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Cisco Video Data Explosion

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  • 1. Video Fast ForwardThe Advance of Internet Video & Adaptive RateTechnologiesBRKSPV-2122
  • 2. Your SpeakerChris Hayes, chayes@cisco.com Consulting Engineer, Corporate CTO Office Session General Mgr, Cisco Live Service Provider Video Technology TrackPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
  • 3. Agenda Video Fast Forward Internet Video Growth: Present and Future Advance of Internet Video New Services, Impacts, and Evolution IP Video Technologies Overview Adaptive Rate Technologies Introduction Characteristic Elements Industry Leading Solutions Considerations Moving Forward Summary & Key TakeawaysPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
  • 4. Video Fast ForwardPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  • 5. Video Fast ForwardInternet Video - Rapid Evolution Drivers • Global Access Growth • Video Consumption is growing ‘wildly’ • IP and Internet are facilitators Technology • Video for the Internet • It’s “Easy” Now • Direct, Personal, Flexible Consumption • No More ‘Walled Gardens’ Model • More Biz-to-Consumer (B2C) • Next Game Changer Mobility • Device ExplosionPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
  • 6. Global Internet Traffic Growth 700% Increase in 5 yrs (2008-13) ! 38% CAGR 2008-2013 40 You Are Here Consumer Internet 5 Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index—Forecast, 2008-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
  • 7. Video Dominates Global Consumer InternetTrafficVideo to Approach 60% of Consumer Internet in 2013 34 Ambient Video Exabytes per month Internet Video to TV ✓ Internet Video to PC File Sharing ✓ Web/Email Internet Video Communications Internet Gaming VoIP ✓ 17 ✓ 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index—Forecast, 2008-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
  • 8. Consumer Internet Video CompositionVideo Traffic Increasingly Driven By Live Video & TV 70% CAGR 2008-2013 Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index—Forecast, 2008-2013 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
  • 9. “Mobile” is Next Game Changer Global Mobile Data Traffic Growth Is 2.4 Times Faster than Fixed Data Traffic. By 2014, there will be over 5 billion personal devices connected to the mobile network. Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Forecast, 2009–2014 Presentation_IDCisco VNI Mobile Data Forecast_2010 © 2010 Cisco Systems, its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public © 2010 Cisco and/or Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
  • 10. Global Mobile Data Traffic Growth / Top-Line Mobile data traffic will increase 39X from 2009 to 2014 108% CAGR 2009–2014 3,600,000 3.6 EB per mo 2.2 EB per moTB/mo 1,800,000 1.2 EB per mo 0.6 EB 0.2 EB per mo 0.09 EB per mo per mo 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Forecast, 2009–2014 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  • 11. Global Mobile Data Traffic Growth / Content Mobile video = 66% of mobile data traffic by 2014 108% CAGR 2009–2014 3,600,000 Mobile VoIP 4% Mobile Gaming 5% Mobile P2P 8% Mobile Web/Data Mobile Video 17%TB/mo 1,800,000 66% 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Forecast, 2009–2014 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
  • 12. Visual Networking DevicesDriving Mobile Data Growth – 2010 Mobile Device Comparisons E-reader = 2 X (monthly basic mobile phone data traffic)Smartphone = 10 X (monthly basic mobile phone data traffic) Digital Photo Frame = 10 X (monthly basic mobile phone data traffic)VideoCamera = 100 X (monthly basic mobile phone data traffic)MobilePhone = 300 X (monthly basic mobile phone data traffic)Projector Laptop (monthly basic mobile phone data traffic) = 1,300 X Source: Cisco Visual Networking Index (VNI) Global Mobile Data Forecast, 2009–2014 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
  • 13. Advance of Internet VideoNew Services, Impact, and EvolutionPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
  • 14. Internet Video – Now A Viable Distribution Channel Online Video Service Provider Cisco VNI Study Unique monthly viewers 7 million FiOS “TV Everywhere” Video = 90% of consumer 100 million IP traffic by 2012 CDN Web ISP In 24 million Revenue from $598 million ISP Households to $3.4 billion annually ISP By 2014 By 2014 Market Broadcasters and Media Dynamics Consumer Electronics Internet on 27% TV Owner Hulu Brand Visibility 12GB/sec. 2X Online $$ VideoInnovate to to Increase Popularity of the Content and RevenueOpportunity Transform Revenue Generating Services Using theOpportunity to Create Consumer Experience Leverage Online Video for Differentiated User Experiences Through Collaboration Network as a Platform Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
  • 15. New and Emerging ServicesOver-The-Top (OTT) Video Content (video) delivered via the Internet that is commonly packaged for subscription by MSOs. Syndicated, Post-Cinema, etc… Typically ‘Free’ (ad insertion) or subscription (e.g., Netflix rental) OTT Sites hosted by Content Providers and Aggregate Service Providers (e.g., ESPN, hulu)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
