1,800,000 Armenians 1,150,000 Romanians 1,110,000 Caucasians 1,000,000 Estonians 1,000,000 Iranians 1,000,000 Other Asiatic peoples 5,750,000 Mongols 500,000 Others 200,000
  • 6.
    • The Autocracy
    • Nicholas II and Alexandra
    Contents
  • 7.
    • Nicholas II was the Tsar – Emperor of Russia
      • As an autocrat, he could do anything he liked without consulting anyone
    • However, in practice, the Tsar couldn’t govern all of Russia by himself – he appointed many thousands of civil servants
      • These civil servants were organised like an army
      • There was 14 ranks
      • At the top were ministers in charge of the government departments
      • At the bottom were minor ministers like post office clerks and customs inspectors
      • As they are underpaid, they often accepted bribes
    • Nobody was allowed to question the Tsar or challenge him
      • To deal with opposition, the Okhrana (‘Protective Section’)
        • They censored all books and newspapers
        • They spied on political parties
        • They arrested all that criticised the government
        • Helped the Tsar to capture people who would be tried in courts with no juries and be sentenced to exile – especially to Siberia (like Lenin)
      • The Tsar also had the Cossacks to help the Okhrana
        • They were fierce mounted soldiers armed with sabres
        • They butchered anyone who didn’t run away fast enough
        • They were often only used as bodyguards to the Tsar and his family and when there was riots
    • The Russian Orthodox Church also helped the Tsar gain absolute control
      • People were taught to respect the autocracy and to be loyal to the Tsar
      • The Head of the Church was a government minister whom the Bishops listened to – the priest then listened to the Bishops
    Contents
  • 8.
    • Tsar Nicholas II
    • Tsarina Alexandra
    • He was a weak and indecisive leader
    • He was gentle but uneducated
    • He found the work of a leader boring and employed people who could entertain him
    • Alexandra controlled him
    • He had 4 girls and one son
    • Alexis, the heir, suffered from the life-threatening disease Haemophilia which there was no cure for
    • He was deeply religious as was his wife
    • He was happily married to Alexandra
    • He was Russian
    • She was confident and strong willed
    • She encouraged Nicholas to be an autocrat and not to share power with the people
    • Very religious
      • Had her own chapel specially built in the royal palace
    • Because her son suffered from haemophilia she made anyone who knew keep it a secret
      • Her daughters weren’t allowed to talk about it
      • Anyone else that knew had to swear an oath of secrecy
    • Blamed herself for her son’s illness and often spent hours praying for his recovery
    • She was German
    • Later on, she was under the influence of Rasputin
    Contents
  • 9.
    • The peasants
    • The town workers
    • The rich
    Contents
  • 10.
    • 4 out of 5 people were peasants in Russia in 1900
    • Until 1861 peasants were serfs (slaves to the landlords)
    • In 1861 Nicholas’ grandfather freed them.
      • The price was land was given to the mir (community) not the individual
      • It took 49years to finish paying redemption payments
    • Freedom didn’t improve conditions though
    • The plots of land got smaller as the population grew like in 1861 – 1900 it halved, making it harder for peasants to support themselves and pay taxes AND redemption payments
    • Nearly half of children under 5 died and the life expectancy was only 55
    • They’re only hope in life was based on the harvest
    Contents
  • 11.
    • Peasants went to towns to improve life, working in mines/factories until the harvest
    • St. Petersburg (capital) had a growing 1million people in 1900 looking for work
    • Trade unions were illegal as was striking
    • There was long queues of people outside factories looking for work so troublemakers were easily replaced
    • Conditions in the towns:
      • Miserable wages
      • Overcrowded
        • 10+ living in one room
        • 4 sleeping in one bed
      • Working day was 11 and a half hours by law (exclusive of meals)
      • With overtime this was 14/15hours a day
      • People were poorly clad and emaciated (very thin)
      • They worked the long hours because they were paid per piece and the rate was slow
      • No one made complaints
    Contents
  • 12.
    • Tsar and nobles
    • Capitalists
    • Nicholas:
      • Owed 8 different palaces
      • Employed 15,000 servants
      • Took up 20 carriages on train just for luggage
    • 1% of population was nobles
    • Owned 25% of land
    • Had idle and luxurious lives
    • Made money from banking, industry and trade
    • Minister of finance (Sergei Witte) made it easy for capitalists to make big profits
      • He gave them government contracts like the railway
      • He gave them loans to build factories
      • He cut taxes
    • Capitalists gained money but didn’t help the workers
    • Capitalists were generally hated
    Contents
  • 13.
