Sustainable coffee certifications - A comparision on matrix


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Sustainable coffee certifications - A comparision on matrix

  1. 1. Sustainable Coffee Certifications A Comparison Matrix Created by the SCAA Sustainability Committee (2009) Certification / Organic Fair Trade Rainforest Smithsonian 4C Utz Certified Verification Certified Alliance Bird Friendly® Common Code Create a verified Support a better life for Integrate biodiversity Conduct research and UTZ CERTIFIED’s Achieve global sustainable agriculture farming families in the conservation, community education around issues mission is to achieve leadership as the system that produces developing world through development, workers’ of neo-tropical migratory sustainable agricultural baseline initiative that food in harmony with fair prices, direct trade, rights and productive bird populations, supply chains, where: enhances economic, nature, supports community development agricultural practices to promoting certified shade Producers are social and environmental biodiversity and and environmental ensure comprehensive coffee as a viable professionals production, processing enhances soil health. stewardship. sustainable farm supplemental habitat for implementing good and trading conditions to management. birds and other practices which enable all who make a living in organisms. better businesses, the coffee sector. livelihoods and Mission environments; The Food industry takes responsibility by demanding and rewarding sustainably grown products; Consumers buy products which meet their standard for social and environmental responsibility. All markets All markets Global, with special All markets Mainstream and Mainstream market emphasis on N. America, Specialty (ambition: vast majority Market Focus Europe, Japan, and of coffee market) Australia Trace back to 19th century Began as Max Havelaar Begun in 1992 by Founded in 1997 with Begun in 1997 as Begun in 2003 as public- practices formulated in in the Netherlands in the Rainforest Alliance and a criteria based on initiative from industry private partnership England, India, and the US. 1970s. Now the coalition of Latin scientific fieldwork. and producers in project by the coffee First certification 1967. German-based Fairtrade American NGOs, the Operated out of the Guatemala; Utz Kapeh industry and the German History and Labelling Organizations Sustainable Agriculture SMBC office initially, it became an independent development cooperation Development Developed into internationally recognized International (FLO) Network (SAN). First currently involves 14 NGO in 2000. First to initiate a multi- system with production collaborates with more coffee farm certification organic certification certified farms in 2001. In stakeholder dialogue for throughout the world. * The than twenty national in 1996. The Rainforest agencies as the eventual 2008, Utz Kapeh defining a mainstream organic coffee sector branches throughout the Alliance CertifiedTM managers of the changed its name to Utz code of conduct for world, including program requires that Certified – Good Inside sustainability: The 4CPage 1Last updated: 4/14/2009By: Adam Kline
  2. 2. Sustainable Coffee Certifications A Comparison Matrix Created by the SCAA Sustainability Committee (2009) Certification / Organic Fair Trade Rainforest Smithsonian 4C Utz Certified Verification Certified Alliance Bird Friendly® Common Code represented nearly 3 TransFair USA. farms meet program. to encompass more Association was founded percent of the total U.S. TransFair USA has been comprehensive diverse agricultural as an international green coffee imports in administering the Fair standards covering all commodities including membership association 2007* Trade Certified label aspects of production, cocoa, tea, soy, and in December 2006. since 1998. the protection of the palm oil. Operational in market environment, and the since coffee year 07/08 rights and welfare of farm families and their local communities. Certifiers and farmer The first Fair Trade 1980s farm-based A number of scientific Field-based adaptation of Multistakeholder groups began organic codes grew out of research by SAN studies in southern EuropGap standard. Now adaptation of existing certification process Solidaridad movement in scientists and farmers, Mexico, Guatemala and officially GlobalGap codes which resulted in a around 1967.