  • 16. New and Emerging ServicesDigital/Electronic Sell-Through (DST/EST) EST is the retail offer of content/video through the internet that allows users to keep a copy of the movie permanently. And possibly burn it to a disc or transfer to a portable device. DST Characteristics Direct sell to customer, Electronic Storage, Content Protection/Digital Rights Management DST Offerings Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem (DECE) Apple iTunes CinemaNowPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
  • 17. Buy Once, Play Anywhere Purchase & Rights MgtDisc Burn Image User Devices Remote Access Streaming Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
  • 18. Why Digital Sell Thru?‘Brick and Mortar Retail’ In Decline  Media Companies – over 50% of revenue (feature films) derived from Home Video Sales and Rental. U.S. Home Video Market in $ U.S. 30,000 Digital Download 25,000 Revenue Online Rental 20,000 Subscripton In-store rental 15,000 10,000 Physical sell- through 5,000 0 04 05 06 07 08 09 10Source: Thomas, Park Associates 2009Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
  • 19. Open Digital Media Value Chain – Future Vision Open ecosystems will prevail as the only viable long-term solution to portability and monetization of digital content on all screens Advertisers - Open Digital Media Value Chain - Consumers Create Aggregate & Distribute Consume Content Monetize Content Content• Banner/search ads • Content Purchases• In-game ads • Content Rentals• Rich-media ads • Content• Mobile advertising Subscriptions Scope of Carrier Involvement Any Content Any Storefront Any Network Any Device Supports a wide Admits content Accommodates Allows consumers to variety of content regardless of any fixed or mobile enjoy any content on types and acquisition network from any any device anywhere, creators channel operator anytime Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24
  • 20. New Internet Video Services ImpactPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
  • 21. Internet Video Impact thus Far Findings on Consumer Adoption of IV*  Online/IV consumption (time spent) is increasing. But…  MSO SP Subscription Service Model Holding  Myth Buster - Majority of Internet/OTT Video adopters are mid-to-late mainstream PayTV users.  Internet Video advancement opportunity seen in Premium Incremental services. (e.g., NetFlix streaming rental).  Why Not Internet Video?** IV Services Nascent and ‘Scattered’ Quality and Reliability Complexity of setup and use.**Source: Chris’ Hard-Earned Experience,affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its 1994 – present. *Source: The Diffusion Group, 2010. www.tdgresearch.com Cisco Public 26
  • 22. Modern American TV Consumption Findings and Trends (USA) TV Viewing Keeps Increasing Better Viewing Environment: Convenience (DVR), Higher-Quality Experience (HiDef, Flat Screens TVs), Ubiquity of Digital Delivery to Home (More Channels). Traditional TV “primetime” is same (Mon-Sun, 8-11pm) DVRs present in 35% of American homes. 25% usage increase from a year ago. Users watch about 47% primetime commercials played back after 3 days. Online/IV consumption up (16% this yr) but not replacing TV. ~44% consumed at workplace. Online/IV used to catch up with programming or if TV is unavailable - Not typically as a replacement for TV viewing. Online/IV “primetime” is 12-6 pm, peaking at 4 pm. Number of active mobile video users up 57% from last year, (now 17.6M users). Streaming via the mobile internet is most prevalent way users watch mobile video - 67%. Smartphones account for large base line growth in Mobile Video Users - 59% of MV users in Q409. Source: Nielsen, Three Screen Report Q4 2009. Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27
  • 23. Video Service Comparison RevisitedAdvantages of SP Video Service Quality Viewing Experience Premium Content/Programming HiDef, VoD, DVR/TimeDelay Reliability, Ease of Use Infrastructure Presence (National/Regional/In-Home) Managed/Owned Network – Bandwidth, QoS, Admission Ctl Content Mgt Infrastructure - CDNs, Encryption Broadband, WirelessPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
  • 24. Video Service ComparisonAdvantages of “Mature” Internet Video Service SP PayTV Service  Internet Video Service Devices Devices Untethered. ‘Any’ Managed/Tethered Internet enabled device. Service Footprint Service Footprint = Regional Internet Footprint Subscription Paid Free, Ad Supplemented, Service. “PayTV”. Pay-as-you-go Service. Live Service ‘Some’ Live Service On-Demand Service On-Demand Service Content Library Limited Content ‘Unlimited’Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
  • 25. Service Evolution Path to Convergence Future is Both: SP Video + Internet Video  IV Growth and Advantages Undeniable.  Consumers want quality and convenience of TV @ Home.  Consumers want “Best of Both Worlds” (SP+Internet).SP Cable/Sat – “1st” Wave SP IPTV - “2nd” Wave SP + IV - “3rd” Wave On-Net Only  On-Net Only  On-Net & Off-Net TV  TV  Software-Centric Hardware-Centric  Hardware-Centric  Highest Service Velocity Limited Service Velocity  Higher Service Velocity  Business Model: Business Model: B2C  Business Model: B2C B2B2C Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31
