Open and Distance Learning Opportunities and e-Learning Services in Turkey
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M.E. Mutlu, AECT Association for Educational Communications and Technolology - Annual International Convention 2007 konferansı dahilinde "2007 Annual Proceedings - Anaheim : Volume #1" bildiri ...

M.E. Mutlu, AECT Association for Educational Communications and Technolology - Annual International Convention 2007 konferansı dahilinde "2007 Annual Proceedings - Anaheim : Volume #1" bildiri kitapçığındaki "Open and Distance Learning Opportunities and e-Learning Services in Turkey", 521-532 pp., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 23-27 October 2007

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  • Açıköğretimde okuyan öğrencilerin örgün öğretim ortamlarında bulunma olanakları kısıtlı olduğu için açıköğretimde uygulanan en yaygın öğretim yöntemi “uzaktan öğretim” dir. Mektupla ve gazeteyle öğretim gibi kökeni yüzyıllar öncesine giden uzaktan öğretimde, bu yüzyılda telefon, radyo, sinema gibi teknolojiler de kullanılmıştır. Açıköğretim günümüzdeki yaygınlığına televizyonla eğitimle kavuşmuştur. 1960’larda uygulamaya geçen İngiltere Açık Üniversitesi’nin deneyimlerinden yararlanılarak, 1980’lerde çoğu ülkede televizyon ağırlıklı eğitim veren uzaktan eğitim kurumları oluşturulmuştur.
  • Türkiyede açıköğretim sistemi 1982 yılında yüksek öğretimde merkezi bir uygulama olarak Anadolu Üniversitesi tarafından başlatılmıştır. İlk yıl iki farklı bölüme 29.000 öğrencinin kayıt yaptırdığı açıköğretim sisteminde günümüzde 15 önlisans ve 7 lisans programına merkezi üniversite sınavıyla öğrenci alınmaktadır. Anadolu Üniversitesi Açıköğretim sisteminde 900.000’den fazlası aktif durumda olan 1.100.000’e yakın öğrenci kayıtlıdır.   Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı (MEB) tarafından ortaöğretim çağ yaşını geçmiş öğrencilere yönelik olarak 1992 yılında açık lise uygulaması başlatılmıştır. Günümüzde 275.000’den fazlası aktif durumda olan 300.000’den fazla öğrenci açık lisede öğrenim görmektedir. Açık ilköğretim Okulu uygulaması ise çeşitli nedenlerle İlköğretimlerini tamamlayamayan ve zorunlu İlköğretim yaş sınırını aşarak eğitim-öğretim sisteminin dışında kalan yetişkinlere uzaktan eğitim ilke ve teknikleriyle her yerde her durumda eğitim- öğretim olanağı vermek amacıyla Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı tarafından 1997 yılında başlatılmıştır. Açık İlköğretim Okulunda günümüzde 100.00’den fazlası aktif durumda olan 250.000’den fazla öğrenci öğretim görmektedir. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığına bağlı Açık İlköğretim Okulu ve Açık Lise uygulamalarında temel öğretim malzemeleri ders kitapları ile televizyon/radyo programlarıdır. Mesleki Açıköğretim Lisesi 2006 yılında başlatılmıştır ve günümüzde 78.000’den fazla öğrenci kayıtlıdır. Meslekî ve Teknik Açıköğretim Okulu 1974 tarihinde kurulmuştur. Meslekî ve Teknik Açıköğretim Okulu tarafından yapılan eğitim ve sınavlarda başarılı olan yaklaşık 70.000 kişiye Elektrik Tesisatçılığı Yetki Belgesi verilmiştir.
