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  • 1. PRIMARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS WE ALREADY HAVE THEM WHEN WE ARE BORN AND THEY ARE DIFFERENT FOR MALE A FEMALE.
  • 2. SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS THIS CHARACTERS ARE THE EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTICS WHICH DIFFERENTIATE MEN FROM WOMEN AN APPEAR DURING PUBERTY WITH SOME PHYSICAL CHANGES.
  • 3. REPRODUCTIVE EVENTS HUMANS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION CONSIST OF: VIVIPAROUS, UNISEXUAL. EACH SEX HAS PAIR OF GONADS, REPRODUCTIVE DUCT AND ACCESSORY STRUCTURES. SEX ORGANS – TESTIS( PAIRED) MALE , OVARIES (PAIRED) GAMETE FORMATION, HORMONES ANDPUBERTY 1. GAMETOGENESIS - FORMATION OF GAMETES (SPERMS/ OVA) 2. INSEMINATION -- TRANSFER OF SPERMS INTO THE FEMALE GENITAL TRACT 3. FERTILISATION -- FUSION OF MALE AND FEMALE GAMETES LEADING TO FORMATION OF ZYGOTE 4. IMPLANTATION -- DEVELOPMENT OF BLASTOCYST AND ITS ATTACHMENT TO THE UTERINE WALL 5. GESTATION -- EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT ( FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH ) 6. PARTURITION-- DELIVERY OF THE BABY ( CHILD BIRTH )
  • 4. VOCABULARY • CLUSTER: A GROUP OF SIMILAR THINGS OR PEOPLE. • WOMB: THE ORGAN IN THE LOWER BODY OF A WOMAN OR FEMALE MAMMAL WHERE OFFSPRING ARE CONCEIVED AND IN WHICH THEY GESTATE. • SYN: THE UTERUS. • EMBED: TO INSERT ONE THING IN ANOTHER. • EMBRYO: IT IS A MULTICELLULAR DIPLOID EUKARYOTE IN ITS EARLIEST STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT, FROM THE TIME OF FIRST CELL DIVISION UNTIL BIRTH, OR GERMINATION. • FETUS: IT IS A DEVELOPING MAMMAL OR OTHER VIVIPAROUS VERTEBRATE AFTER THE EMBRYONIC STAGE AND BEFORE BIRTH.
  • 5. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS 1. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 2. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • 6. 1. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • 7. 2. MALE REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY • THE MALE’S EXTERNAL REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ARE: THE SCROTUM AND PENIS • INTERNAL ORGANS ARE: • GONADS (TESTES), WHICH PRODUCE SPERM AND HORMONES, • ACCESSORY GLANDS
  • 8. • TESTIS – MALE GONADS • EPIDIDYMIS - STRUCTURE IN THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN WHICH SPERM FULLY MATURE AND ARE STORED – SPERM IS PRODUCED IN THE SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES • VAS DEFERENS - TUBE THAT CARRIES SPERM FROM THE EPIDIDYMIS TO THE URETHRA • PROSTATE GLAND – LARGE GLAND THAT SECRETES SEMEN DIRECTLY INTO THE URETHRA • URETHRA - TUBE THROUGH WHICH URINE AND SEMEN ARE RELEASED FROM THE BODY • PENIS - EXTERNAL MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN THAT CONNECTS THE URETHRA TO
  • 9. A. MALE GONADS: TESTES • TESTES, CONSIST OF: • HIGHLY COILED SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES (IN WHICH SPERM FORM) • SURROUNDED BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE • LEYDIG CELLS PRODUCE HORMONES AND ARE SCATTERED BETWEEN THE TUBULES.
  • 10. CONTINUED • PRODUCTION OF NORMAL SPERM CANNOT OCCUR AT THE BODY TEMPERATURES . • THE TESTES ARE HELD OUTSIDE THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY IN THE SCROTUM, WHERE THE TEMPERATURE IS 2ºC LOWER THAN IN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
  • 11. B. DUCTS • FROM THE SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES OF A TESTIS, SPERM PASS INTO THE COILED TUBULES OF THE EPIDIDYMIS • DURING EJACULATION, SPERM ARE PROPELLED THROUGH THE MUSCULAR VAS DEFERENS AND THE EJACULATORY DUCT, AND THEN EXIT THE PENIS THROUGH THE URETHRA.