  • 26. The Power of a Unified Experience 3rd Wave and Medianet Technologies – 20k+ View Content Sources Content Delivery Aggregation & Core & Distribution. Client and Control Access Content Management Media Aware Linear, SDV IP/NGN Broadcast Content Advertising (VQE, VAMS/VidMON) ASR9000 Protection (AVSM) Metadata Functions ISI-5100 ISI-8000 SP CDS 3.0 DRG-3908 VoD Unicast VVI Library Streamer Network Acquirer ASR9000 OTT CRS-1 DST VVI Router Internet Content Distribution ASR9000 (AVSM) PC Ads Device CDS 3.0 Streamer Mobile Mgmt. Subscriber Configuration Mgmt. & Provision System Management Applications Business-to-Business-to-Consumer: B2B2C© 2010 Cisco Presentation_ID All rights reserved. and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Systems, Inc. © 2010 Cisco Cisco Confidential Cisco Public 32
  • 27. Future Of VideoPanel Discussion - Invitation To Attend The Future of Video: Growth, Trends, Technology and Business Models PNLITM-1002: Wednesday, Jun 30, 4:00 PM Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33
  • 28. Video Technology OverviewPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34
  • 29. Video Service Technologies OverviewCommon Transport Technologies and Applications• Most of today’s technologies were developed for real time streaming and file transfer applications. MPEG-2 Transport Streams Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) and Its ‘Helpers’ RTCP and RTSP Multicast for Live/Linear Content Progressive DownloadPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35
  • 30. Video Service Technology OverviewMPEG-2 Transport Streams (MP2TS)*• NOT a network transport protocol• Mechanism for packetizing and multiplexing encoded audio/video data. Serialized Constant Bit Rate (CBR) data stream Originally designed for circuit-based ATM networks and Real-Time Data Transport• Facilitates flexible Content Processing Headends: Encoding, Multiplexing, Transrating Regional: Program Add/Drop, Ad-Insertion Edge: Ad-Insertion, HFC Carriage (QAM) Transport for Cable STBs worldwide. Basis for ‘Digital Cable’.• Circa mid-2000’s – SPs began to encapsulate MP2TS into IP packets for WAN transport. Ongoing today. Live/Linear - Multicast Video On Demand - StreamingPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36
  • 31. MPEG-2 Transport Streams (MP2TS) 4. Add Program Specific 5. Add Service Information Information (PSI) PSI (PAT / PMT tables), (SI with DVB) or Program SI or PSIP information and System Information Protocol (PSIP with ATSC) 4. Program Association Table 2. Assign packet (PAT) lists PIDs associated with identifier (PID) to a Program Map Table (PMT) each PES which in turn lists PIDs associated with a specific program PES MPEG Video encoder Stream Transport Stream MUX 1. Generate PES streams for audio, video, data… 7. Output combined data stream at PES Constant Bit Rate (CBR) MPEG Audio encoder System Timing 6. Add system timing Clock information to ensure 3. Split PES content into fixed size packets synchronization of audio and videoPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37
  • 32. MPEG-2 Transport Packetization Single or Multiple Program Transport Stream (SPTS/MPTS)  Transport Stream defined by ISO/IEC 13818-1 or ITU-T H.222.0  Clients track encoder’s clock via PCRs inserted every ~0.1 sec  Lip-sync via PTS using a common 90 KHz recovered STC clock Encoder’s clock Timing Control • Clock 27 MHz clock Recovery PCRs MPEG-2 or H.264/MPEG-4 AVC PTS SDTV or HDTV Video DTS Video VideoVideo Elementary Stream PESInput Encoder PES Packetizer MPEG-2 MPEG-1 Level 2 or MPEG-2 Dolby AC-3 5.1 Audio PTS Audio Transport SPTS orAudio Audio Elementary Stream PES Stream MPTS toInputs Encoder PES Packetizer network or Packetizer storage • Sample and Compress • Adds headers & timestamps Audio and Mux PES Additional audio tracks SPTS contains a single Additional programs • Fixed-sized multiplexed video program with PAT (PID=0) & PMTs packets associated audio, data, etc. Other PSI/SI/EPG data Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38
  • 33. MP2TS Packets 188 Bytes 188 Bytes 188 BytesContinuous/CBR TS Header TS Payload TS Header Transport Payload Transport Adaptation Sync Transport Continuity Adaptation Error Unit Start PID Scrambling Field Byte Priority Counter Field Indicator Indicator (13) Control Control (8) (1) (4) (Variable) (1) (1) (2) (2) TS Payload Packet Identifier TS Descript Header/Program Table/PES (audio,video,data) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39
  • 34. MP2TS Over IP - Encapsulation 188 Bytes Pack (typically 7) and Encapsulate MP2TS Pkts RTP Protocol Stack UDP IP L1 + L2Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 40
  • 35. Video Service Technology OverviewTraditional Streaming - RTP + RTCP/RTSP• Points •Designed to be used by other xport protocols (UDP). Incomplete standalone. Used in other solutions with other protocols and ‘custom’ apps. •Prevalent in video/tele conferencing systems. Voice. • Commonly Used with MP2TS for VoD and Multicast video delivery over IP • RTP lightweight carriage. Intrinsic timeline – real time. Data sent as needed. • Mechanisms best for ‘owned’ Networks with QoS. Adaptive mechanism is RTSP. • Commonly filtered. • Application requires use of multiple protocols. Often proprietary.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41