  • İlköğretimde örgün öğrenim görme olanağı bulunmayan bireyler MEB Açık İlköğretim Okulu’na devam edebilirler. Ortaöğretim kurumlarında örgün öğretim göremeyenler MEB Açık Lise’ya kayıt yaptırabilirler. MEB Açık Liseden mezun olanlar bir genel liseden mezun olmuş sayılırlar.   Genel lise mezunu bireyler merkezi üniversite sınavını kazanamadıkları durumda Anadolu Üniversitesi tarafından uzaktan öğretimle yürütülen ve yılda üç kez düzenlenen e-Sertifika Programlarına girebilirler. Mesleki ve Teknik Ortaöğretim kurumlarından mezun olan bireyler “sınavsız geçiş” adı verilen bir uygulama ile merkezi üniversite sınavına girmeden Anadolu Üniversitesi Açıköğretim Sistemindeki iki yıllık önlisans programlarından kendilerine uygun olan bir programa kayıt yaptırabilirler. Merkezi üniversite sınavını kazanmış olan Genel ya da Mesleki ve Teknik Ortaöğretim mezunu bireyler ise Açıköğretim Sistemindeki tercih ettikleri herhangi bir lisans ya da önlisans programına yerleştirilirler.
  • MEB Açık İlköğretim Okuluna Kimler Başvurabilir 15 yaşından gün almış; İlkokul mezunları, Ortaokulun 1, 2 veya 3.sınıfından ayrılanlar, İlköğretim okullarının 5. sınıfını bitirenler ile 6, 7 veya 8. sınıfından ayrılanlar, Ortaokul dışardan bitirme sınavından ayrılanlar, Yetişkinler II. Kademe Eğitimini bitirenler, Yetiştirici ve Tamamlayıcı Temel Eğitim B Kursunu bitirenler, Yurtdışında öğrenim görüp İlköğretim Okullarının 6, 7 veya 8. sınıfına denklik yaptıranlar başvurabilirler. Tutuklu, hükümlü ve bedensel engelli olduklarını belgelendirenler ile özel eğitim gerektirdiğine Özel Eğitim Hizmetleri Kurulundan alınacak belge ile belgelendirenler, askerliğini yapmakta olanlar, çalışanlar ve ev hanımları da yukarıdaki koşullardan birini taşıyorlarsa başvuru yapabilirler. http://aio.meb.gov.tr/
  • MEB Açık Öğretim Lisesi’ne Kimler Başvurabilir? İlköğretim okulu/ortaokul mezunu olanlar, Bakanlığımıza bağlı veya diğer bakanlıklara bağlı ortaöğretim düzeyindeki genel lise programından ayrılanlar, Anadolu Güzel Sanatlar Lisesi, Spor Lisesi, Sosyal Bilimleri Liselerinden ayrılanlar, Yurt dışında öğrenim görmüş olanlardan denklik belgesinde belirtilen öğretim düzeylerinin yukarıdaki şartlardan birisini taşıyanlar, Açık Öğretim Lisesine başvurabilirler. MEB Mesleki Açıköğretim Lisesi (9, 10, 11. sınıflar)’e Kimler Başvurabilir? İlköğretim okulu/ortaokul mezunu olanlar, b) Bakanlığa ve diğer bakanlıklara bağlı orta öğretim düzeyindeki okullardan ayrılanlar ile mezun olanlar, d) Denklik belgelerinde belirtilen öğretim düzeylerinin yukarıdaki şartlardan birisini taşıması durumunda, yurt dışında öğrenim görmüş olanlar, kayıt yaptırabilirler. MEB Mesleki ve Teknik Açıköğretim Okulu İlköğretim Okulu mezunu veya daha üst düzey öğrenim görmüş vatandaşlara, uzaktan öğretim veya gerektiğinde yüzyüze eğitim programları uygulayarak meslek kazandıran ve bu yolla onları hayata hazırlayan bir Kurumdur.
  • Açıköğretim e-Sertifika Programları Ortaöğretim mezunu ve üstü diploması olan herkes başvurabilir. Şu anda 20 sertifika programı bulunmaktadır.