* The Netherlands. FLO, field-testing, and Peru during the 1990s. equivalent plus. ILO baseline Code of the Rainforest Alliance involvement of all Recent studies in Labor standards. Conduct, Rules of and SAN, Social relevant stakeholders. Ecuador and Mexico Participation for Trade Code Founders Accountability support the criteria as and Industry members, a International and IFOAM being highly protective of Verification System, worked together to biodiversity and providing Support Services and a improve social standards refuge for biodiversity. participatory democratic and auditing practices governance structure for decision making. Organic Farming and Economic and Sustainable farm Certification aimed at the Sustainability: Economic Exclude worst practices processing practices. environmental management in most production area of the performance through and continuously sustainability for farmers holistic sense – social, coffee agroecosystem. productivity and farm increase the and their communities. environmental, economic professionalism; sustainability of coffee Minimum price and social and, ethical (Future development of environmental standards production and premium to cover costs improvements are the program may address to preserve flora fauna processing in the Scope of the of production and cornerstones of the shade, buffer zones; economic, social and Program the landscape mosaic as community-elected program. well.) Worker Health and environmental development programs. Safety. dimension. Organic premium for organic coffees. The model empowers small- farmers organized into democratically-runPage 2Last updated: 4/14/2009By: Adam Kline
  3. 3. Sustainable Coffee Certifications A Comparison Matrix Created by the SCAA Sustainability Committee (2009) Certification / Organic Fair Trade Rainforest Smithsonian 4C Utz Certified Verification Certified Alliance Bird Friendly® Common Code cooperatives to compete on a global scale. Environmental, farm Social, economic, The Rainforest Alliance Biophysical criteria of the Socially, environmentally, Economic, social and production and environmental, CertifiedTM program is shade component, and economically environmental dimension processing standards. democratic organization based on the provided that the farm is conscious growing of cooperatives. fundamental principles of certified organic. standards. sustainable agriculture including: bestCode Elements for management practices;Coffee Production conservation of natural resources, ecosystems and wildlife; workers rights and benefits; and benefits to local communities. Federal standard with Baseline and progress More than 200 criteria Organic certification as a Baseline criteria with 10 Unacceptable practices for producers criteria. Continuous (checkpoints); Field- condition for BF field-tested indicators Practices and 30 and handlers applies to all improvement required tested indicators. Applies certification. Certification and independent, third- Baseline criteria with 90 organic product sold in US. through Progress to farms and coops of all applicable to estate party auditing. Applies to field-tested indicators; Similar but unique Requirements. Applies to sizes. Continuous farms and cooperatives. farms and coops of all Participation possible standards are applied democratically organized improvement required. Inspection linked to sizes. All countries with “average yellow”, internationally. cooperatives formed by organic inspection, but possible. Continuous continuous improvement small-scale farmers. only every three years. improvement required. towards “green” required.Scope of the Code Applies to farms and to production structures of all sizes. Minimum capacity of “4C Unit” = 1 container of green coffee. Every country. “Stepping stone function” to provide easier access to certification/marketing schemes for producers.Page 3Last updated: 4/14/2009By: Adam Kline
  4. 4. Sustainable Coffee Certifications A Comparison Matrix Created by the SCAA Sustainability Committee (2009) Certification / Organic Fair Trade Rainforest Smithsonian 4C Utz Certified Verification Certified Alliance Bird Friendly® Common Code Part of many certifiers’ Provided by TransFair Provided by local NGO Continual provision of Provided by the program Support to 4C Units, role. Organic research USA for specific projects partners (Sustainable training workshops to at very low cost to members and other federally and privately through its Global Agriculture Network), organic inspectors, NGO producers in alliance with interested stakeholders funded by non-profits Producer Services extensionists trained by staff, cooperative other initiatives like the through training-of-trainer and NGOs. department, and by FLO the program, and by technicians, and Coffee Support Network workshops, educational (Fair Trade Labelling collaborating institutions. government (CSN). Technical sessions and access to SCAN perhaps the most Organizations (TA and auditing are kept representatives. assistance providers are tools & manuals; project Technical well-known Technical International) worldwide separate.) trained by Utz Certified facilitation; cooperation Assistance and Assistance and Capacity through its Producer and are available world- with other national andCapacity Building provider network – for all Business Unit. FLO wide. international systems, not just Liaison officers located in organizations and organic. most of the countries to between members of the support producer 4C Association. Regional organizations. (Technical Offices in mayor coffee assistance and audit are regions. kept separately.) Annual inspections for Annual inspections by At least annual audits by Every three years, linked Independent auditors Independent auditors certified entities. USDA independent and teams of biologists, to organic inspection. accredited to ISO 65 accredited to ISO 65 accreditation required for annually trained Fair agronomists, sociologists Inspection/certification standard. 