    • Terrorism
    • The Social Revolutionary Party
    • The Social Democratic Party
    • Liberals
    Contents
  • 14.
    • March 1881, a bomb exploded beneath the carriage of Tsar Alexander II (Nicholas’ grandfather and the man to abolish serfdom)
    • He was unhurt but he was then killed by a bomb in a snowball. This tore off his leg and ripped open his stomach – leaving him to bleed to death in front of his son and grandson
    • This was done by ‘People’s Will’ who were terrorists against the autocracy
    • His son and grandson then used the Okhrana to in prison or exile opponents/ critics
    • Not all opponents were wiped out and in 1900 there was 3 main opposition parties
    Contents
  • 15.
    • They wanted all land to be given to the mirs so that peasants had more land – which means taking it from the Tsar, nobles and church
    • They had the ‘Fighting Organisation’ which organised terrorist campaigns
    • They killed 3 government ministers and dozens of officials between 1900 and 1905
    • The SRs main support was from peasants who had fallen behind with the redemption payments
    Contents
  • 16.
    • Used Karl Marx’s ideas of socialism (sharing wealth) which developed into communism (people paid according to abilities etc.)
    • They were set up in 1898 but divided into the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
    • There remained a split so the three main parties were the SRs, Bolsheviks and Mensheviks from 1903
    Contents
  • 17.
    • They supported the Tsar but wanted to share his power as part of a democratic system like in Britain
    • Liberals were mainly law abiding people who owned some land
    • Alexander II (Nicholas’ grandfather) was planning on having a government before he was blown up but his son, Alexander III, tore them up when he got into power
    Contents
  • 18.
    • War against Japan
    • Bloody Sunday
    • The 1905 Revolution
    Contents
  • 19.
    • In 1904, Russia went to war with Japan for control of Korea and Manchuria
    • The Tsar thought it was good and would make him more popular and less criticised
    • However, the Russia army was defeated again and again
    • The Russian navy also suffered a massive defeated in the battle of Tsushima. Only 3 Russian ships remained from a fleet
    • This weakened the Tsar’s position
    • Working conditions were worse
      • Food supplies broke down
      • Factories shut as less raw materials
      • Unemployment rose
    Contents
  • 20.
    • Sunday the 22 nd of January 1905, 200,000 workers and their family matched towards the Tsar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg
    • They were led by Father Gapon – a priest sympathetic towards the workers
    • They wanted to give the Tsar a petition asking for better working conditions and to end the war with Japan
    • Soldiers and police tried to stop them at the centre of St. Petersburg but when scuffles broke out they started to shoot
    • About 500 people died and thousands injured
    • When the news spread of the massacre, riots broke out in the countryside and strikes in the towns
    • Hundreds of government ministers were killed including the Tsar’s uncle who was blown up by a terrorist
    • Bloody Sunday was therefore the trigger to the revolution against the Tsar
    Contents
  • 21. Contents
  • 22.
    • The Dumas
    • The Stolypin Reforms
    • Rasputin
    Contents
  • 23. Contents
  • 24.
    • Stolypin believed in:
      • A strict government
      • Clamping down on terrorism
    • In 1906, 1,008 terrorists were executed (Stolypin’s Necktie)
    • 21,00 people were also exiled to Siberia
    • Thus terrorism seemed not to be a threat anymore
    • Stolypin knew violence would not solve everything
    • To stop peasants uprising he helped them by:
      • Peasants owned their own land
      • Redemption payments were abolished
      • Mirs no longer controlled the land
    • The idea was for peasants to then go and get bigger and more productive farms
    • The peasants would then grow rich and peace would stop revolution
    • Conditions all over Russia improved and industries/ farming improved as well because millions of peasants brought their own land.
    • However, in 1911, one of Stolypin’s terrorist investigating policemen shot him as he was a terrorist himself
    Contents
  • 25.
    • Characteristics
    • Influences
    • Claimed to be a Starets (holy man of God)
    • Was a Siberian peasant
    • Claimed to have powers of prophecy and healing
    • Nickname was Rasputin as it means disreputable one because:
      • He drank heavily
      • He was a womaniser
      • Had wild orgies
      • Raped a nun
    • Tsar and Tsarina thought he could save their son, Alexis, when he bled
    • He had all the Tsar/ Tsarina’s trust in him
    • After Stolypin’s death his influence increased
    • He gave political advice to Alexandria who passed it onto the Tsar
    • Politicians and businessmen would entertain him for higher positions or government contracts
    • The people hated him and gossiped about his influence on the Tsarina
    • He was killed in December 1916
    Contents
  • 26. Contents