  • 2007-2008 öğretim yılında 15 açık önlisans programına ÖSYM aracılığıyla öğrenci kabul edilmektedir. İki yıllık açıköğretim önlisans programlarını tamamlayan bireyler “dikey geçiş olanağı” ile kendilerine uygun bir lisans programına kayıt yaptırarak doğrudan ya da bir yıl hazırlık okuyarak üçüncü devam edebilirler. Açıköğretim sistemine dikey geçiş sınavsız olarak gerçekleşmektedir. Açıköğretim öğrencileri merkezi dikey geçiş sınavında başarılı durumda örgün lisans programlarına da devam edebilmektedirler. Bu çalışmada bireylere sağlanan açıköğretim fırsatları öncelikli olarak ele alındığı için bireylere sağlanan örgün öğretim fırsatlarının tümü incelenmemiştir.
  • 2007-2008 öğretim yılında 7 açık lisans programına ÖSYM aracılığıyla öğrenci kabul edilmektedir. Açıköğretim lisans programlarının ilk iki yılını tamamlayarak önlisans diploması alarak ayrılan bireylere daha açıköğretimde lisans tamamlama olanağı sağlanmaktadır. Açıköğretimde lisans tamamlama olanağı çok sayıda örgün önlisans programı için de sağlanmaktadır. Ülkedeki örgün öğretim yapan üniversitelerin ilk iki yılını tamamlayarak önlisana diploması alıp ayrılan bireylerin büyük bir bölümüne başvurdukları durumda açıköğretim sisteminde “lisans tamamlama” yapabilmektedirler. Gerek dikey geçiş, gerekse lisans tamamlama yoluyla bireyler bir lisans diplomasına sahip olurlar.
  • Örgün öğretim programlarında okuyan ya da mezun olmuş bireyler merkezi sınava girmeden “sınavsız ikinci üniversite” adı verilen bir uygulama kapsamında açıköğretim programlarına başvurarak kayıt yaptırabilmektedirler. Birey eğer iki yıllık bir örgün programda okuyor ya da mezun ise sadece iki yıllık bir açıköğretim programına, eğer dört yıllık bir örgün programda okuyor ya da mezun ise bir önlisans ya da lisans açıköğretim programına başvurabilir
  • Bir örgün lisans programına yerleştirilen birey programın ilk iki yılını tamamlayıp önlisans diploması alması durumunda lisans tamamlama olanağı ile açık lisans programlarına kayıt yaptırabilmekte, Mezun ya da okurken 2. Üniversite olanağı ile açık lisans ya da önlisans programlarına kayıt yaptırabilmekte ve böylece açıköğretim sistemindeki dikey geçiş ve lisans tamamlama olanaklarından yararlanabilmektedir.
  • Lise mezunu ve ÖSYM sınavını kazanmış bireyler ÖSYM tarafından örgün öğretim kurumlarına yerleştirilememeleri durumunda ÖSYM tarafından ek yerleştirme olanağı ile açıköğretim programlarına yerleştirilebilmektedirler.
  • Mesleki ve teknik lise mezunu bireyler başvurdukları durumda ÖSYM tarafından sınavsız giriş kapsamında kendi alanlarındaki açıköğretim önlisans programlarına yerleştirilmektedirler.

