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A Brief History Of Surgery

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Tracing the roots of surgery to 9000 years ago.

Tracing the roots of surgery to 9000 years ago.

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A Brief History Of Surgery A Brief History Of Surgery Presentation Transcript

  • A Brief History of Surgery Nick Harvey MemorableMedicine.com
  • Chirurgery
    • Latin: chirurgia
    • Greek: cheir = hand
    • ergon = work
    • anglicized to Surgery
  • Trephanation
    • Neolithic
      • 6500 BC France
    • New World
      • 1500 BC Inca
  • Dentistry
    • 7000 BC Mehgarh, Pakistan
    • 2650 BC Egypt
  • Ancient Egypt
    • 2000-2500 BC
    • Religious reasons?
  • Ancient Egypt
  • Ancient Egypt
    • Trephination
    • Draining dental abscesses
    • Circumcision
    • Castration
    • Amputation
    • Lithotomy
    • Opiates
  • Ancient India
    • 600 BC – Sushruta
    • Sushruta Samhita
      • 120 surgical instruments
      • 300 surgical procedures
        • I&D
        • Rhinoplasty
        • Bowel anastmosis
        • Cataract removal
        • Prostatectomy
        • Tonsillectomy
      • Leeches
      • Ethical code
      • Technical skills lab!
  • Ancient Greece
    • 460-370 BC – Hippocrates
    • Disliked opening the body
    • Knowledge from the battlefield
  • Ancient Greece
    • “ cutting persons labouring under the stone should be left to such persons as practice it”
  • Ancient Greece
  • Ancient Greece
  • Ancient Greece
    • Kritodemos & Alexander the Great
    • Operated with a spoon!
  • Ancient Greece
    • 3 rd Century BC
      • Herophilus: allowed to dissect
      • Arcagathus: famous for enthusiastic use of
      • knife & cautery
    • 130 AD – 200 AD
      • Claudius Galen – Gladiator’s surgeon, advanced practice
  • Ancient China
    • 200 BC - Hua Tuo
    • Physician & surgeon
    • Executed & scripts burnt
  • Middle Ages
    • 5 th – 14 th Century AD
      • Practice of surgery declines
      • Left to barbers
  • Modern Surgery
    • “ There is no more science in surgery than in butchering”
    • Lord Thurlow
  • Modern Surgery
    • Bleeding
    • Infection
    • Anaesthesia
    • Transplants
    • Minimal invasion
  • Bleeding
    • 10 th Century Ligatures
    • Abulcasis
    • 16 th Century Ligatures over cautery
    • Ambroise Par é
    • 20 th /21 st Century ABO system (1901 - Karl Landsteiner) Diathermy
    • Harmonic scalpel
  • Infection
    • 1847 Hand washing
    • Ignaz Semmelweis
    • 1860 Germ theory
    • Louis Pasteur
    • 1867 Cleanliness & gloves
    • Joseph Lister
    • 1928 Penicillin
    • Alexander Fleming
  • Anaesthesia
    • 200 Hua Tuo
    • 1842 Ether
    • Crawford Long
    • 1844 Nitrous oxide
    • Horace Wells
    • 1846 Ether
    • William Morton
    • 1847 Ether
    • John Snow
    • 1596-1942 Curare
    • Walter Raleigh - Harold Griffith
  • Modern Surgery
    • Other big names
      • 1316 - Guy de Chauliac
        • Chirurgia magna
      • 1616 - William Harvey
        • An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals
      • 1651 - Richard Wiseman
        • Several Chirurgical Treatises
      • 1661 - Marcello Malpighi
        • Describes capillaries
      • 18 th C - John Hunter
        • Anatomist & Surgeon
      • 1895 - Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
        • X-rays
      • 1953 - John Gibbon
        • Heart/Lung bypass machine
  • Allografts
    • 1905 Cornea (Eduard Zirm)
    • 1954 Kidney (Joseph Murray)
    • 1959 Azathioprine
    • 1963 Lung (James Hardy)
    • 1964 Heart - chimpanzee (James Hardy)
    • 1966 Pancreas (Richard Lillehei & William Kelly)
    • 1967 Heart (Christiaan Barnard)
    • 1967 Liver (Thomas Starzl)
    • 1968 Heart & Lung - failed (Denton Cooley)
    • 1970 Cyclosporine
    • 1981 Heart & Lung (Bruce Reitz)
    • 1987 Lung (Joel Cooper)
    • 1998 Hand (Jean-Michel Dubernard)
    • 2005 Face (Bernard Devauchelle)
    • 2006 Penis (Hu Weilie)
  • Modern Laparoscopy
    • 1901 Cystoscope, Kelling
    • 1911 Proctoscope, Bernheim
    • 1918 Pneumoperitoneum, Goetze
    • 1929 135 o scope, Kalk
    • 1934 Forceps & cautery, Ruddock
    • 1936 Sterilization, Boesch
    • 1938 Veress needle
    • 1977 Assisted appendicectomy, Dekok
    • 1983 Appendicectomy, Semm
    • 1985 Cholecystectomy, Mühe
    • 1996 Robotic telesurgery
  • Sushruta’s general advice to physicians
    • “A physician who has set out on this path should have witnessed operations. He must be licensed by the king. He should be clean and keep his nails and hair short. He should be cheerful, well-spoken and honest.”