Universal grammar
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  • 1. UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG)AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Guillermo Cid Sandra Leiva Patricia Retamales
  • 2.  How do people learn a language? Do we learn language the way we learn everything? Or is there some special way our brains learns a language?
  • 3. HISTORY HISTORYUNIVERSAL UNIVERSALGRAMMAR GRAMMAR SECOND SECONDLANGUAGE LANGUAGEACQUISITION ACQUISITION
  • 4. FORMER THEORIES 1950s 1957 Structuralism BehaviorismFerdinand de Saussure Burrhus Frederic Skinner
  • 5. Structuralism Phonology /skæfəldɪ ŋ/ DID NOT PROVIDE ANY FRAMEWORK Lexicon Morphology Set of words Un+limit+ed OF HOW LEARNING LEVELS OF TAKES PLACE. PRODUCTION Semantics Syntax Meaning S+v+O
  • 6. Behaviorism C O N STIMULUS RESPONSE D process I T I O N I REINFORCEMENT N G
  • 7. Behaviorism The brain is “blank slate” at birth.
  • 8. Universal Grammar • If children learn language by conditioning and imitation, why do they say things they have 1960s never heard before? • why can adults make completely novel sentences?
  • 9. It is a theory that suggests that some rules ofgrammar are hard-wired into the brain, andmanifest without being taught.
  • 10.  Language acquisition. Nativisim (Innate language ability). LAD (Language Acquisition Device). Generative Grammar.
  • 11. UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR ARGUMENTS 1. Poverty of the Stimulus. 2.Constraints and principles cannot be learned. 3. Patterns of development are universal.
  • 12. 1. Poverty of the Stimulus . Children hear only a finite number of sentences. They are able to abstract the rules and principles of the language. They Produce a infinite number of possible sentences without any formal training. Ungrammatical Grammatical acceptable input output
  • 13. 2.Constraints and principles cannot be learned. Children are very young when acquiring L1. They do not have the cognitive ability to understand the principles of grammar as a system. Because of innate capacity they are capable of producing correct grammar.
  • 14. 3. Patterns of development are universal Children learn the various aspects of a language in a very similar order.
  • 15. Brown (1973).  There is a very specific order of MORPHEME acquisition. 1. Present Progressive -ing * Daddy jumping 2. Plural –s * Many books 3. Irregular past forms * I run – I ranThe sequence is quite fixed All children learn in the samein order, but not in rate. order, but some take longer than others.
  • 16. LADSet of commongrammatical rules. UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR
  • 17.  Refers to a set of rules that can predict which combinations of words are able to make grammatically correct sentences.Example: “That’s how you say it”X “How that’s you say it”
  • 18. Chomsky added two concepts later:-Principles and parameters-The minimalist program Noam Chomsky
  • 19. Principles and Parameters Framework within the Generative Linguistics Syntax of a natural languageGeneral Principles Specific Parameters (Abstract rules) (markers,switches)
  • 20. We all have a built in language acquisition device.(same across languages).Principles are built in rules for grammar.
  • 21. Languages are different in syntactical order Eg. English : The red ball Spanish : La pelota roja. When learning a language the mind automatically adjust the already existing rules or parameters Before a noun After a noun
  • 22. For example:The distinction between whether a language is head-initial or head final is regarded as aparameter which is either on or off for particular languages e.g.English is head-initial, whereas Japanese is head-final
  • 23. The goal of linguistics is to identify all of theprinciples and parameters that are universal tohuman language (called: Universal Grammar).
  • 24. The Minimalist Program (MP) is a major line ofinquiry that has been developing inside GenerativeGrammar since the early nineties.Chomsky presents MP as a program, not as a theory. Conceptual framework to guide the developmental grammatical theory
  • 25. The Minimalist Program (MP) is a major line ofinquiry that has been developing inside GenerativeGrammar since the early nineties.Chomsky presents MP as a program, not as a theory. Conceptual framework to guide the developmental grammatical theory
  • 26. For Chomsky there are minimalist questions but theanswers can be framed in any theoryWhy language has the properties it has?MP explains the specific view of syntactic grammar
  • 27. •Distinction between lexical and functionalcategory•Chomsky basically found that learners need tolearn only the lexical information of the words•Syntactic function develops automatically
  • 28. Researchers have tried to find outwhether L2 learners have access to UG or not.
  • 29. Cook (1985) presented three hypotheses:No access hypothesis: UG is inaccessible to L2 learner Indirect access hypothesis:UG is partially available to the learnersDirect access hypothesis:UG is fully available
  • 30. Universal Other mentalGrammar abilities Direct No access access L1 L2 grammar Indirect grammar Access
  • 31. ( Language data) ( A grammar of a language) ( Language Acquisition Device)
  • 32. INPUT L1 Grammar UG Principles Parameters