  • 36. Video Service Technology OverviewTraditional Streaming – RTP + RTCP + RTSP Traditional streaming is for ‘Continuous Media’ with an intrinsic timeline. Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) is Internet standardized for real-time data/media transport (video, audio). Design RFC-3550. Traditionally used for Video/Tele Conferencing solutions (Re: ITU H.323 Standard) Very lightweight (min overhead) and designed to be carried on other transport protocols (e.g.,UDP, TCP). RTP is typically accompanied by ‘helper’ protocols RTP – data RTCP – ‘control’. Carries QoS feedbk from Rcvr to Sender. Synch support for different media streams. RTSP - Session set-up and Control RTP/RTCP/RTSP implementation varies by application. RTP often filtered by routers/NAT/firewallsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 42
  • 37. MP2TS over RTP/UDP/IP Preferred Stack for SP Broadcast & VoD Streams 188 bytes 188 bytes 188 bytes 188 bytes 188 bytes 188 bytes 188 bytes G-2 MPEG-2 MPEG-2 MPEG-2 MPEG-2 MPEG-2 MPEG-2 MPEG-2 MPEacket SPTS packet SPTS packet SPTS packet SPTS packet SPTS packet SPTS packet SPTS packet SPTS p Typically 7 MPEG-2 SPTS packets Time per 1374 byte Ethernet PDU C P M I U C P M I Uiple complete ... P R Multiple complete ... P R Multiple R H A D T R H A D TEG-2 packets C Y C v P P MPEG-2 packets C Y C v P P MPEG-2 4 41-7 * 188 bytes 4 8 14 20 8 12 1-7 * 188 bytes 4 8 14 20 8 12 1-7 * 188 Standard Ethernet 1518 bytes max  Adds RTP-layer time stamp, sequence number, and other capabilities defined by IETF RFC 3550 (RTP) and RFC 2250 (MPEG-2 TS over RTP)  Integral number of MPEG-2 SPTS packets per RTP/UDP message For each 2 Mbps H.264 SD stream, one Ethernet frame every ~ 5.3 msec For each 8 Mbps H.264 HD stream, one Ethernet frame every ~ 1.3 msec  RTP/UDP/IP/GigE overhead is approximately 1 - (7*188/1382) = 5% Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 43
  • 38. SP Service Delivery with RTP/MP2TSProtocol Utilization for Linear and VoD Video Service Linear/Multicast Video On Video Demand Session Session Announcement Description Session Session Description Control MP2TS Pkts SDP SDP Session HTTP RTSP RTP (w/ RTCP) SAP Control HTTP TCP UDP IGMP TCP IP L1 + L2Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 44
  • 39. RTP for Unicast Streaming – 3GPP Example  PSS Client – PSS Server  Streaming is for ‘Continuous Media’ – has intrinsic timeline  Content Delivery: IP/UDP/RTP RTP Encapsulated Encoded Media  Requires Session Set Up & Control Protocol (RTSP) for Individual Media Streams ‘Simple Streaming’, 3GPP Rel. 4RTSP = Real Time Streaming Protocol, IETF RFC 2326RTP = Real Time Protocol, IETF RFC 3550 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45
  • 40. Rate Adaptation with RTCPPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 46
  • 41. Unicast vs. Multicast IP Delivery Multicast enables much better scalabilityUnicastSource Multicast Source Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 47
  • 42. RTP-Based Model for IPTVLeverages ‘Helper’ Apps and Protocols Retransmission Server (w/ Feedback Target) Client Client/STB Transport & DSLAM Access Client/STB Distribution Network Aggregation STB RTP Source Router Channel 1 DSLAM Channel 2 STB Each TV channel is served in a unique (SSM) multicast session IP STBs join the respective multicast session(s) for the desired TV channel Retransmission servers join all the multicast sessions (Unicast) Feedback from IP STBs are collected by the feedback target NACK messages reporting missing packets Rapid channel change requests RTCP receiver and extended reports reporting reception quality Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 48
  • 43. Network Call Admission ControlAdvantage SP Managed Net Broadcast TV Policy Multicast CAC Server 2 Channel request Cisco Broadcast 7600 Source Multicast CAC IPTV 1 Channel Change 4 Request Denied/ Available Available Accepted Bandwidth 3 Bandwidth Check Check Video on Demand Policy Unicast CAC Server 2 Channel request Cisco VoD Servers 7600 RSVP-CAC VoD 1 Request 4 Request Denied/ Available Available Accepted Bandwidth 3 Bandwidth Check Check Avoiding Congestion Packet Loss Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 49
  • 44. Video Service Technology Overview Progressive Download  Prevalent form of Web-based media delivery for Video Share Sites.  ‘Ordinary’ File Download from HTTP Web Server (E.g., Apache, Microsoft IIS)  ‘Progressive’ = Playback begins while download is in progress Byte Range Request Supported HTTP 1.1+ PlaybkVideo File HTTP Get Min Playbk Buffer Browser Cache File Dnload Completes Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 50
  • 45. Progressive Download – 3GPP Mobile Example Progressive Download is for ‘Discrete Media’ – no intrinsic timeline File Download over HTTP/TCP/IP HTTP GET (one or more) Begin Playback while download in progress Suitable Media Format Required 3GP Progressive Dwnload Profile Vector Graphics Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 51