  • 12. C. ACCESSORY GLANDS • SEMEN IS COMPOSED OF: • SPERM PLUS • SECRETIONS FROM THREE SETS OF ACCESSORY GLANDS • THE TWO SEMINAL VESICLES CONTRIBUTE ABOUT 60% OF THE TOTAL VOLUME OF SEMEN. • THE PROSTATE GLAND SECRETES ITS PRODUCTS DIRECTLY INTO THE URETHRA THROUGH SEVERAL SMALL DUCTS.
  • 13. C. ACCESSORY GLANDS • THE BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS SECRETE A CLEAR MUCUS BEFORE EJACULATION THAT NEUTRALIZES ACIDIC URINE REMAINING IN THE URETHRA.
  • 14. D. PENIS • THE HUMAN PENIS IS COMPOSED OF THREE CYLINDERS OF SPONGY ERECTILE TISSUE. • DURING SEXUAL AROUSAL, THE ERECTILE TISSUE FILLS WITH BLOOD FROM THE ARTERIES, CAUSING AN ERECTION. • THE HEAD OF THE PENIS IS CALLED THE GLANS AND IS COVERED WITH A PREPUCE. • THE REST IS CALLED THE SHAFT.
  • 15. D. PENIS Glans Shaft
  • 16. REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY OF THE HUMAN MALE
  • 17. ACCESSORY GLANDS Seminal vesicles Between urinary bladder and rectum Alkaline mucoid fluid rich in fructose , ascorbic acid Prostate glands Largest male gland, milky fluid 1/3 volume of semen Helps in sperm motility, maintains pH – survival of sperms COWPER’S gLANDS/ Bulbourethral glands Fluid lubricating passage for sperms Seminal plasma- secretion of all the accessory glands. Rich in fructose, calcium and certain enzymes. Semen – mixture of spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Single ejaculation 200-300 million sperms, slightly alkaline, neutralize acidity in vagina, sperms are protected.
  • 18. 2. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • 19. 1. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY • THE FEMALE EXTERNAL REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES INCLUDE • THE CLITORIS AND • TWO SETS OF LABIA Animation: Female Reproductive Anatomy
  • 20. • THE INTERNAL ORGANS ARE: • A PAIR OF GONADS (OVARIES) AND • A SYSTEM OF DUCTS (OVIDUCTS/ FALLOPIAN TUBES) AND • CHAMBERS (UTERUS,VAGINA, VULVA) THAT CARRY GAMETES AND HOUSE THE EMBRYO AND FETUS Animation: Female Reproductive Anatomy
  • 21. A. FEMALE GONADS: OVARIES • LIE IN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY • EACH OVARY CONTAINS • MANY FOLLICLES, WHICH CONSIST OF A PARTIALLY DEVELOPED EGG, CALLED AN OOCYTE, SURROUNDED BY SUPPORT CELLS. • ONCE A MONTH, AN OOCYTE DEVELOPS INTO AN OVUM (EGG) BY THE PROCESS OF OOGENESIS
  • 22. • CONTINUED • OVULATION IS THE RELEASE OF AN EGG CELL FROM THE FOLLICLE. • THE REMAINING FOLLICULAR TISSUE GROWS WITHIN THE OVARY, FORMING THE CORPUS LUTEUM. • THE CORPUS LUTEUM SECRETES HORMONES E.G. THAT HELP TO MAINTAIN PREGNANCY. • IF THE EGG IS NOT FERTILIZED, THE CORPUS LUTEUM DEGENERATES.