10 % standards and trained by certifiers of organic Trade inspectors. and other specialists arranged/provided by a shadow/surprise audits. 4C. Inspection product sold in US. trained, authorized and USDA-accredited organic Audits done annually. Frequency and monitored by the certification agency. Free tri-annual Accreditation Rainforest Alliance verifications for “4C Units”; free addendum verifications possible. Annual Self Assessment. Business to consumer. Strong promotional Business to business Business to consumer; Business to business Business to business. Backed by Federal efforts to consumers and and consumer marketing, business to business. and on-product labeling No product claim, seal or Governments. Consumer businesses through communications, and Popular, trade, and on-product labeling. Communication groups, suppliers, and awareness campaigns, media outreach academic articles. Membership statement and Promotion some certifiers media and on-product undertaken by RA staff. on pack possible. communicate benefits to labeling. Business to business, consumers. on-product labeling andPage 4Last updated: 4/14/2009By: Adam Kline
  5. 5. Sustainable Coffee Certifications A Comparison Matrix Created by the SCAA Sustainability Committee (2009) Certification / Organic Fair Trade Rainforest Smithsonian 4C Utz Certified Verification Certified Alliance Bird Friendly® Common Code off-product promotion backed by the Rainforest Alliance. Yes, required by USDA Yes, traceable from Yes, traceable from Yes, traceable from Yes, traceable from Identity preservation from National Organic roaster to producer. roaster to producer; roaster to producer. roaster to producer roaster to container level Program. Organic transparency ensured via following supply chain (“4C Unit”). Traceability/ products traceable from mandatory transaction roles. Identity preservedChain of Custody retailer to producer. certificates. and mass balance Traceable from 4C Unit functionality. Audited to producer. chain-of-custody for logo users. Yes, except handlers Yes, in fact all major Yes, engages all actors Yes. Farms are certified; Yes, rules for Yes, membership who do not further actors must be registered in supply chain, from actors further down participation and chain of association with rules of process and retailers. with the program. producer to retailer. commodity chain are custody participation Rules/regulations for registered and bound by Addresses All participation for actors written contracts. Actors in the along the chain include Chain mandatory transaction certificates, license agreements, and seal approvals by Seal Approval Committee. Yes. Premiums versus Yes, this is the heart of Yes. Differential is Growers have used BF Yes. Differential set by No influence on non organic certified the program. All negotiated between seal to obtain 5-10 cents the markets. Feedback mainstream market price coffees are paid to purchases must be at or buyer and seller. more per pound, over on market information of mechanisms: Free farmers. above the Fairtrade and above what they get differentials and demand negotiation between 4C Minimum Price as set for organic, with as much per quality provided to members. Price shouldPrice Differential by FLO (price varies by as an 18% “plus” in one members. reflect coffee quality and to Farmers coffee type and origin). If long-term arrangement. sustainable production the market price is Importers/roasters report practices. higher than the Fairtrade seal tends to increase Minimum Price, buyers the speed of circulation shall pay the market of commodity. price. Additionally,Page 5Last updated: 4/14/2009By: Adam Kline
  6. 6. Sustainable Coffee Certifications A Comparison Matrix Created by the SCAA Sustainability Committee (2009) Certification / Organic Fair Trade Rainforest Smithsonian 4C Utz Certified Verification Certified Alliance Bird Friendly® Common Code buyers must pay a social premium of USD$0.10¢ per pound and, when applicable, a minimum Organic Differential of USD$0.20¢ per pound. Vary by certifier. Cost of auditing, re- Cost of auditing plus an Per diem cost of added Zero from UTZ, auditing Yearly membership fees Inspection costs drive up inspection fees annual fee based on days at time of fees only for all actors along the costs but are being farm size. Group inspection, plus a chain according to size reduced and increased certification options minimal symbolic