  • 46. Video Service Technology OverviewProgressive Download – Behavior Unlike streaming, data flows until download is complete. (E.g., pause viewing and dnload completes in background). Sometimes leads to inefficient use of bandwidth resources. + Upside - media file is resident in browser cache. Subsequent playout is smooth. - Downside – Real-time viewing often suffers from poor quality unless network/bandwidth conditions are sufficient. …. Buffering…. …. Buffering….Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 52
  • 47. Key TakeawaysVideo Technology Overview Most IPTV and Streaming technologies are ‘PUSH’ based models with intrinsic timelines for transport, decode, and playback. MP2TS is prevalent transport mechanism throughout world today for SPs. RTP is an efficient, lightweight transport protocol used for many real-time media applications. RTP needs ‘helper’ protocols (rtcp, rtsp) and apps to provide video services - Often custom. RTP + MP2TS make up most SP IPTV and VoD offerings. Progressive Download is a download application with buffer/playback capabilities.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53
  • 48. Adaptive Rate TechnologiesPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 54
  • 49. Adaptive Rate Technology What’s in a name?What it is NOT NOT Adaptive Bit Rate (ABR) Encoding Common names – ABR, ABR Streaming, Adaptive Streaming. NOT Streaming – technically, a hybrid PD approach. NOT Standardized (yet)Why just ‘Adaptive Rate’ Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms at Work Multiple Data Rate affecting variables: network transport, content encoding (staging).Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 55
  • 50. Introduction to Adaptive Rate What is it? Quality video service for common Web Browsers. Uses IP HTTP protocol (port 80)*. Engineered for the Internet and its CDNs. Adaptive to ‘shift’ btwn video profiles on the fly. Profiles support different resolutions/devices and different bandwidths. Clients are ‘smart’ and coupled to servers, (e.g., Msoft SmoothHD, Adobe Flash, Apple QTX). Why is it important? Facilitates ‘any device, anywhere, anytime’ paradigm. Major step towards mobility. Internet based. Open development and rapid deployment. New player introduction. Changing legacy SP service model. New business, services, revenue opportunities. *Adobe Flash employs RTMPPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 56
  • 51. Need Is The Mother of Invention User Motivations for Adaptive Rate  Easy-to-use/access  Provides hi-quality Viewing Experience (Visual QoE) Fast Start/Seek, Smooth Playback  Network Operator Independent/Agnostic  Liberal Device Support  Dynamic Performance Adaptation  Scalable** Note ‘Further Considerations’ discussion later in presentation. Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 57
  • 52. Need Is The Mother of InventionProvider Motivations for Adaptive Rate Diverse Network Characteristics – Dynamic Internet Conditions – DSL vs. Cable vs. FTTH – Network Contention (Mobile/Wireless, Home) Device Resources – Processing Capabilities – Display Resolutions – Multi-tasking Improved Quality of User Experience – Faster Start Time, Quicker Buffer Fills – Minimizing Buffer under-runs: Skips, Stalls, Stutters Falling Costs of Storage – Kryder’s Law/Moore’s Law – Rise of new storage technologies – i.e. SSD SPs and CPs offering unmanaged services – Public and SP CDN build-outs – SPs can leverage same technology for managed networks Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 58
  • 53. Adaptive Rate TechnologiesAdaptive Rate Characteristic ElementsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 60
  • 54. Adaptive Rate Characteristic ElementsOverview HTTP for Wide Adoption STATELESS Session Operation Mitigates Intrinsic Timelines Multiple Resolution Content Encoding Fragmented Content File Structure ‘Smart’ ClientsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 61
  • 55. Adaptive Rate Characteristic ElementsHTTP for Wide AdoptionInternet Browser-based Plug-In Players for Browsers Device Coverage – virtually all have http capability (e.g., phones, netbooks) Avoid ‘Application’ issues (standalone, OS, portability)Service in the ‘Cloud’Firewall Pass Thru HTTP allowed RTSP/RTP and others often filtered/unsupportedNAT ‘friendlier’Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 62
  • 56. Adaptive Rate Characteristic ElementsStateless Session Operation STATELESS Session = ‘Dumb’ Server Traditional Streaming – Server is aware of Client state for length of session. E.g. RTSP. HTTP is Stateless Protocol Client requests and server responds without knowledge of client state. Each HTTP request is one-time session. Client-Server State Model ‘inverted’ in a sense Client controls state and issues requests Client Can Maintain Multiple, Simultaneous Sessions HTTP Get ‘What I Say’ HTTP/‘What I Say’Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 63