  • 23. B. OVIDUCTS AND UTERUS • AFTER OVULATION, THE EGG CELL TRAVELS FROM THE OVARY TO THE UTERUS VIA AN OVIDUCT, OR FALLOPIAN TUBE. • CILIA IN THE OVIDUCT CONVEY THE EGG TO THE UTERUS, ALSO CALLED THE WOMB. • THE UTERUS LINING, THE ENDOMETRIUM, HAS MANY BLOOD VESSELS • THE UTERUS NARROWS AT THE CERVIX, THEN OPENS INTO THE VAGINA.
  • 24. C.VAGINA AND VULVA • THE VAGINA: IS A THIN-WALLED CHAMBER THAT IS THE REPOSITORY FOR SPERM DURING COPULATION AND SERVES AS THE BIRTH CANAL • THE VAGINA OPENS TO THE OUTSIDE AT THE VULVA, WHICH CONSISTS OF THE • LABIA MAJORA, • LABIA MINORA, • HYMEN, AND • CLITORIS
  • 25. D. MAMMARY GLANDS • THE MAMMARY GLANDS ARE NOT PART OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM BUT ARE IMPORTANT TO MAMMALIAN REPRODUCTION. • WITHIN THE GLANDS, SMALL SACS OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE SECRETE MILK.
  • 26. Reproductive anatomy of the human female Oviduct Ovary Uterus (Urinary bladder) (Rectum) (Pubic bone) Cervix Urethra Shaft Glans Prepuce Vagina Vaginal opening Clitoris Labia minora Labia majora
  • 27. THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IS MADE UP OF THESE ORGANS: Fallopian tubes uterus vulva ovary vagina
  • 28. CHANGES DURING GROWTH • PRIMARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS: PRESENT AT BIRTH. • FEMALE GENITALIA • MALE GENITALIA. • SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS: APPEARS IN THE MATURITY. • THIS CHANGES OCCURS DURING A VERY SPECIFC AGE WHICH IS KNOWN AS PUBERTY AND ARE THE RESULT OF THE ACTION OF SEXUAL HORMONS.
  • 29. CHANGES DURING PUBERTY •IN THE FEMALE: •PUBIC HAIR AND HAIR UNDER THE ARMS. •DISTRIBUTION OF BODY FATS. •DEVELOPMENT OS MAMMARY GLANDS. •IN THE MALE: •THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC HAIR. •THE BEARD AND HAIR OVER A LARGE PART OF THE BODY. •AN INCREASE IN THE BONES AND MUSCLES, CHANGE OF VOICE, ETC.
  • 30. 3. GAMETOGENESIS • GAMETOGENESIS, THE PRODUCTION OF GAMETES BY MEIOSIS. • SPERMATOGENESIS IS PRODUCTION OF MATURE SPERM • OOGENESIS IS DEVELOPMENT OF MATURE OOCYTES (EGGS). • SPERM ARE SMALL AND MOTILE AND ARE PRODUCED THROUGHOUT THE LIFE OF A SEXUALLY MATURE MALE.
  • 31. A. SPERMATOGENESIS SPERM ARE SMALL AND MOTILE AND ARE PRODUCED THROUGHOUT THE LIFE OF A SEXUALLY MATURE MALE.
  • 32. SPERMATOGENESIS Epididymis Seminiferous tubule Sertoli cell nucleus Spermatogonium Testis Cross section of seminiferous tubule Primary spermatocyte Secondary spermatocyte Spermatids (two stages) Lumen of seminiferous tubule Sperm
  • 33. Primordial germ cell in embryo SPERMATOGENESIS Mitotic divisions Spermatogonial stem cell 2n Mitotic divisions Spermatogonium 2n Mitotic divisions Primary spermatocyte 2n Meiosis I Secondary spermatocyte n n Meiosis II Early spermatid n n n n n n Differentiation (Sertoli cells provide nutrients) Sperm n n
  • 34. SPERMATOZOAN STRUCTURE Neck Tail Midpiece Head Plasma membrane Mitochondria Nucleus Acrosome
  • 35. B. Oogenesis • OOGENESIS IS DEVELOPMENT OF MATURE OOCYTES (EGGS) AND CAN TAKE MANY YEARS ,TAKES PLACE IN FEMALES • EGGS CONTAIN STORED NUTRIENTS AND ARE MUCH LARGER.
