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Typologies

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Presentation about architectural and civil engineering shapes by Cristina Contreras (Architectural Engineer) and Xosé Manuel Carreira (Civil Engineer). Presentation at UNED (Spanish Open University).

Presentation about architectural and civil engineering shapes by Cristina Contreras (Architectural Engineer) and Xosé Manuel Carreira (Civil Engineer). Presentation at UNED (Spanish Open University).

Published in Design , Business , Technology
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  • 1. TYPOLOGIES: The shapes of the built environment
  • 2. 1. Introduction to architectural technology2. Ancient construction shapes 2.1. Beams and columns 2.2. Pyramids 2.3 Arches3. Case Study: Alhambra palace4. New construction shapes 4.1 Trusses 4.2 Cables 4.3 Shells5. Case study: Guggenheim Bilbao museum6. How will buildings look like in the future?7. Debate
  • 3. ARCHITECTURE.The professional service rendered by architects is known asarchitecture. It is basically the science and art ofconceptualizing, designing, and constructing buildings andother structures either for human shelter or for other purposes suchas storage, production, entertainment, or exhibition. Often,famous works of architecture have been identified as culturalsymbols and also as works of art. Many historical civilizationshave also been made famous due to their architecturaluniqueness.
  • 4. ARCHITECTURE. ORIGIN AND HISTORY .INDEX• Basic survival needs. (architecture took the form of a craft).•The early civilizations saw the splendid architecture of the Egyptians,Mesopotamians, Persians, Greek, and Romans.• Architecture as a religious symbol. (Roman Coliseum and the EgyptianPyramids) .•The medieval period: saw the emergence of Islamic architecture.•The Renaissance period: emphasized on the individual and humanity.•The early modern and the industrial age saw the emergence of newmaterials and technology. (Everyday needs).•The concept of environmental sustainability.
  • 5. ARCHITECTURE. ORIGIN AND HISTORY (I)The earliest known form of architecture evolved from theinteraction between the basic survival needs and the availableresources. Through the process of trial and error and gradualtechnological evolution and progress with the help of improvisationand replication, architecture took the form of a craft.The gradual progress from rural living to the urban area saw themagnificence of architecture, and how it has been developed alonghistory.The early civilizations saw the splendid architecture of theEgyptians, Mesopotamians, Persians, Greek, and Romans,each with its own distinct style. In Asia, architecture, sometimes,was developed along religious lines with different characteristics.The Roman Coliseum and the Egyptian Pyramids are examples oftheir cultural symbols.
  • 6. ARCHITECTURE. ORIGIN AND HISTORY (II)The medieval period saw the emergence of Islamicarchitecture which also influenced European styles of that period.The Renaissance period emphasized on the individual andhumanity instead of religion and buildings were dedicated to thearchitects such as Michelangelo, Palladio, Alberti, and Brunelleschi.The early modern and the industrial age saw the emergenceof new materials and technology and the architects started to getformal education and training starting from the drawing board. The industrial revolution at this stage helped the production ofbetter quality materials for construction purposes.
  • 7. ARCHITECTURE. ORIGIN AND HISTORY (III)The modern age viewed structural design as a convenient blendof art, craft, and technology. Emphasis shifted from historicalstyles, to a new style that focused on the aspirations of the middleand working classes.The modernist architects reduced buildings to pure form withfunctionalist details based on everyday needs of people andcreating a livable environment.The concept of environmental sustainability has nowpervaded architectural thought and most modern architects and NewZealand have pioneered the integration of green buildingsustainable design principles into their architectural projects.
  • 8. TECHNOLOGY APPLIED TO ARCHITECTURE IN THEEARLIEST AGES (I)Along the history, we can see many examples of technology appliedto architecture in different civilizations , but unfortunately we donot have a lot of information about them.An example are Egyptians , The pyramids are chiefly impressive fortheir enormous size and the staggering manpower that must havebeen employed in their construction. Of these the largest is the GreatPyramid of Giza which remained the tallest structure in the worldfor 3800 years.