  • 57. Adaptive Rate Characteristic Elements Multi-Resolution Content Encoding  Video/Audio Content encoded at multiple bitrates to create a ‘content set’. ‘Content Set’ File/Profile 2430 kbps (V+A) Manifest File 1630 kbps (V+A) Metadata+index 1230 kbps (V+A) VOD Encoder/Transcoder 866 kbps (V+A) 608 kbps (V+A) 427 kbps (V+A)Video File 300 kbps (V+A) HTTP Encoding Profiles Server ‘Temporal’ Files 2430 kbps (V+A) Manifest File Metadata+indexLive Feed 1630 kbps (V+A) 1230 kbps (V+A) Realtime 866 kbps (V+A) Encoders/Transcoders 608 kbps (V+A) 427 kbps (V+A) 300 kbps (V+A) ‘Content Set’ Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 64
  • 58. Adaptive Rate Characteristic Elements Fragmented Content File Structure – ‘Chunks’  Video/Audio encoded in short segments aka “chunks” ~*2-10 secs ~2-10 secs chunk Encode I B B P B ‘Key’ Frame Group of Pictures (GOP) ‘Closed GOP’ = No dependencies on other GOPs .mp4* Apple live streaming media files©typically 10 its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID 2010 Cisco and/or secs Cisco Public 65
  • 59. Adaptive Rate Characteristic Elements Multi-Resolution Content Encoding – Profile Shifting  ‘Profile Shifting’ key to Adaptive Rate Client Driven‘Content Set’ManifestFile HTTP Get ‘Iron Man’ LoDef HTTP Get ‘Iron Man LoDef, BR xyz’300Kbps SDef HTTP Get ‘Iron Man SDef, BR xyz’866Kbps HTTP Get ‘Iron Man HDef, BR xyz’ HiDef2.4Mbps Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 66
  • 60. Adaptive Rate Characteristic Elements Fragmented Content File Structure  Manifest and Byte Range Requesting facilitate temporal indexing across content set.‘Content Set’ Content Set Index httpManifestFile LoDef Byte-Range0.3Mbps Requests SDef866Kbps HiDef2.4Mbps Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 67
  • 61. Adaptive Rate Characteristic Elements‘Smart’ Adaptive Clients Typically browser plug-in.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 68
  • 62. Adaptive Rate Characteristic Elements‘Smart’ Adaptive Clients ‘Intelligence’ and Control Moves from Server to Client Client is media/content aware. Client is device and performance aware. Adapts visual play-out for quality. Staging. Monitors device performance. CPU spike. Client is Network Aware Tests and monitors packet delivery performance. Adapts to Performance fluctuationsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 69
  • 63. Client Adaptation Logic – Example No Create Change Play Timer BW Calc Rcvd BR Video (500ms) Rule Avg BR Avg 1.5 Rate Change BWStart Play Change Index Check Rules Metrics Use Detect 10 Frame 300k BR Drop Profile BW Frame Calc Rcvd Drop FDrop Rule FDrop 20 Frame Change Drop Index Set BW 24 Frame Levels Drop (Panic) Buffer Rule Monitor Stream Buffer Switch Set BW Between Change Insufficient BW levels = Indexes Index 140% BR Levels CPU Rule Monitor CPU Utilztn Change > 80% Index No Change Switch Index Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 70
  • 64. Adaptive Rate Characteristic Elements‘Smart’ Adaptive Clients - Smooth Player Illustration Profile Shifting – Frame Rate Profile Shifting – Bit Rate Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 71
  • 65. Adaptive Rate Characteristic Elements Adaptive Rate Network SignaturesNote – not signature of prior illustration Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 72
  • 66. Adaptive Rate TechnologiesTechnical Taxonomy for Internet Video (IV)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 74
  • 67. Technology Taxonomy for IVAR and Live Events Live broadcast/television is a mainstay (e.g., sports, news, events). Live events require large scaling capability. Multicast performs scaling for IPTV. Adaptive Rate does not have equivalent scaling capability. Real time sourcing poses potential synchronization issues for AR clients. AR solutions can utilize real-time multicast but may not employ all adaptive mechanisms. Works in progress.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 75
  • 68. Technology Taxonomy for IVAR and Progressive Download (PD) PD is primarily a content download mechanism. Although it can play/render video as receiving it is not ‘dynamic’. PD allows retention of content after download. Applicable for DST and other content ownership models. AR is a hybrid PD technology. AR developers likely to incorporate PD functionality for DST and Ad insertion capabilities.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 76
  • 69. Technology Taxonomy for IVAR and RTP/RTCP/RTSP RTP accommodates MP2TS which is prevalent worldwide in IPTV deployments. AR Stateless Session  AR is a pull model that mitigates intrinsic timeline requirements of existing technologies. AR does not require ‘helper’ apps and protocols AR/HTTP less likely to be disallowed by routers/NAT/firewalls Network congestion is concern for AR. Congestion can be managed with IPTV CAC mechanisms. AR does not utilize multicast, and therefore scaling is an issue. RTP/IPTV utilizes multicast.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 77
  • 70. Adaptive Rate TechnologiesIndustry Leading SolutionsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 78
  • 71. MicrosoftPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 79