  • 36. Ovary OOGENISIS Primary oocyte within follicle Growing follicle Ruptured follicle Ovulated secondary oocyte Corpus luteum Mature follicle Degenerating corpus luteum
  • 37. Fig. 46-12g In embryo Primordial germ cell Mitotic divisions 2n OOGENISIS Oogonium Mitotic divisions Primary oocyte (present at birth), arrested in prophase of meiosis I 2n First polar body Completion of meiosis I and onset of meiosis II n n Secondary oocyte, arrested at metaphase of meiosis II Ovulation, sperm entry Completion of meiosis II Second polar n body n Fertilized egg
  • 38. Difference between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis: 1. IN OOGENESIS, ONE EGG FORMS FROM EACH CYCLE OF MEIOSIS; IN SPERMATOGENESIS FOUR SPERM FORM FROM EACH CYCLE OF MEIOSIS. 2. OOGENESIS STOPS LATER IN LIFE IN FEMALES; SPERMATOGENESIS CONTINUES THROUGHOUT THE ADULT LIFE OF MALES 3. OOGENESIS HAS LONG INTERRUPTIONS; SPERMATOGENESIS PRODUCES SPERM FROM PRECURSOR CELLS IN A CONTINUOUS SEQUENCE
  • 39. 4. HORMONES INVOLVED IN HUMAN REPRODUCTION • HUMAN REPRODUCTION IS COORDINATED BY HORMONES FROM THE: • HYPOTHALAMUS (GNRH) , • ANTERIOR PITUITARY (FSH AND LH) , AND • GONADS
  • 40. HYPOTHALAMUS • GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE (GNRH) IS SECRETED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS • AND DIRECTS THE RELEASE OF FSH AND LH FROM THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. • FSH AND LH REGULATE PROCESSES IN THE GONADS AND THE PRODUCTION OF SEX HORMONES
  • 41. ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND • RELEASE FSH AND LH. • FSH (FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE) AND LH REGULATE PROCESSES IN THE GONADS AND THE PRODUCTION OF SEX HORMONES.
  • 42. GONAD HORMONES • GONADS PRODUCE AND RELEASE THE SEX HORMONES. • WHICH INCLUDE • ANDROGENS, • ESTROGENS, AND • PROGESTERONE
  • 43. • SEX HORMONES REGULATE: • THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS DURING EMBRYOGENESIS. • THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS AT PUBERTY • SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND SEX DRIVE.
  • 44. A. HORMONAL CONTROL OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • FSH PROMOTES THE ACTIVITY OF SERTOLI CELLS, WHICH NOURISH DEVELOPING SPERM AND ARE LOCATED WITHIN THE SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES • LH REGULATES LEYDIG CELLS, WHICH SECRETE TESTOSTERONE AND OTHER ANDROGEN HORMONES, WHICH IN TURN PROMOTE SPERMATOGENESIS. Animation: Male Hormones
  • 45. – Hormonal control of the testes Hypothalamus GnRH – – FSH LH Leydig cells Sertoli cells Inhibin Spermatogenesis Testis Testosterone Negative feedback Negative feedback Anterior pituitary
  • 46. • TESTOSTERONE REGULATES THE PRODUCTION OF GNRH, FSH, AND LH THROUGH NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS. • SERTOLI CELLS SECRETE THE HORMONE INHIBIN, WHICH REDUCES FSH SECRETION FROM THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY.
  • 47. B. HORMONAL CONTROL IN FEMALES AND THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES OF FEMALES • PRIOR TO OVULATION, THE ENDOMETRIUM THICKENS WITH BLOOD VESSELS IN PREPARATION FOR EMBRYO IMPLANTATION • IF AN EMBRYO DOES NOT IMPLANT IN THE ENDOMETRIUM, THE ENDOMETRIUM IS SHED IN A PROCESS CALLED MENSTRUATION.