  • 9. TECHNOLOGY APPLIERD TO ARCHITECTURE IN THEEARLIEST AGES (II)The methods used in the construction of the pyramids have beenthe subject of considerable research and discussion. The Egyptians achieved extraordinary feats of engineering, theyappear to have done so with relatively primitive technology. As faras is known they did not use wheels or pulleys.They transported massive stones over great distances using rollers,ropes, and sledges, with large numbers of slaves hauling the loads.There are no surviving Egyptian manuals so there has beenconsiderable speculation on how stones were lifted to great heightsand obelisks erected. Most theories centre around the use of ramps.
  • 10. TECHNOLOGY APPLIED TO ARCHITECTURE IN THEEARLIEST AGES (III)Some years later we have other examples of development of greattechnologies applied to construction.In the Roman ages, Vitruvius gives details of Roman machines.The Romans developed sophisticated timber cranes allowing themto lift considerable weights to great heights.A list of the longest, highest and deepest Roman structures can befound at List of ancient architectural records.Roman building ingenuity extended over bridges, aqueducts, andcovered amphitheatres. Their sewerage and water supply workswere remarkable and some systems are still in operation today.
  • 11. 1. Introduction to architectural technology2. Ancient construction shapes 2.1. Beams and columns 2.2. Pyramids 2.3 Arches3. Case Study: Alhambra palace4. New construction shapes 4.1 Trusses 4.2 Cables 4.3 Shells5. Case study: Guggenheim Bilbao museum6. How will buildings look like in the future?7. Debate
  • 12. Simple beam bridge: stone slabs on stone supports (Dorset, England)
  • 13. BEAM AND COLUMN (I)In the Neolithic period, the first bridges made by humanswere probably wooden logs or stone slabs placed across ariver stream.The first buildings were simple shelters meant to suit thebasic needs of protection from the elements, built by theirinhabitants.The most used materials were the mud brick,wood (timber) and stone (masonry).The set of beam and pillars is the simplest solution theNeolithic man imagined.
  • 14. Beam-and-column scheme is the 2nd simplest typology.
  • 15. BEAM AND COLUMN (II)The architecture and urbanism of the Greeks were verydifferent from those of the Neolithic but the structuralscheme of beam supported by columns is the same.Building structures used a simple beam and column systemwithout vaults or arches, which imposed strict limits on thespans that could be achieved. Although Greekmathematics was technically advanced the Ancient Greeksnever developed strong mortars or used arches and domesto their limit which were an important feature of morepractical Roman construction.
  • 16. Age of the pyramidsA pyramid is like a mountain, and it is the simplestand most stable shape.
  • 17. PYRAMIDSBoth Egyptian and Incan architectures are mostly noted fortheir pyramids which are the largest in the world and try toimitate the natural shape of the mountains. Due to thestable shape and the sophisticated skills of the stone cuttersthe masonry needs no mortar.The pyramids are impressive for their enormous size andthe manpower that must have been employed in theirconstruction.Of these the largest is the Great Pyramid of Giza whichremained the tallest structure in the world for 3800 years.
  • 18. The Age of the Cathedrals The Romanic cathedral-Reduced space, little light and small windows-Buttress leans outward, arch deforms andfoundation deforms.
  • 19. Córdoba Mosque (IX) León Cathedral (XIII)
  • 20. ARCHESRomanesque buildings were entirely roofed in timber orhad stone barrel vaults covered by timber roofs: spanswere narrow and walls did not allow ample windows. TheGothic style of architecture with its vaults, flyingbuttresses and pointed gothic arches developed in thetwelfth century to provide wider spans and galleries to theurban churches: the cathedrals.The resulting thin stone vaults and towering buildingswere raised entirely using rules derived by trial and errorand failures were frequent.