charge and position in chain:Fees to Producers coverage provided by improve access for for the certificate (as producer’s fee is regional in-country smallholders. Auditing growers are already smallest. Free verification certifiers. fees often paid for by paying for the organic and trainings buyers. inspection). Certification costs vary Importers are not Currently, no fees Importers pay $100 per USD$0.012 per pound to Yearly membership fees by certifier. Fees ranging charged a licensing fee, charged to buyers of yr. to participate/use BF “first buyer”, passed on for all actors along the from $700 to $3000/year. but they must pay at Rainforest Alliance logo/term. Roasters pay through supply chain to chain according to size least the Fair Trade CertifiedTM coffee. Many USD$0.25¢ per pound final buyer and position in chain: Minimum and provide up buyers support the on coffee roasted and roaster’s fees are the to 60% of pre-harvest participating farms (see sold as “Bird Friendly®”. highest. financing when above). (This royalty fee under Fees to Buyers requested by re-evaluation as of cooperatives. Licensed 2008/2009.) roasters pay TransFair USA USD$0.10¢ per pound to cover the cost of audits, consumer awareness campaigns and FLO affiliation. Average price Minimum price of USD The Rainforest Alliance USD $0.05-0.10¢ per 2008: USD$0.07¢ per No; individual negotiation Price Premium differentials of USD $1.25* per pound plus a CertifiedTM program does pound pound possible between 4C Associated with $0.255¢ (+/-) per pound $0.10¢ per pound social not set prices, but honors average for Arabica: $56 members Code are paid to producers. premium. An extra the farmers’ right to per metric ton for USD$0.20¢ premium if manage their own Robusta, based onPage 6Last updated: 4/14/2009By: Adam Kline
  7. 7. Sustainable Coffee Certifications A Comparison Matrix Created by the SCAA Sustainability Committee (2009) Certification / Organic Fair Trade Rainforest Smithsonian 4C Utz Certified Verification Certified Alliance Bird Friendly® Common Code the coffee is also certified business affairs and quality and market organic. *Fair Trade gives them the tools drivers Minimum for washed required to succeed in Arabica. Prices vary by the global marketplace. coffee type. Farmers earn more through gains in efficiency, improved quality and controlling farm costs. 81 million pounds of 450 million pounds Over 94 million lbs 9 million pounds 700 million pounds 4.57 million bags verified organic coffee were certified in 2005 and worldwide certified worldwide. 170 in coffee year 2007/2008Pounds Certified imported into the United over 197 million lbs. million purchased as Utz (548 million pounds) in 2007/2008 States and Canada in certified by 2007. Certified 2007 US, Canada, EU, US, Canada, EU, Japan, From Singapore to US, Canada, Japan, The US, UK, NL, Norway, Countries of operation of Russia, Japan Australia, New Zealand Switzerland, Rainforest Netherlands Sweden, Belgium, Spain, 4C Industry members Countries of Alliance CertifiedTM France, Japan Consumption coffee is consumed in 44 countries on 6 different continents. More than 40 nations Bolivia, Brazil, Rainforest Alliance Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Guatemala, Honduras, Brazil, Cameroon, supplying the global Cameroon, Colombia, CertifiedTM coffee is Rica, Ecuador, El Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cote d’Ivoire, market – more than any Congo, Costa Rica, produced in 17 countries Salvador, Ethiopia, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, other certification. Dominican Republic, throughout the tropics: Guatemala, Mexico, Birundi, Brazil, Peru, Ethiopia, Guatemala, East Timor, Ecuador, El Brazil, Colombia, Costa Peru, Venezuela Ethiopia, Kenya, Honduras, India, Countries of Salvador, Ethiopia, Rica, Ecuador, El Tanzania, Uganda, Indonesia, Kenya, Origin Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Ethiopia, Zambia, India, Indonesia, Malawi, Mexico, Represented Indonesia, Kenya, Laos, Guatemala, Honduras, Vietnam Nicaragua, Papua New Mexico, Nicaragua, Indonesia, Jamaica, Guinea, Peru, Papua New Guinea, Mexico, Nicaragua, Philippines, Tanzania, Peru, Rwanda, Tanzania, Panama, Peru, Thailand, Uganda, Thailand, Uganda. Tanzania, Vietnam, Vietnam, ZambiaPage 7Last updated: 4/14/2009By: Adam Kline
  8. 8. Sustainable Coffee Certifications A Comparison Matrix Created by the SCAA Sustainability Committee (2009) Certification / Organic Fair Trade Rainforest Smithsonian 4C Utz Certified Verification Certified Alliance Bird Friendly® Common Code Venezuela Uganda, and India. Organic Trade Transfair USA Rainforest Alliance Smithsonia Migratory Utz Certified http://www.4c- Association www.rainforest- Bird Center, Contact: Illana Burk Information Contact: Katie Barrow Contact: Robert Rice Contact: Annette Pensel Provided by: Contact: Danielle Contact: Petra Tanos GiovannuciPage 8Last updated: 4/14/2009By: Adam Kline