  • 48. • TWO CYCLES OF FEMALE REPRODUCTION: • CHANGES IN THE UTERUS DEFINE THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE (ALSO CALLED THE UTERINE CYCLE) • CHANGES IN THE OVARIES DEFINE THE OVARIAN CYCLE
  • 49. (a) Control by hypothalamus Hypothalamus – GnRH + Inhibited by combination of estradiol and progesterone Stimulated by high levels of estradiol – Inhibited by low levels of estradiol Anterior pituitary LH FSH Pituitary gonadotropins in blood (b) LH FSH FSH and LH stimulate follicle to grow Ovarian cycle (c) Growing follicle Days LH surge triggers ovulation Corpus luteum Maturing follicle Follicular phase | | | 0 5 10 Ovulation | | 14 15 Degenerating corpus luteum Luteal phase | 20 | 25 | 28
  • 50. (d) Ovarian hormones in blood Estradiol Peak causes LH surge Progesterone Ovulation Estradiol level very low (e) Progesterone and estradiol promote thickening of endometrium Uterine (menstrual) cycle Endometrium Days Menstrual flow phase Proliferative phase | | | 0 5 10 Secretory phase | | 14 15 | 20 | 25 | 28
  • 51. I. THE OVARIAN CYCLE • THE RELEASE OF GNRH THEN FSH AND LH STIMULATES FOLLICLE GROWTH. • FOLLICLE GROWTH AND AN INCREASE IN THE HORMONE ESTRADIOL CHARACTERIZE THE FOLLICULAR PHASE OF THE OVARIAN CYCLE. • THE FOLLICULAR PHASE ENDS AT OVULATION, AND THE SECONDARY OOCYTE IS RELEASED. Animation: Ovulation
  • 52. • THE FOLLICULAR TISSUE LEFT BEHIND FORMS THE CORPUS LUTEUM; THIS IS THE LUTEAL PHASE • THE CORPUS LUTEUM DISINTEGRATES, AND OVARIAN LH AND FSH DECREASE. Animation: Post Ovulation
  • 53. II. THE UTERINE (MENSTRUAL) CYCLE • HORMONES COORDINATE THE UTERINE CYCLE WITH THE OVARIAN CYCLE. • A NEW CYCLE BEGINS IF NO EMBRYO IMPLANTS IN THE ENDOMETRIUM. • CELLS OF THE UTERINE LINING CAN SOMETIMES MIGRATE TO AN ABNORMAL, OR ECTOPIC, LOCATION. • SWELLING OF THESE CELLS IN RESPONSE TO HORMONE STIMULATION RESULTS IN A DISORDER CALLED ENDOMETRIOSIS.
  • 54. THE REPRODUCTIVE CELLS THE OVUM THE SPERMATOZOIDS
  • 55. FERTILIZATION • IT IS THE UNION OF A MALE GAMETE (SPERM) AND A FEMALE GAMETE (OVULE). • IN HUMANS, THIS FERTILIZATION IS INTERNAL: IT TAKES PLACE INSIDE THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM, IN THE FALLOPIAN TUBES. • THE UNION OF AN OVULE AND A SPERM IS WHAT WE CALL ZYGOTE.
  • 56. FERTILISATION Occurs when an ovum and sperm join and they create a cell called zygote. Return It is implanted in the wall of the uterus and it become an embryo.
  • 57. 6. CONCEPTION, EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, AND BIRTH • AN EGG DEVELOPS INTO AN EMBRYO IN A SERIES OF PREDICTABLE EVENTS 1. CONCEPTION • FERTILIZATION OF AN EGG BY A SPERM, OCCURS IN THE OVIDUCT • THE RESULTING ZYGOTE BEGINS TO DIVIDE BY MITOSIS IN A PROCESS CALLED CLEAVAGE. • THIS GIVES RISE TO A BLASTOCYST, A BALL OF CELLS WITH A CAVITY.
