Table of Contents: Conditional + Irregulars Perfect tenses Present Past Present perfect irregulars Subjunctive perfect Tantoy Tan Impersonal se Saber vs. Conocer Los Mandatos Informal/ formal Affirmative Negative Irregular DOP + IOP placement Nosotros Commands Mono Verbs Subjunctive + Irregulars Expressions of Emotion with Present Sub. Trigger Phrases Impersonal Expressions Expressions of Emotion Conjunctions of Time Demonstrative Adjective and Pronouns
Perfect Tenses Prefect tense portrays an action or state as completed and not in progress; from a different point of view It has two parts…. helping verb + past participle 3 main perfect tenses: present perfect past perfect future perfect
Present The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "has" or "have" with the past participle. Example: He comido- I have eaten.
Past Past tense is “had” It has the same endings as the conditional Example: Había vivido- I had lived.
Present Perfect Irregulars Hemospuesto- we have put Han escrito- they have written He abierto- I have opened Ha muerto- she has died Han visto- you all have seen Ha dicho- you (formal) have said Has vuelto- you have returned Hemoshecho- we have done
Subjunctive Perfect Subjunctive perfect is the compound tense of the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb
Tanto & Tan Forming comparisons of equalities with nouns: Tanto (-a,-os,-as) + noun + como
Roberto tienetantogalletascomoShakira. Forming comparisons of equalities with adjectives or adverbs: Tan + adj (adverb) + como
El libroes tan buenocomo la película.
Impersonal ‘Se’ Verb is always in 3rd person and followed by a direct object Se + 3rd person singular Example: Se hablaespañol.
Saber vs. Conocer
Los Mandatos: Used to directly address someone and give them an order Can be formal or informal Can be nosotros Can be affirmative or negative
Informal & Formal
Dop & Iop Placement The DOP is placed before verb It answers the questions of who? & what?
The IOPis placed before the verb
It answers the questions of to whom? & for whom?
Nosotros Commands Used when speaker is included, used to express: lets + verb Opposite nosotros ending is used Example: Comamosallí -emos: nosotros command of -AR verbs -amos: nosotros command of -ER and -IR verbs ***For negative, just add no before verb
With affirmative nosotros commands, the final “s” is dropped before adding the pronouns –nos or –se
Sentemos+ nos = sentémonos
With negative nosotros commands, the pronoun comes before the verd
Subjunctive The subjunctive is used to express everything but certainty and objectivity Process: Start w/ “yo” form, drop the –o ending, and add the following endings Examples: com + a = coma habl + e = hable
Subjunctive Irregulars The irregulars for subjunctive are the car, gar, zars and T.V.D.I.S.H.E.S. Examples: Dar dé des dé demos den Estar esté estés esté estemos estén Ir Vaya vayas vaya vayamos Vayan
ExampleSentences: Nos alegramos de que te gusten las flores We are happy that you like the flowers
Siento que tu no puedas venir mañana Im sorry that you cant come tomorrow Expressions of Emotions with Present Subjunctive
Trigger Phases: A menosque… Antes que… Cuando… Dudarque… En cuanto… Es buenoque… Es imposibleque… Es maloque…
Impersonal Expressions Triggers of the subjunctive
Expressions of Emotions
Conjunctions of Time
Placed before the noun and agree with number and gender
this restaurant = este resturante
Adj. can act as a noun, accent is added to the first “e” in the word