0
Memi Beltrame

         Scope & co.
      Management of medium
      and large size projects




         phpday, may 15th...
Who am I?
● PM / Interaction designer at Liip in Zurich
● Working on the web since 1997


● 10 years of php


● Degree in ...
What is
a large
project                      ?
 Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Typical indicators


       Trivial                   Non-trivial




     Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Typical indicators


       Trivial                    Non-trivial
        Size                     Complexity




     Me...
Typical indicators


        Trivial                    Non-trivial
         Size                     Complexity
●   Easy ...
Typical indicators


        Trivial                        Non-trivial
         Size                         Complexity
●...
Typical indicators

Size
●   Money involved
●   Size of team needed
●   Duration of project and development
●   Size of cu...
Typical indicators

Complexity
●   Types of systems involved
●   The customer's organizational structure
●   Workfows
●   ...
Complexity is underrated.



  Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
A too familiar scenario



 Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
A too familiar scenario




                                   Credit: www.projectcartoon.com
                            ...
Now that you have
mvc framework
Agile methods
Unit & functional tests
Contineous integration
Code reviews
Coding standards...
Now that you have
mvc framework XYZ
Agile methods
Unit & Functional Tests
                                 Why do
Contineo...
Why projects fail:
Running out of time
Use shortcuts & hacks
Negligence on both sides
You work more than planned
You lose ...
How
Why projects fail:
Running out of time
Use shortcuts & hacks
Negligence on both sides
You work more than planned
You l...
What can you do to keep software
     projects from failing?




   Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
The standard Project Structure


            Offer
 Evaluate                        Develop   Deploy




     Memi Beltram...
The standard Project Structure SUCKS


            Offer
 Evaluate                        Develop   Deploy




     Memi B...
The standard Project Structure SUCKS

                Not ready

            Offer
 Evaluate                        Develo...
The standard Project Structure SUCKS

                Not ready „ready“

            Offer
 Evaluate                      ...
The standard Project Structure SUCKS

                Not ready „ready“
                                    ☹
            ...
The standard Project Structure SUCKS

                Not ready „ready“
                                    ☹
            ...
The standard Project Structure SUCKS

                Not ready „ready“
                                    ☹           --...
The standard Project Structure SUCKS

                Not ready „ready“
                                    ☹           --...
The standard Project Structure SUCKS

                Not ready „ready“
                                    ☹           --...
The standard Project Structure SUCKS

                Not ready „ready“
                                    ☹           --...
The standard Project Structure SUCKS

                Not ready „ready“
                                    ☹           --...
The standard Project Structure


Problem #1
It doesn't scale




    Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
The standard Project Structure


Problem #2
It isn't agile




    Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
The standard Project Structure


Problem #1
It doesn't scale
                                                        --$

...
The standard Project Structure


Problem #2
It isn't agile.
Customers need a defned project they
can sell internally to a ...
An Alternative Project Structure
                Offer scope eval                            Offer

Phase 1         First ...
An Alternative Project Structure

Phase 1
Pre-project    Initiate First contact
               Plan Evaluate Scope
Phase 2...
2 Key Processes:

  Evaluating Scope
     Controlling


Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Scope


Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
The project management triangle

                         Scope


                           Efficiency




       Time   ...
Common Defniton of Scope:

       Scope            Requirements specifed to
                        achieve the end result...
Scope
    is treated as equivalent to
             Specifcations




Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Scope
     is treated as equivalent to
              Specifcations

On Time, On Budget, On Specs

 Memi Beltrame: Scope & ...
Scope ≠ Specs

Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Scope ≠ Specs
                       Scope
On Time, On Budget, On Specs

 Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
A project plan based on the
customer's specifcations will fail.




   Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Why?

Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Specifcations refect a feature-list




   Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Specifcations refect a feature-list
       Scope refects the
       production process



   Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
The Scope of a project covers every
   ● Feature                       ● Process
   ● System                        ● Inve...
Anticipate Scope



Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
De Facto                     Anticipated
 Scope                          Scope



 Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
De Facto Scope
        Anticipated Scope
      ≈ Probability of Failure
Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
The probability of a project's failure
      increses the more the
 anticipated scope fails to match
        the de facto ...
The long list of
underestimated & neglected items




   Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Offering
●   Don't offer to ft a budget
●   Don't offer to ft a time frame


    But most important:




       Memi Beltr...
Offering
●   Don't offer to ft a budget
●   Don't offer to ft a time frame


    But most important:
    Don't lower your ...
People
●   Find out who is in charge. The board? Your contact?
●   Know the project's priority for your
    customer and a...
Process
●   Know your customer's processes
●   Think through dependencies What elements are critical?
●   Plan time for UX...
Technology
●   Plan enough time for API negotiaton
●   Find out about Environment.
    Load Balancing, Master/Slave model
...
Data audit
●   Does the data exist?
●   What is the form of the data? DB, XML, Excel...
●   In what state is the data? Nor...
In my experience
most project disasters are
      data related


 Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Knowing the scope of a project lets you:

● make projections
● identify risks


● make realistic budget


● make customers...
Controlling




Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Controlling
 Ensuring project objectives are met.
Monitoring, correcting and measuring
              progress.




   Memi...
Essesntial Tasks

#1 Know your numbers
#2 Keep scope
#3 Enforce deadlines




Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
Know your numbers




Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
At any time you must know:

● Your budget
● % of budget used


● % of work done


● When will you run out out of budget?

...
What does one hour of develper cost
your company?

Basic costs like
● Wages


● Insurance


● Infrastructure




      Mem...
What does one hour of develper cost
your company?

Basic costs like
● Wages
                 basic costs     = loss limit
...
What is the post calculation rate?


                                   Budget
Post calculation rate =
                   ...
Example 1:
Your basic cost:            100 €
Post calculation rate:      145 €
Proft per hour:             45 €



Memi Be...
Example 2:
Your basic cost:            100 €
Post calculation rate:      90 €
loss per hour:              -10 €



Memi Be...
Keep scope
● Stop and prevent feature creep
● Manage customer expectations


● Channel change requests




    Memi Beltra...
Enforce Deadlines
● Make the customer deliver!
● Sprint planning & reviews


● Insist on warranty period




    Memi Belt...
Thank you!



Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
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Scope & co

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This talk is about the typical indicators of projects that surpass a certain volume. Key alements are the definition of Scope and the elements of controlling, the essential stages of a large project and how to keep the process agile

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Transcript of "Scope & co"