  • 72. Microsoft Smooth Streaming VOD/Pre-Encoded • Process HTTP URL requests, translate into 2430 kbps (V+A) file/byte-range 1630 kbps (V+A) Client and Server 1230 kbps (V+A) Metadata/index (.ism, .ismc) • Persistent HTTP File-based Encoder/Transcoder 866 kbps (V+A) Single file per • Dual TCP/IP connection profile (.ismv) 608 kbps (V+A) 427 kbps (V+A) 300 kbps (V+A)Video File Files CDN SilverLight Player IIS Server w/ CDN HTTP Smooth Streaming 2430 kbps (V+A) Post + and Live Smooth Chunked Publishing Point • Retrieves Client Realtime Encoders/TranscodersLive Feed 1630 kbps (V+A) Metadata/Index file • Software Decode 1230 kbps (V+A) Live/Real-Time Encoded • Decode Performance 866 kbps (V+A) Monitor •Upshift/downshift 608 kbps (V+A) Decisions 427 kbps (V+A) 300 kbps (V+A) Codecs supported: Single “temporal” Client and Server WVC1 file per Metadata/Index H.264 (VOD only, Future for Live) profile (.ismv) (.ism, .isml) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 80
  • 73. ApplePresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 81
  • 74. Apple iPhone Streaming VOD/Pre-Encoded Nested • Persistent HTTP Connection File-based .m3u8 •Periodic refresh of profile Encoder/Segmenter 1000 kbps (V+A) 10-second .ts files Playlists m3u8s (Live only) 500 kbps (V+A) files 300 kbps (V+A) 100 kbps (V+A)Video File CDN Files Iphone 3.x+, Mac+ OSX, IPad Files via HTTP CDN Post, FTP, SMB, etc. •Software DecodeLive Feed • Decode Performance 1000 kbps (V+A) Monitor 500 kbps (V+A) Live/Real-Time Encoded • TCP Connection Monitor Realtime • Upshift/downshift Encoder/Segmenter 300 kbps (V+A) Decisions 100 kbps (V+A) Codecs supported: H.264 Nested .m3u8 10-second .ts files Playlists files Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 82
  • 75. AdobePresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 83
  • 76. Adobe Zeri Streaming VOD/Pre-Encoded • Helper Module processes HTTP URL requests, translate into file/byte-range 2430 kbps (V+A) 1630 kbps (V+A) fmf metadata/ 1230 kbps (V+A) • Persistent HTTP index File-based Encoder 866 kbps (V+A) 1 media file (f4f) • Can have multiple TCP per profile Connections 608 kbps (V+A) 427 kbps (V+A) 300 kbps (V+A)Video File CDN Files OSMF + Flash Player 10.1+ Offline or CDN RealTime 2430 kbps (V+A) RTMP Packager Stream •Decode PerformanceLive Feed 1630 kbps (V+A) Monitor • TCP Connection Monitor 1230 kbps (V+A) Live/Real-Time Encoded • Upshift/downshift RTMP Encoder(s) 866 kbps (V+A) Decisions 608 kbps (V+A) 427 kbps (V+A) 300 kbps (V+A) fmf metadata/ Codecs supported: index H.264 Multiple f4f segments per profile Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 84
  • 77. Comparison of Select AR Solutions Adobe MBR Move Networks Smooth Apple iPhone Adobe ZERI Streaming StreamingTransport Protocol RTMPx HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTPFragment Size N/A 2 seconds 2 seconds 10 seconds Variable#TCP connections 1 3-5 2 1 TBD#Files on Origin #profiles #profiles x #profiles #profiles x 720/Hr #profiles (VOD) 1800/Hr #profiles x frag duration/Hr (Linear)Codec Support H.264, Sorensen On2 VP7, H.264 VC-1, H.264 H.264 (H.263), On2 (Future) H.264 VP6 (Silverlight3/VOD)Wire Format streaming Proprietary MP4 fragments MP2TS fragments MP4 fragments Streamlets - .qssFile Format – Origin Server .flv, .f4v, .mp4, Proprietary .ismv (fragmented .ts .f4f, .fmf .mov Streamlets - .qss mp4)Byte Range Mechanism No Yes No No YesStd HTTP Origin Server No Yes No Yes NoIntegrated Encryption or RTMPE, Adobe Move/Widevine Windows DRM, AES-128 Adobe AccessDRM DRM PlayReadyClient Requirements Flash Player 10+ Move Browser Silveright 2+ iPhone OS 3.0+ Flash Player 10.1 Plugin Quicktime X with ZERI +Javascript extensions HTML ( opt: Flash/Silverlight)Manifest file SMIL or other .qmx file .ismc (aka .m3u8 .fmf (proprietary) .ism/Manifest or .isml/Manifest) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 85
  • 78. Impact on Streaming Delivery TS Segments Non-Interlaced Audio/Video Byte-Range RequestsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 86
  • 79. Impact on Storage and Caching (example) Equivalent Progressive Download Origin Server Requirements (highest profile/ 2.4Mb/H.264) Source Video 5 min 43 seconds H.264 – 1280 x 720 & AAC Stereo, 44.1kHz Rhozet Encoder 23.98 fps, 5.05mbits/sec, 206.27MB (1) mp4 file, 97MB Generic (Linux/Apache) Origin Server Move Move Encoder .qmx (2236) qss files + (172) jpg, 484MB total Window 2008 Server + IIS + Smooth Streaming Smooth MS Expression Encoder .ism .ismc .xap/.html (12) ismv files + (1) jpg, 482MB total Generic (Linux/Apache)Adobe MBR Origin Server Rhozet Encoder (13) mp4 files, 492MB total (manual) .smil Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 87
  • 80. Adaptive Rate TechnologiesCisco and Adaptive RatePresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 90
  • 81. Cisco and Adaptive Rate TechnologiesAR as Part of 3rd Wave CDS and VVI (2-3 slides). Architectural Vision Slide Product placement - AR Streaming Optimizations BRKSPV-2109 Title & Session Times SP Video Datacenter (1 slide?) BRKSPV-2105 Title & Session TimesPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 91