Open and Distance Learning Opportunities and e-Learning Services in Turkey Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Open and Distance LearningOpportunities and e-Learning Services in Turkey M. Emin Mutlu, Ph.D. Anadolu University, TurkeyAECT Annual International Convention, October 23rd – 27th, 2007 Anaheim, California 1
  • 2. ODL in Turkey• This study analyzes the open and distance learning opportunities at various levels starting from primary education to bachelor’s education offered to individuals having needs for education and tries to determine the potential for using e-Learning in the Turkish open education system as a whole evaluating the e-learning experiences at Anadolu University Open Education System between 1999-2007. 2
  • 3. ODL• Open education is one of the ways of offering equal opportunity in education to people who cannot find the opportunity to get face-to-face education for different reasons. People may prefer open education because they are working, they have physical disabilities, they are imprisoned, they cannot leave their home because there maybe people they are responsible for caring, they do not meet the age criteria put by traditional universities, they are doing their military service, or because of low income. In addition, housewives, the ones who would like to get a second degree, and the ones who live abroad prefer open education. 3
  • 4. 27 Turkish National Education System.. Doctorate.2424.. Master’s Medicine. Pharmacy Veterinar Dentistry.. y... Associate’s Bachelor’s.1818. Vocational and. General High School. Technical High School1414.. Primary Education.66.. Pre-School Education.0 4
  • 5. Turkish National Open Education SystemOn-Campus DoctorateOn-Campus Master’s On-Campus Open Education Open Education Assaciate’s and Associate’s Bachelor’s Bachelor’s Face-to-Face Vocational Open Open Education HighSecondary Education Education High School School InstitutionsFace-to-Face Primary Open Primary Education School Education 5
  • 6. Institutions Offering Open and Distance Education in Turkey• Ministry of National Education (MNE) – Open Education Primary School – Open Education High School – Vocational Open Education High School – Vocational and Technical Open Education School• Anadolu University – Open Education Faculty (Open Associate and Open Bachelor’s Degree) – Faculty of Business Administration (Open bachelor’s education) – Faculty of Economics (Open Bachelor’s Education) – Applied Research Center for Continuous Education (Open e-Certificate Education)• 8 universities in Turkey have Internet-based associate degree, bachelor’s degree, and master’s degree programs. – Anadolu University (1 Associate, 3 Master’s programs) – Middle East Technical University (1 Master’s programs) – Sakarya University (5 Associate, 1 Master’s programs) – Mersin University (4 Associate programs) – Çukurova University (1 Associate program) – Gazi University (2 Associate programs) – Maltepe University (3 Associate, 1 Master’s programs) – Bilgi University (1 Master’s program) 6
  • 7. Options for Entering to the Open and Distance Education Individuals Over 15 Year of Age Who Have Not Completed Their Primary Education Individuals Who Completed Primary Education High School Graduates Who Entering to the Couldn’t Be Placed To Higher Open and Distance Education Programs By The Education SSPS High School Graduates Who Placed To Higher Education Programs By The SSPS Vocational and Technical High School Graduates 7
  • 8. Open and Distance EducationOpportunities for Individuals Over 15 Year of AgeIndividuals Over 15 Year of Age Who Have Not Open Primary School Primary School Diploma Completed Their Primary (6th, 7th, 8th Classes) Education 8
  • 9. Open and Distance Learning Opportunities for Individuals Who Completed Their Primary EducationOpen Primary School Graduates Vocational and Technical Open Certificate Education School Individuals Who Open Education High Secondary School Completed Primary School (9th, 10th, 11th, Diploma Education 12th Classes) Vocational Open Eudcation High School Secondary SchoolFace-to-Face Primary (9th, 10th, 11th, 12th DiplomaEducation Graduates Classes) 9
  • 10. Open and Distance Education Opportunities Offered to High School Graduates and Who could not be placed to Graduates of Higher Education by SSPS Vocational OpenEudcation High School Graduates of OpenEducation High School High School Graduates Who Couldn’t Be Placed Open Education Certificate To Higher Education e-Certificate Programs Programs By The SSPS General High School Graduates Vocational andTechnical High School Graduates 10
  • 11. Open and Distance Learning Opportunities for High SchoolGraduates and Individuals Placed to a Higher Education Program by SSPS Graduates of Vocational Open Placement to The Open Eudcation High School Associates Programs by SSPS Graduates of Open Placement to The Open Education High School Bachelor’s Programs by SSPS High School Graduates Who Placement On-Campus Placed To Higher Education Associate Degree Programs Programs By The SSPS by SSPS Placement to On-Campus General High School Bachelor’s Degree Programs Graduates by SSPS Case of Not Being Placement Vocational and to On-Campus Bachelor’s Technical High School Degree Graduates Programs by SSPS 11