  • 21. 1. Introduction to architectural technology2. Ancient construction shapes 2.1. Beams and columns 2.2. Pyramids 2.3 Arches3. Case Study: Alhambra palace4. New construction shapes 4.1 Trusses 4.2 Cables 4.3 Shells5. Case study: Guggenheim Bilbao museum6. How will buildings look like in the future?7. Debate
  • 22. EXAMPLE: ALHAMBRA (I) General view Court of the Myrtles (Arrayanes)
  • 23. EXAMPLE: ALHAMBRA (II) Generalife Water supply of Arrayanes
  • 24. EXAMPLE: ALHAMBRA (III) The fountain of the lions
  • 25. EXAMPLE: ALHAMBRA (IV)Literally "the red one”, is a palace and fortress complex constructedduring the mid 14th century by the Moorish rulers of the Emirateof Granada in Al- Andalus, occupying the top of the hill of theAssabica on the southeastern border of the city of Granada inAndalusia.In this building we can see a great example of technology appliedto architecture in our country. Its water supply- system was built,to create the necessary water supplies needed for the Alhambrassurvival.
  • 26. EXAMPLE: ALHAMBRA (V)
  • 27. EXAMPLE: ALHAMBRA (VI)In 1238 AD, a six-kilometer water channel was constructed theacequia real: the royal canal.•Water was taken at the point of the Toma de la Acequia: thecapture point of the canal.•Water traversed countryside till it reached an old waterwheel,which created the dynamic-power to convey the water, across theaqueduct, at Cortijo Jesus del Valle, in the Darro valley•From there, water travelled on the flats of the Llano del Perdiz,parallel to the Darro River
  • 28. EXAMPLE: ALHAMBRA (VII)•Later, the acequia real was spread out, in order to supply water tothe Generalife and the high fields of the Generalife•The water path purposely forked, in order for water to descendthrough the emblematic Escalera de Agua: Water Staircasefurther down, it reunited, with the Generalifes lower flow•The water paths continued and descended...•Water was entered into the Alhambra, crossing over to theTorre de Agua aqueduct (above the Camino de los Chinos).•From this point on - the Alhambra, its vast cisterns and theoriginal Alcazaba were supplied with the precious liquid.Moorish Hydrology Technology had been successful
  • 29. EXAMPLE: ALHAMBRA (VIII)A vast albercon: large pool was constructed on the highest slopeThe water then was entered inside the hill by means of ahorizontally-pierced underground passageThree wells were positioned above the underground water-path,each well, at different heights Finally, the underground passagereached the level of the vast albercon At that point, the waterwas lifted, by means of another waterwheel and deposited insidethe albercon.•Lately an cistern or tank was built, capturing rain water tosupply water to the Dar al-arusa and Alixares palaces whichwere built on higher levels
  • 30. EXAMPLE: ALHAMBRA (IX)The Sophisticated Interior Alhambra Granada Spain WaterTechnology.•Interior Water conduits varied•Some were narrow - accelerating the flow•Curved conduits led into containing hollows - slowing the waterpassage Burbling and spilling from the low marble basins.•The Alhambra water systems were designed to cool in summer andwarm in the winter.The reflection pools: Patio de los Arrayanes and the Partal pool -were mirrors for the exterior architecture.
  • 31. 1. Introduction to architectural technology2. Ancient construction shapes 2.1. Beams and columns 2.2. Pyramids 2.3 Arches3. Case Study: Alhambra palace4. New construction shapes 4.1 Trusses 4.2 Cables 4.3 Shells5. Case study: Guggenheim Bilbao museum6. How will buildings look like in the future?7. Debate
  • 32. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: STEEL ARCHES (I) Eiffel Tower, Champs du Mars, Paris. 1889. Grew from Eiffel’s bridge-building expertise. Was world’s tallest structure for 40 years. 300 m tower built of puddled iron. The “arch” shape at the bottom is purely decorative.
  • 33. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: STEEL ARCHES (II)Ironwork arches in the Musée d’Orsey, Paris, which is now the mostbeautiful museum in Paris having being converted from a disusedrailway station.
  • 34. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: STEEL ARCHES (III)The industrial revolution was manifested in new constructiondevices (steam engines, machine tools and explosives) and anew material arose: steel was mass-produced since the 19thcentury, it was used, in form of I-beams and reinforcedconcrete. Glass panels also went into mass production.Plumbing appeared, and gave common access to drinking waterand waste water collection at houses.Rationality and the universal laws of physics behind thebuilding problem lead to the emancipation of history
  • 35. CABLE-SUSPENDED BRIDGEBrooklyn Bridge over the East River, New York. 487 m span.Designed by John Roebling, completed by his son (WashingtonRoebling) in 1883: First bridge to use steel wire suspension cables.
