BASICS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRESENT TENSE BE, DEMONSTRATIVES, POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES, PRESENT CONTINOUS, CAN, PREPOSITIONS FIRST BIMESTER
PRESENT TENSE BE
The verb BE has three forms: AM, IS, ARE , which we have to use according to the pronoun or subject.
TO BE Occupations Nouns Adjectives Places
AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES They are doctors. ARE They We are friends. ARE We It is a city. IS It She is my sister. IS She He is in the lab. IS He You are a student. ARE You I am a teacher . AM I Example Verb Form Subject
You can make negative sentences similar to the sentences before. The only different is to add NOT after am, is, are, as you can see in the following chart.
She is not sad They are not in the school
NEGATIVE SENTENCES We ’re not = We aren’t You ’re not = You aren’t They ’re not = They aren’ t We You are not They He `s not = He isn’t She ’s not = She isn’t It ’s not = It isn’t He She is not It I `m not I am not
YES / NO QUESTIONS
In English we have to kind of questions: Yes/No questions and Wh-questions.
The Yes / No Questions are called that because the answers always start with Yes or No
Remember to answer Yes/No questions you have to pay attention to the subject.
YES / NO QUESTIONS are Are is Is Mary tall and thin. Mary tall and thin? Yes, she is / No, she isn’t Yes, she is tall and thin. / No, she is not tall and thin Affirmative Statement: Yes / No question: Short Answers: Full /Complete Answers: John and Peter students. John and Peter students? Yes, they are / No, they aren’t Yes, they are students. / No they are not students. Affirmative Statement: Yes / No question: Short Answers: Full /Complete Answers:
WH - QUESTIONS
The wh-questions look for information accoding to the question word.
In this kind of questions you never answer Yes or No, because they are asking for some information. The answer is a statement with the information according to the question word.
WH - QUESTIONS How are you? I am sad. How is Loja? It is small. State Form / manner How Where is he? In the house. Places Where Who is the director of the school? Carlos Samaniego. People Who What is this? It is a book. What is your name? Roberth. What do you do? I am a driver. What is he doing? He’s working Things Name Occupations Activities What Example Information about… Wh-word
REVIEW Are they doctors? Are we friends? Is it a city? Is she my sister? Is he in the lab? Are you a student? Am I a teacher? Yes/No Question They are not doctors. We are not friends. It is not a city. She is not my sister. He is not in the lab. You are not a student. I am not a teacher. Negative Statements Yes, they are / No they are not They are doctors. Yes, we are / No, we are not We are friends. Yes, it is / No, it is not It is a city. Yes, she is / No, she is not She is my sister. Yes, he is / No, he is not He is in the lab. Yes, I am / No, I am not You are a student. Yes, you are / No, you are not I am a teacher. Short Answers Statement
DEMONSTRATIVES We use THIS / THESE when the objects are near to the speaker. This is a blackboard These are papers THIS +Singular Nouns THESE + Plural Nouns
DEMONSTRATIVES We use THAT / THOSE when the objects are far from the speakers. That is a lake. Those are mountains THAT + Singular Nouns THOSE + Plural Nouns
What is that?
That is an airplane.
Is that a bird?
No, it is an airplane.
What are those?
Those are books
Are those books?
Yes, they are books.
PLURAL NOUNS cat - cats face - faces day – days Add -s most others fly - flies try - tries curry – curries Change y to i then Add –es consonant + y boss - bosses tax - taxes bush - bushes Add -es s, x, ch or sh Examples Forming the plural Noun ending
IRREGULAR PLURAL potato - potatoes tomato - tomatoes volcano - volcanoes Add –es Ends with - o half - halves wolf - wolves loaf - loaves Change f to v then Add –es Ends with –f knife - knives life - lives wife - wives Change f to v then Add –s Ends with -fe Examples Forming the plural Noun type
IRREGULAR PLURAL sheep deer fish (sometimes) Singular and plural are the same Unchanging man - men foot - feet child - children person - people tooth - teeth mouse - mice Change the vowel or Change the word or Add a different ending ALL KINDS Examples Forming the plural Noun type
She Her +
They Their NOUN
POSSESSIVE ADJTECTIVES This is our house Her pants are blue His shirt is new This is her cat
POSSESSIVE FORM ‘S Kevin’s wife is Rose. His wife is Rose. Charlie’s book is black. The Child’s mother is happy
PREPOSITION OF PLACE At the bus station at home At the door at the top At work at the end of AT (lugar específico) On a shelf on a wall On a plate on the table On a balcony on a door ON (sobre una superficie) In the house in a shop In a room in a town In a car in a garden IN (dentro de)
The present continous tense is used to describe activities that happen now, that means activities that are develop in the moment of speaking
Sing ing Are We You They Sing ing Is He She It Sing ing Am I -ING FORM BE Subject
PRESENT CONTINOUS They are not studying We are not walking It is not running She is not reading He is not sleeping You are not eating I am not dancing NEGATIVE Are they studying? They are studying Are we walking? We are walking Is it running? It is running Is she reading? She is reading Is he sleeping? He is sleeping Are you eating? You are eating Am I dancing? I am dancing YES/NO QUESTIONS AFFIRMATIVE
RULES coming lose - losing live – living Remove E, then add –ING come 1 vowel + 1 consonant + E - swim - swimming hit - hitting get – getting Double the consonant, then add –ING 1 vowel + 1 consonant Examples How to make the -ING form Verb ending in... say - saying go - going walk - walking Add –ING [anything else]
CAN / CAN’T
Can is used to show ability
They can dance He can’t play the piano He can play football He can swim He can skate
NEGATIVE AND QUESTIONS Can they walk ? Can we sing? Can it run? Can she swim? Can he play? Can you dance? Can I cook? YES/NO QUESTIONS Yes, they can / No, they can’t Yes, we can / No, we can’t Yes, it can / No, it can’t Yes, she can / No, she can’t Yes, he can / No, he can`t Yes I can / No I can’t Yes, you can / No,you can´t SHORT ANSWERS They can not walk We can not sing It can not run She can not swim He can not play You can not dance I can not cook NEGATIVE They can walk We can sing It can run She can swim He can play You can dance I can cook AFFIRMATIVE