  • 12. Placement to the Open Associate Programs by the SSPSHigh School Graduates Who Placement to The Open Open Education Were Placed to Higher Associates Programs by Associate Degree Associate Diploma Education By SSPS SSPS Programs Registration to The Open Education Bachelor’s Degree Open Education Bachelor Programs Through Vertical Bachelor Diploma Degree Programs Transfer Opportunity 12
  • 13. Placement to the Open Bachelor’s Degree Programs by the SSPS High School Graduates Who Placement to The Open Open Education Bachelor’sWere Placed to Higher Education Bachelor’s Programs by Bachelor Diploma Degree Programs By SSPS SSPS Completing The First Two Years of The Program and Associate Diploma Receving an Associate Degree Diploma Registering to Open Bachelor’s Programs thanks Open Education Bachelor’s Bachelor Diploma to Bachelor’s Degree Degree Completion Opportunity 13
  • 14. Placement to the On-Campus Associate Degree Programs by the SSPS Registation to The Open Open Education Education Bachelor’s Programs Thanks to Vertical Bachelor’s Degree Bachelor Diploma Transfer Opportunity Programs High School Graduates Placement On-Campus On-Campus Associate Who Were Placed to Associate Degree Associate Diploma Programs by SSPS Degree ProgramsHigher Education By SSPS Regisration to The Open Associate Degree Programs Open Education After Graduation or While Associate Degree Associate Diploma Studying Thanks to Second University Opportunity Programs Registation to The Open Open Education Education Bachelor’s Programs Thanks to Vertical Bachelor’s Degree Bachelor Diploma Transfer Opportunity Programs 14
  • 15. Placement to the On-Campus Bachelor’s Degree Programs by the SSPS Registering to The Open Bachelor’s Degree Programs Open Education Bachelor’s Bachelor Diploma Thanks to Bachelor’s Degree Degree Programs Completion Oppritunity Completing The First Two Years of The Program and Receving Associate Diploma an Associate Degree Diploma Placement to On-CampusHigh School Graduates Who Were On-Campus Bachelor’s Degree Bachelor’s Degree Programs by Bachelor DiplomaPlaced to Higher Education By SSPS Programs SSPS Regisration to The Open Registation to The Open Educaiton Programs After Open Education Associate Education Bachelor’s Programs Graduation or While Studying Associate Diploma Degree Programs Thanks to Vertical Transfer Thanks to Second University Opportunity Opportunity Open Education Bachelor’s Bachelor Diploma Degree Programs Open Education Bachelor’s Bachelor Diploma Degree Programs Receving an Associate Degree Diploma After Completing the Associate Diploma First Two Years of The Program Registering to The Open Bachelor’s Degree Programs Open Education Bachelor’s Bachelor Diploma Thanks to Bachelor’s Degree Degree Programs 15 Completion Oppritunity
  • 16. Case Of Not Being Placed To On-Campus Education Institutions By The SSPS Registation to The Open Education Bachelor’s Open Education Bachelor’s Bachelor Diploma Programs Thanks to Vertical Degree Programs Transfer Opportunity Open Education Associate Associate Diploma Degree Programs Case of Not Being Placement Placement to The OpenHigh School Graduates Who to On-Campus Bachelor’s Education Programs by SSPS Were Placed to Higher Degree Thanks to Additional Education By SSPS Programs by SSPS Placement Opportunity Open Education Bachelor’s Bachelor Diploma Degree Programs Receving an Associate Degree Diploma After Completing the Associate Diploma First Two Years of The Program Registering to Open Bachelor’s Programs thanks Open Education Bachelor’s Bachelor Diploma to Bachelor’s Degree Degree Programs Completion Opportunity 16
  • 17. Open and Distance Learning Opportunities Offered To Vocational and Technical School Graduates Placement to The OpenVocational and Technical Education Associate Open Education Associate Associate Diploma High School Graduates Degree Programs by SSPS Degree Programs Without Taking Any Exam Registering to Open Bachelor’s Programs thanks Open Education Bachelor’s Bachelor Diploma to Bachelor’s Degree Degree Programs Completion Opportunity 17
  • 18. Summary• Thanks to all these opportunities, people who could not start or complete their face-to-face education can get the opportunity to complete their education. Individuals who complete their education thanks to open education can continue their face-to-face education at a higher level if their success level is enough. The ones who cannot manage to pass to face-to-face education can continue to study through open education until they receive a bachelor’s diploma. Individuals receiving a diploma from an open bachelor’s program have the right to enter a face-to-face master’s or doctoral program if their success level is sufficient. Opportunities such as “additional placement to open education programs by SSPS”, “Transfer to open education programs without examination by SSPS”, “vertical transfer in open education”, “bachelor’s degree completion in open education” and “bachelor’s degree completion in open education” and “second university in open education” adds flexibility to Turkish Open Education System and enhances the transfer opportunities between face-to-face education and open education. 18