  • 58. 3 Cleavage Cleavage continues 4 Ovary 2 Fertilization The blastocyst implants 5 Uterus 1 Ovulation (a) From ovulation to implantation Endometrium Endometrium Inner cell mass Cavity Blastocyst (b) Implantation of blastocyst Trophoblast Formation of the zygote and early post-fertilization events
  • 59. •AFTER BLASTOCYST FORMATION, THE EMBRYO IMPLANTS INTO THE ENDOMETRIUM. •THE EMBRYO RELEASES HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (HCG), WHICH PREVENTS MENSTRUATION. •PREGNANCY, OR GESTATION, IS THE CONDITION OF CARRYING ONE OR MORE EMBRYOS IN THE UTERUS.
  • 60. 7. GESTATION: FIRST TRIMESTER • HUMAN GESTATION CAN BE DIVIDED INTO THREE TRIMESTERS OF ABOUT THREE MONTHS EACH. • THE FIRST TRIMESTER IS THE TIME OF MOST RADICAL CHANGE FOR BOTH THE MOTHER AND THE EMBRYO. • DURING IMPLANTATION, THE ENDOMETRIUM GROWS OVER THE BLASTOCYST.
  • 61. • DURING ITS FIRST 2 TO 4 WEEKS, THE EMBRYO OBTAINS NUTRIENTS DIRECTLY FROM THE ENDOMETRIUM. • MEANWHILE, THE OUTER LAYER OF THE BLASTOCYST, CALLED THE TROPHOBLAST, MINGLES WITH THE ENDOMETRIUM AND EVENTUALLY FORMS THE PLACENTA • BLOOD FROM THE EMBRYO TRAVELS TO THE PLACENTA THROUGH ARTERIES OF THE UMBILICAL CORD AND RETURNS VIA THE UMBILICAL VEIN
  • 62. Fig. 46-16 Placental circulation Maternal arteries Maternal veins Placenta Maternal portion of placenta Umbilical cord Chorionic villus, containing fetal capillaries Maternal blood pools Uterus Fetal arteriole Fetal venule Umbilical cord Fetal portion of placenta (chorion) Umbilical arteries Umbilical vein
  • 63. Fig. 46-16 Placental circulation Maternal arteries Maternal veins Placenta Maternal portion of placenta Umbilical cord Chorionic villus, containing fetal capillaries Maternal blood pools Uterus Fetal arteriole Fetal venule Umbilical cord Fetal portion of placenta (chorion) Umbilical arteries Umbilical vein
  • 64. Fig. 46-17 (a) 5 weeks (b) 14 weeks (c) 20 weeks
  • 65. GESTATION: SECOND TRIMESTER • DURING THE SECOND TRIMESTER: • THE FETUS GROWS AND IS VERY ACTIVE • THE MOTHER MAY FEEL FETAL MOVEMENTS • THE UTERUS GROWS ENOUGH FOR THE PREGNANCY TO BECOME OBVIOUS.
  • 66. GESTATION: THIRD TRIMESTER • DURING THE THIRD TRIMESTER, THE FETUS GROWS AND FILLS THE SPACE WITHIN THE EMBRYONIC MEMBRANES • HORMONES E.G. OXYTOCIN INDUCES AND REGULATES LABOUR, THE PROCESS BY WHICH CHILDBIRTH OCCURS
  • 67. Fig. 46-18 from ovaries Oxytocin + from fetus and mother’s posterior pituitary Positive feedback Estradiol Induces oxytocin receptors on uterus Stimulates uterus to contract Stimulates placenta to make Prostaglandins A model for the induction of labour Stimulate more contractions of uterus +
  • 68. Fig. 46-19-1 The three stages of labour Placenta Umbilical cord Uterus Cervix 1 Dilation of the cervix
  • 69. Fig. 46-19-2 2 Expulsion: delivery of the infant
  • 70. Fig. 46-19-3 Uterus Placenta (detaching) Umbilical cord 3 Delivery of the placenta
  • 71. • BIRTH IS BROUGHT ABOUT BY A SERIES OF STRONG, RHYTHMIC UTERINE CONTRACTIONS. • FIRST THE BABY IS DELIVERED, AND THEN THE PLACENTA. • LACTATION, THE PRODUCTION OF MILK, IS UNIQUE TO MAMMALS.
