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Information Seeking Jan 19 2012

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Information seeking January 19 2012, with "Grey Literature" slide added.

Information seeking January 19 2012, with "Grey Literature" slide added.

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  • 1. Information Seeking An overview of useful information resources Marina Englesakis, Information Specialist University Health Network January 19, 2012
  • 2. Where does information seeking start?
    • The Nebulous Question…
      • We are curious about obesity occurring in ethnic minorities and whether there is a role for public health to play
  • 3. A Research Question
    • In ethnic minorities with obesity, is public health an effective intervention?
  • 4. Components of a Good Question
    • Focussed, narrow, specific
    • Two or more elements
    • Phrased as a question
  • 5. Terms/Synonyms arising from the question -randomized controlled trials -controlled trials -clinical trials -multi-center studies -meta-analysis -preventive health -public health units -ethnic groups -minority groups -racial groups + -overweight -weight gain -superobese Alternative terms or Synonyms + Alternative terms or Synonyms + Alternative terms or Synonyms Effectiveness Public Health Ethnic minorities + Obesity
  • 6. Relationship of Terms Ethnic Groups + Obesity Public Health Effectiveness (RCTs, etc.) AND
  • 7. To proceed…
    • Question refined 
    • Terms & synonyms developed 
    • Relationships between terms established 
    • What source(s) of information to use?
  • 8. Not Google! Nor Google Scholar!
    • Not yet, anyway
    • Why?
    • The difference between a “search engine” and a bibliographic database
    • Google & Google Scholar are search engines
    • Databases have human intervention
      • We know what is being searched
      • We can control what we search
  • 9. Evaluating Web Sites
    • 1. ACCURACY
    •  is the information reliable and error-free?
    •  what are the author(s) sources?
    • 2. AUTHORITY
    •  who wrote the web page? is the page signed?
    •  what are the author’s qualifications?
    •  who sponsored the web site?
    • 3. OBJECTIVITY
    •  what are the goals of the author(s) or sponsor(s)?
    •  is the information free of bias?
    •  is it designed to sway opinion?
    •  is there advertising on the page?
    •  is it market-oriented? an infomercial?
    • 4. CURRENCY
    •  is the page dated?
    •  when was the last update?
    •  how current are the links?
    • 5. COVERAGE
    •  what topics are covered?
    •  how in-depth is the material?
    •  how useful is the material?
    •  do you need special software to access the information?
  • 10. Writing a Paper of “Publishable” Quality
    • Publishable quality – may have to meet the rigors of peer review.
  • 11. Peer Review of Journal Articles
    • Definition of “Peer Review” from MEDLINE:
      • An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
      • NOTE: professionals evaluating professionals
  • 12. Goals of Peer Review From: How to review journal manuscripts. Rosenfeld RM. Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery. 142(4):472-86, 2010 Apr. p. 473
  • 13. From: How to review a manuscript: a “down-to-earth” approach. Roberts LW. Coverdale J. Edenharder K. Louie A. Academic Psychiatry. 28(2):81-7, 2004. p. 82
  • 14. Back to Databases
    • Why start with databases?
      • Many have controlled vocabulary terms – makes it easier to search
      • Limit the universe from which you are drawing information, i.e. Google – covers billions of web pages, but we don’t know how extensively or of what quality; Google Scholar – won’t tell us the breadth and depth of access; Scholar is a subset of Google…
      • Databases tend to include peer-reviewed or at least edited journal material
  • 15. Back to Databases
    • Web of Science – 1899 (no controlled vocabulary)
    • Scopus / SciVerse – 1997 (with some older material (1960); no standardized controlled vocabulary)
    • Medline, 1946 –
    • Embase, 1974 –
    • CINAHL, 1982 – present
    • Cochrane Library (consists of 7 databases)
  • 16. Web of Science
    • Very expensive database, available from only very large research institutions like the University of Toronto
    • Covers 10,000 journals in the sciences, social sciences, arts, and humanities
    • Goes back to 1899 (for some disciplines)
    • Includes conference proceedings
    • Global coverage
    • Provides citation searching functions
  • 17. Scopus / SciVerse
    • “… is the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature.” (from their web site)
    • Contains over 41 million records, 70% with abstracts
    • Nearly 18,000 titles from 5,000 publishers worldwide
    • 70% of content is pulled from international sources
    • Includes over 3 million conference papers
    • NB: SciVerse “goes back to 1823 issues of The Lancet”, so there is some very old material included in it.
  • 18. Medline
    • Medline, 1946-
    • From the National Library of Medicine, USA
    • Premier biomedical database for North America
    • Bibliographic (citation) database only (not full text)
    • Over 20 million citations
    • 4,700 journals indexed
    • 97% citations are peer-reviewed
    • Available via various interfaces, including PubMed and OvidSP
  • 19. Embase
    • Commercial database (not national like Medline)
    • European / Asian in focus
    • Larger database than Medline (24 million citations)
    • “… 7,500 mostly peer reviewed journals” (including 2,400 journals not found in Medline)
    • Very strong in drug literature
    • Very strong in alternative medicine literature
    • The indexing is very different than that of Medline
    • Depending upon the topic, there may be 25-75% overlap between Embase and Medline
  • 20. Where to find these and related databases?
    • The best, one-stop source is the U of T’s Gerstein Science Information web page
    • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/gerstein
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. Scroll down
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  • 28.  
  • 29. How a search takes shape…
    • An example using our research question and the Medline OvidSP database
  • 30.  
  • 31. Search Results Article title Journal Title Author(s)
  • 32. What to do with Citations?
    • Citation management software
      • Free from U of T: RefWorks (web based)
      • Student priced software (U of T Bookstore):
        • EndNote X5 ($86; PC and Mac)
        • Reference Manager 12 ($86; PC only)
      • Zotero ( www.zotero.org ) open source file management system
      • Mendeley ( www.mendeley.com ) open source reference management system
  • 33. Citation Management Software
    • What can it do for me?
      • It makes your life easier!
      • Keeps your citations in your own database for future use
      • Works with your word processing software to add citations to your manuscripts
      • Can automatically format your manuscript’s citations in the format appropriate for the journal to which you are submitting your manuscript.
  • 34. Grey Literature
    • Searching for the grey (gray) literature is a challenge. Grey lit can be any type of report, white paper, analysis, etc., that will not appear in a research database.
    • There is a document available from the CADTH web site:  http://www.cadth.ca/en/resources/grey-matters that helps with searching 'grey literature' resources. 
    • There is a list provided by the Cochrane Collaboration that may be of assistance:  http://www.cochrane.org/handbook/6218-grey-literature-databases
    • Lastly, a Canadian librarian at UBC has pulled together a helpful page:   http://toby.library.ubc.ca/subjects/subjpage2.cfm?id=877 with 10 categories of 'grey' literature sources.
  • 35. The Purpose of Libraries?
    • To enlighten and educate
    • To support and advance education and research
    • To help you with your information needs!
  • 36. When to Consult a librarian?
    • Once you have developed your question
    • Once you have tried to run some searches yourself, and haven’t found anything relevant
    • Once you find that you would like to learn more about searching databases effectively
    • But definitely before you are ready to call it quits!
  • 37. U of T Libraries – Gerstein Science Information Centre
    • There are many ways to contact librarians at Gerstein:
      • From the “Public Health” guide page, contact the librarian listed there
      • An online chat option
      • [email_address]
      • Reference & Information Desk (416) 978-2280
      • Walk in – don’t be shy!
  • 38. http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/deed.en Don’t drown in the sea of information – get help from your library!
  • 39. Thank you!