  • 36. CABLE-SUSPENDED ROOFThe Dome is the original name of a large dome-shaped building,originally used to house the Millennium Experience, a major exhibitioncelebrating the beginning of the third millennium in London.
  • 37. CABLESThe funicular concept can be best described and visualizedwith cables or chains suspended from two points that adjusttheir form for any load. Suspended structures are used for long-span roofs.Cables effectively resist gravity load in tension, but areunstable under uneven loads. For example, under its ownweight or under uniform loads a cable assumes the funicularshape of a perfect parabolic catenary. However, under winduplift suspended cables tend to flutter and become unstable.
  • 38. TRUSSES Trusses are common elements in many types of buildings. Why?Typical beam and colum schemeshows three problems for longspans:1- Cracks may appear2- Bending deformation could beuncomfortable.3- Horizontal instability.
  • 39. John Hancock Center, Chicago. The braced tube structure employed for the John Hancock Center uses the least amount of steel compared with the framed tubes.Hearst Headquarters, NewYorkThe use of perimeterdiagonals for structuraleffectiveness andaesthetics has generatedinterest from architecturaland structural designers oftall buildings in diagridstructures.
  • 40. TRUSSESTrusses support load much like beams, but for longerspans. As the depth and thus dead weight of beamsincreases with span they become increasingly inefficient,requiring most capacity to support their own weight ratherthan imposed live load. Also trusses serve to replacewalls by triangulation to reduce dead weight.Only triangles are intrinsically stable polygons.Since the 1960s, the new structural system of framed tubesappeared in the construction of Hanckock Centre, SearsTower, World Trade Center, Petronas Towers and othersupertall skyscrapers. They are often known as the “2ndChicago School".
  • 41. SHELLSEero Saarinen (1962) Milo Ketchum (1910-1999) Sir Norman Foster (1997)
  • 42. Modern Thin Concrete Shells Oceanogràfic Valencia, Spain (2002) Félix Candela, †1997
  • 43. SHELLSWith reference to modern shell it is key to remember the legacyof Saarinen and Candela. Shells can be compared to an igloo.The most famous work of Saarinen is the TWA Flight Center,which represents the culmination of his previous designs anddemonstrates his structural expressionism and the technicalmarvel in concrete shells.Candela worked very hard during his life time to prove the realnature and potential that reinforced concrete had in structuralengineering.Reinforced concrete is extremely efficient in a dome or shell-like shape. This shape eliminates the tensile forces that theconcrete without the help of reinforcement cannot bear.
  • 44. INDUSTRIAL SHELLS: LNG TANKS
  • 45. INDUSTRIAL SHELLSAbove ground LNG tanks are large double-containmentpressure vessels to store Liquefied Natural Gas at -170ºC.The role of these tanks is to act as a buffer guaranteeing astable supply of gas during seasonal peaks of demand.The range of potential locations for future LNG projects isvery disparate with a range of seismic and soil conditionswith net storage volumes up to 300,000 m3.
  • 46. 1. Introduction to architectural technology2. Ancient construction shapes 2.1. Beams and columns 2.2. Pyramids 2.3 Arches3. Case Study: Alhambra palace4. New construction shapes 4.1 Trusses 4.2 Cables 4.3 Shells5. Case study: Guggenheim Bilbao museum6. How will buildings look like in the future?7. Debate
  • 47. EXAMPLE: GUGGENHEIM (I)
  • 48. EXAMPLE: GUGGENHEIM (II)
  • 49. EXAMPLE: GUGGENHEIM (III)
  • 50. EXAMPLE: GUGGENHEIM (IV)
  • 51. EXAMPLE: GUGGENHEIM (V)Plans for a new museum in Bilbao date to the late 1980s, whenthe Basque Administration began formulating a majorredevelopment of the region. It was not until 1991, however, that Basque authoritiesproposed the idea for a Guggenheim Museum Bilbao to theSolomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. In moving forward with the museum a site was selected andthree architects, Arata Isozaki from Japan, Coop Himmelb(l)aufrom Austria, and Frank O. Gehry from the United States, wereinvited to participate in a competition to produce a conceptualdesign. These were no requirements in terms of drawings ormodels to be produced; rather, the architects were onlyasked to present what they thought would convey theirconcept for the new museum.