  • 72. 8. CONTRACEPTION AND ABORTION • CONTRACEPTION, THE DELIBERATE PREVENTION OF PREGNANCY. • CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS FALL INTO THREE CATEGORIES: 1. PREVENTING RELEASE OF EGGS AND SPERM 2. KEEPING SPERM AND EGG APART 3. PREVENTING IMPLANTATION OF AN EMBRYO
  • 73. THE RHYTHM METHOD, OR NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING, IS TO REFRAIN FROM INTERCOURSE WHEN CONCEPTION IS MOST LIKELY; IT HAS A PREGNANCY RATE OF 10–20%. I. II. COITUS INTERRUPTUS, THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE PENIS BEFORE EJACULATION, IS UNRELIABLE. III. BARRIER METHODS BLOCK FERTILIZATION WITH A PREGNANCY RATE OF LESS THAN 10% I. A CONDOM FITS OVER THE PENIS II. A DIAPHRAGM IS INSERTED INTO THE VAGINA BEFORE INTERCOURSE.
  • 74. IVINTRAUTERINE DEVICES ARE INSERTED INTO THE FERTILIZATION AND UTERUS AND INTERFERE WITH IMPLANTATION; THE PREGNANCY RATE IS LESS THAN 1% V. FEMALE BIRTH CONTROL PILLS ARE HORMONAL PREGNANCY RATE OF LESS THAN 1% VI. STERILIZATION IS PERMANENT AND PREVENTS THE RELEASE OF GAMETES: • TUBAL LIGATION TIES OFF THE OVIDUCTS. • VASECTOMY TIES OFF THE VAS DEFERENS. VII. ABORTION IS THE TERMINATION OF A PREGNANCY. CONTRACEPTIVES WITH A
  • 75. 9. MODERN REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES • WAYS OF DETECTING DISORDERS DURING PREGNANCY: a. AMNIOCENTESIS AND CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING ARE INVASIVE TECHNIQUES IN WHICH AMNIOTIC FLUID OR FETAL CELLS ARE OBTAINED FOR GENETIC ANALYSIS. b. NONINVASIVE PROCEDURES USUALLY USE ULTRASOUND IMAGING TO DETECT FETAL CONDITION c. GENETIC TESTING OF THE FETUS POSES ETHICAL QUESTIONS AND CAN PRESENT PARENTS WITH DIFFICULT DECISIONS.
  • 76. 10. TREATING INFERTILITY • MODERN TECHNOLOGY CAN PROVIDE INFERTILE COUPLES WITH ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: • IN VITRO FERTILIZATION (IVF) MIXES EGGS WITH SPERM IN CULTURE DISHES AND RETURNS THE EMBRYO TO THE UTERUS AT THE 8 CELL STAGE • SPERM ARE INJECTED DIRECTLY INTO AN EGG IN A TYPE OF IVF CALLED INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION (ICSI)
  • 77. REFERENCE LIST • ALEJITA0492 ON OCT 25, 201. HUMAN REPRODUCTION: HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/ALEJITA0492/HUMAN-REPRODUCTION-9866682 • BONAVAL81 ON DEC 01, 2013. HUMAN REPRODUCTION: HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/BONAVAL81/HUMAN-REPRODUCTION-28781095 • DAMARBE ON DEC 01, 201 .HUMAN REPRODUCTION : HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/DAMARBE/HUMAN-REPRODUCTION-28777697 • PHILISILE ZANELE MAGAGULA, S .UNIT 6 HUMAN REPRODUCTION : HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/ZANELE200/UNIT-6-HUMAN-REPRODUCTION-22551733 • PUTRI UNNARDI. HUMAN REPRODUCTION SYSTEM : HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/PUTRIMATTAU/2-HUMAN-REPRODUCTION-SYSTEM

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