  • 82. CDE220-2S3 Streamer Multi-Service Flash SSD StreamerHW Model Summary CDE220-2S3Form Factor 2 RUTotal Cache Storage Capacity 1.5 TB Solid StateStreaming Capacity 9.4 Gbps MPEG2TSCache Storage Devices 12 x SSDLog/SW Storage Devices 2 x SSDIngest/Fill NIC 12x 1GESoftware Support CDS 2.1.3  Key Features Flexible Platform: Multiple configuration options for TV and Internet content streaming Streaming: 7Gbps+ of HTTP Adaptive Bit Rate Internet Video content delivery Multi-Protocol: Support for MPEG-2/4, H.264, Adobe FMS, WMT, QuickTime, Move Networks, Silverlight SmoothHD Content Distribution: High-Performance Asset Propagation (Segmented Cache Fill) Resiliency: Stream Resiliency for high availability Physical Location: Streamers Arrays deployed in a centralized or distributed manner Versatility in a dense multi-function platform Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 92
  • 83. Key Take-AwaysPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 93
  • 84. Video Fast Forward – Key TakeawaysAdvance of Internet Video & Adaptive Rate Global Video consumption is growing wildly. Internet is the facilitator – IP + Internet Video. Quality Viewing Experience Rules but Consumption Model is changing. Personal, flexible, accessible. Video Services On Path of Convergence (Internet + SP Managed Networks) Mobility is next game changer. Device explosion. Adaptive Rate Technology is front runner for future Internet Video services. (Quality, Performance, Liberal Device Support) Cisco is building to accommodate all of the above – this our vision.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 94
  • 85. Complete Your OnlineSession Evaluation Give us your feedback and you could win fabulous prizes. Winners announced daily. Receive 20 Cisco Preferred Access points for each session evaluation you complete. Complete your session evaluation online now (open a browser through our wireless network to access our portal) or visit one of the Internet Don’t forget to activate your stations throughout the Cisco Live and Networkers Virtual Convention Center. account for access to all session materials, communities, and on-demand and live activities throughout the year. Activate your account at any internet station or visit www.ciscolivevirtual.com.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 95
  • 86. Cisco Live 2010 SP VIDEO SESSIONSBRKSPV-1100 SP Business Intelligence for Internet Video - Analysis and Monetization with Ciscos Service Control Engine (SCE)BRKSPV-1101 Introduction to Service Provider Video Service Technologies Architectures and StandardsBRKSPV-1105 Next Gen Video and Interactive Services for the Connected HomeBRKSPV-2106 Video Data Centers for SPs - Evolution of the Video Headend and Service ArchitectureBRKSPV-2109 Content Delivery System Design for SP and Internet VideoBRKSPV-2110 Deploying Rich Media Services over Broadband Access NetworksBRKSPV-2111 Next Generation Assurance for IP Video Delivery NetworksBRKSPV-2112 Cisco Telepresence Network Infrastructure Design for Service ProvidersBRKSPV-2122 Video Fast Forward: The Advance of Internet Video and Adaptive Rate TechnologiesBRKSPV-3102 Advanced Technologies for 3D TV: Compression and TransportBRKSPV-3103 IP Multicast and Multipoint Design for IPTV ServicesPNLITM-1002 The Future of Video: Growth, Trends, Technology and Business Models End-to-End Video Architecture and Design Part 1: Video Fundamentals, Headend Design, and Video OptimizedTECSPV-1001 TransportTECSPV-1002 End-to-End Video Architecture and Design: Part 2 - Access Networks and Video Service Delivery Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 96
  • 87. TUESDAY: SP Video Sessions8 AM - 9:30 AM SP Business Intelligence for Internet Video - Analysis and Monetization with Ciscos Service Control Engine (SCE) (BRKSPV-1100) Next Generation Assurance for IP Video Delivery Networks (BRKSPV-2111)12:30 PM - 2:30 PM Introduction to Service Provider Video Service Technologies Architectures and Standards (BRKSPV- 1101)4 PM - 6 PM Video Data Centers for SPs - Evolution of the Video Headend and Service Architecture (BRKSPV-2106)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 97
  • 88. WEDNESDAY: SP Video Sessions8 AM - 10 AM Video Fast Forward: The Advance of Internet Video and Adaptive Rate Technologies (BRKSPV-2122) Advanced Technologies for 3D TV: Compression and Transport (BRKSPV-3102)12:30 PM - 2:30 PM Introduction to Service Provider Video Service Technologies Architectures and Standards (BRKSPV-1101) Next Gen Video and Interactive Services for the Connected Home (BRKSPV-1105)4 PM - 6 PM Content Delivery System Design for SP and Internet Video (BRKSPV-2109) Panel: The Future of Video: Growth, Trends, Technology and Business Models (PNLITM-1002)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 98
  • 89. THURSDAY: SP Video Sessions8 AM - 10 AM Deploying Rich Media Services over Broadband Access Networks (BRKSPV-2110) Cisco Telepresence Network Infrastructure Design for Service Providers (BRKSPV-2112)12 PM - 2 PM IP Multicast and Multipoint Design for IPTV Services (BRKSPV-3103)2:30 PM - 4:30 PM Content Delivery System Design for SP and Internet Video (BRKSPV-2109) Video Fast Forward: The Advance of Internet Video and Adaptive Rate Technologies (BRKSPV-2122)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 99
  • 90. Enter to Win a 12-Book Libraryof Your Choice from Cisco PressVisit the Cisco Store in theWorld of Solutions, whereyou will be asked to enterthis Session ID codeCheck the Recommended Reading brochure forsuggested products available at the Cisco StorePresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 100