  • 52. EXAMPLE: GUGGENHEIM (VI)Almost from the moment it opened in 1997, GehrysGuggenheim Museum Bilbao, with its distinctive titaniumcurves and soaring glass atrium, was hailed as one of themost important buildings of the 20th century.Gehrys use of cutting-edge computer-aided design technologyenabled him to translate poetic forms into reality. The resultingarchitecture is sculptural and expressionistic, with spacesunlike any others for the presentation of art.The museum is seamlessly integrated into the urban context,unfolding its interconnecting shapes of stone, glass, and titaniumon a 32,500-square-meter site along the Nervión River in the oldindustrial heart of the city.
  • 53. EXAMPLE: GUGGENHEIM (VII)Eleven thousand square meters of exhibition space aredistributed over nineteen galleries. Ten of these galleries have aclassic orthogonal plan and can be identified from the exteriorby their stone finishes. Nine other irregularly shaped galleriespresent a remarkable contrast and can be identified from theoutside by their swirling forms and titanium cladding. Thelargest gallery, measuring 30 meters wide and 130 meters long,was used for temporary exhibitions for several years. In 2005, itbecame the site of the largest sculpture commission in history,Richard Serras monumental installation The Matter of Time.The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a pinnacle in Gehrysoutstanding architectural career as well as in the field ofmuseum design. It remains unsurpassed in its integration of artand architecture.
  • 54. 1. Introduction to architectural technology2. Ancient construction shapes 2.1. Beams and columns 2.2. Pyramids 2.3 Arches3. Case Study: Alhambra palace4. New construction shapes 4.1 Trusses 4.2 Cables 4.3 Shells5. Case study: Guggenheim Bilbao museum6. How will buildings look like in the future?7. Debate
  • 55. TECHNOLOGY IN FUTURE EDIFICATIONS (I) SeaO2 project
  • 56. TECHNOLOGY IN FUTURE EDIFICATIONS (II)Today with lot of environmental developments happening worldover like global warming, energy crisis, lifestyle changes, it’sbecome even more difficult to design houses meeting all theserequirements.More and more architectural designs are using digitaltechnologies with respect to modeling, simulation,evaluation and fabrication resulting in complex shapedbuildings which incorporates the above challenges.
  • 57. TECHNOLOGY IN FUTURE EDIFICATIONS (III)One such project is coming up in Tel Aviv whose primaryresources are sun, wind, and land making an optimumutilization of all.SeaO2 is an experimental ecological housing project. Theproject poses an alternative to current plans for Tel Aviv NorthWest coastal district. SeaO2 demonstrates vast use of cuttingedge computer software, some being used in the aerospaceindustry. The project final form is a consequence of a scientificapproach that calculates numerous of elements: the sun orbit,wind conditions and more, all in a free-form organic manner .
  • 58. TECHNOLOGY IN FUTURE EDIFICATIONS (III)Advanced Computer Simulations ensure the project’scredibility. The project’s unique morphology enables:•Optimized solar reception for heating at winter time.•Self-shadowing and solar reception for electricity generation atsummer time.• Natural lighting.•Optimized natural ventilation•Public green spaces.•Rain collection and more. Various passive mechanical systems complement the basicmorphology, enable better performance and create an energyefficient, environmentally friendly housing project.
  • 59. HOW WILLL BUILDINGS LOOK LIKE IN THE FUTURE? Possible future edifications
  • 60. 1. Introduction to architectural technology2. Ancient construction shapes 2.1. Beams and columns 2.2. Pyramids 2.3 Arches3. Case Study: Alhambra palace4. New construction shapes 4.1 Trusses 4.2 Cables 4.3 Shells5. Case study: Guggenheim Bilbao museum6. How will buildings look like in the future?7. Debate