  • 19. e-Learning in Open Higher Education• The initial design of the open higher education system of the Anadolu University includes five components i.e., course books designed according to distance education techniques, instructional programs broadcasted in the national television channel, face-to-face academic facilitation courses given at evenings and week-ends, central examinations organized simultaneously in all cities, and bureau services offered to students.• Since 1999 a series of e-learning services has been designed and offered to students in the Internet environment. The first service in the Internet environment was the trial exams composed of randomly chosen questions. This service later was entitled as e-Exam. Then e-Practice materials, interactive multimedia software, including text, picture, animation, and voice, have begun to be offered. The following service was e-Book that was actually electronic copies of the course books published on the Internet. The e-Television service, i.e., publishing the digital video files of the instructional programs that are published on the Internet, has begun as a result of the developments in the Internet infrastructure in the country and increase in the number of students having broadband Internet access. In the following period, e-Consulting service that allowed students ask questions to the subject area specialists and receive reply asynchronously was offered. In the same period, the e-Audio Book service, which means publishing radio-phonically vocalized digital audio files of the course books on the Internet, has begun. For all those services, the e-Support application that allows students to get help from experts about technical problems via the Internet has been put into practice. Those services that were developed by different teams at different times were combined under the name of Open Education e-Learning Portal in 2005. This allowed students to access all services once they log in. In 2006, a multimedia e-Course design that included text, picture, animation, voice, and video has developed and courses have begun to be developed according to this design for large number of students. Video presentations based on the Flash Video technology are used in this design that requires a larger Internet band width than other services 19
  • 20. Using of E-Learning• Although it was not compulsory students use the Anadolu University e- Learning Portal frequently. In the e-learning portal where more than 2 million students including graduates have the right to log in using their TR identity numbers, more than 635.000 different students logged in more than 19, 5 million times between May 2005-September 2007. During this time period, 1.146 million hits and 163 TB data transfer occurred. The average visit time was observed as 26 minutes. Research shows that students using e-learning services are more successful than the ones who do not use it.• Anadolu University e-Learning Portal is the largest portal of Turkey in terms published content and the copy right of the content belongs to the university, in terms of the number of users accessing this content and in terms of the number of access. Anadolu University owns the server and band width infrastructure that is able to offer those services to 50.000 students at any time and 500.000 different students in a day. This capacity is expected to double in one year. 20
  • 21. e-Learning in Open Primary School and Open High School• e-Learning services belonging to Open Primary School, Open High School, Vocational Open High School and Vocational Technical Open School is offered by EGITEK unit which has been found for this purpose by the ministry. EGITEK prepares the following e-learning materials for students enrolled in Open education institutions within the ministry (EGITEK, 2007). – PDF files of the courses are accessible on the Internet. – Television-radio programs are sold in cassette and CD format. – Television programs are published on the Internet via the Internet-TV service. – Radio programs are broadcast on the Internet via the Internet-Radio service.• Anadolu University and Ministry of National Education should coordinate so that e-Learning experiences of Anadolu University are evaluated by the MNE and for the production of e-Courses for MNE open education institutions and for the design of projects to deliver those courses via a learning management system. 21
  • 22. Conclusion• In the open education system of Anadolu University 1.100.000 students are offered e-Exam, e-Book, e- Television, e-Practice, e-Facilitation, e-Support, and e- Voiced Book services while 628.000 students in the MNE open education schools are offered only e-Book and e- Television services. EGITEK should take the initiative to diversify and increase the e-learning services offered in MNE open education institutions. This will help offer an effective continuous open education to individuals from primary school to university. Investigating the national open education systems of other countries will allow to prepare the inventory of open education opportunities offered to individuals. 22