  1. 1. Memi Beltrame Scope & co. Management of medium and large size projects phpday, may 15th 2010 Corropoli Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  2. 2. Who am I? ● PM / Interaction designer at Liip in Zurich ● Working on the web since 1997 ● 10 years of php ● Degree in cinematography ● Film & foto enthusiast ● Pet project: artypedia.org ● Twitter: bratwurstkomet Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  3. 3. What is a large project ? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  4. 4. Typical indicators Trivial Non-trivial Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  5. 5. Typical indicators Trivial Non-trivial Size Complexity Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  6. 6. Typical indicators Trivial Non-trivial Size Complexity ● Easy to measure ● Obviuous ● Impressive! Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  7. 7. Typical indicators Trivial Non-trivial Size Complexity ● Easy to measure ● Hard to evaluate ● Obviuous ● Vague, hidden ● Impressive! ● Interesting... Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  8. 8. Typical indicators Size ● Money involved ● Size of team needed ● Duration of project and development ● Size of customer's company ● Amount of Data used for the project Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  9. 9. Typical indicators Complexity ● Types of systems involved ● The customer's organizational structure ● Workfows ● Data structure & quality ● Legacy Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  10. 10. Complexity is underrated. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  11. 11. A too familiar scenario Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  12. 12. A too familiar scenario Credit: www.projectcartoon.com http://bes.tw/zaq Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  13. 13. Now that you have mvc framework Agile methods Unit & functional tests Contineous integration Code reviews Coding standards Valid markup ... Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  14. 14. Now that you have mvc framework XYZ Agile methods Unit & Functional Tests Why do Contineous Integration Code reviews projects Coding standards Valid markup still fail? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  15. 15. Why projects fail: Running out of time Use shortcuts & hacks Negligence on both sides You work more than planned You lose money. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  16. 16. How Why projects fail: Running out of time Use shortcuts & hacks Negligence on both sides You work more than planned You lose money. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  17. 17. What can you do to keep software projects from failing? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  18. 18. The standard Project Structure Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  19. 19. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  20. 20. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Delay because important infos are missing Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  21. 21. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Important dev-time is already consumed Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  22. 22. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ dev Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop Unrealistic expectations: Developers motivation drops. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  23. 23. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ dev ++dev Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop Putting more devs on a late project Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  24. 24. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ --$ dev ++dev Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop This is the day you run out of budget Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  25. 25. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ --$ dev ++dev Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop On delivery you go and ask for more time Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  26. 26. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ --$ ☹ dev ++dev cust Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop Deploy Now the customer is worried & frustrated Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  27. 27. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ --$ ☹ !☹! dev ++dev cust cust Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop Deploy Deadline missed, customer pissed. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  28. 28. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ --$ ☹ !☹! X dev ++dev cust cust --cust Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop Deploy Debug Low quality on a late project. Wave goodbye. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  29. 29. The standard Project Structure Problem #1 It doesn't scale Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  30. 30. The standard Project Structure Problem #2 It isn't agile Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  31. 31. The standard Project Structure Problem #1 It doesn't scale --$ Evaluate Develop Deploy If this happens in a small project you might get away with it. On a large project it might put your company at risk. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  32. 32. The standard Project Structure Problem #2 It isn't agile. Customers need a defned project they can sell internally to a superior instance Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  33. 33. An Alternative Project Structure Offer scope eval Offer Phase 1 First Evaluate Scope & prepare offer Pre-project contact Phase 2 Project Development iterations Debriefng Phase 3 Deployment iterations Post Roll out Warranty warranty End of warranty Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  34. 34. An Alternative Project Structure Phase 1 Pre-project Initiate First contact Plan Evaluate Scope Phase 2 Project Execute & Control Develop Phase 3 Roll out Close Deployment Debriefng Warranty Post warranty Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  35. 35. 2 Key Processes: Evaluating Scope Controlling Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  36. 36. Scope Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  37. 37. The project management triangle Scope Efficiency Time Cost Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  38. 38. Common Defniton of Scope: Scope Requirements specifed to achieve the end result. Efficiency Time Cost Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  39. 39. Scope is treated as equivalent to Specifcations Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  40. 40. Scope is treated as equivalent to Specifcations On Time, On Budget, On Specs Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  41. 41. Scope ≠ Specs Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  42. 42. Scope ≠ Specs Scope On Time, On Budget, On Specs Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  43. 43. A project plan based on the customer's specifcations will fail. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  44. 44. Why? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  45. 45. Specifcations refect a feature-list Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  46. 46. Specifcations refect a feature-list Scope refects the production process Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  47. 47. The Scope of a project covers every ● Feature ● Process ● System ● Investigation ● API ● Administration ● Department ● Negotiation ● Third Party Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  48. 48. Anticipate Scope Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  49. 49. De Facto Anticipated Scope Scope Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  50. 50. De Facto Scope Anticipated Scope ≈ Probability of Failure Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  51. 51. The probability of a project's failure increses the more the anticipated scope fails to match the de facto scope. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  52. 52. The long list of underestimated & neglected items Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  53. 53. Offering ● Don't offer to ft a budget ● Don't offer to ft a time frame But most important: Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  54. 54. Offering ● Don't offer to ft a budget ● Don't offer to ft a time frame But most important: Don't lower your offer just to beat the competition Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  55. 55. People ● Find out who is in charge. The board? Your contact? ● Know the project's priority for your customer and all involved entities? rd ● Brief 3 parties. How ft are the other companies involved? ● Be aware of your resources. ● Take into account existing projects. ● Know your escalation paths. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  56. 56. Process ● Know your customer's processes ● Think through dependencies What elements are critical? ● Plan time for UX/Prototyping/Design Technical reviews, handovers ● Plan enough time for quality assessment ● PM: In a large project it is a full time job ● Plan enough time for roll-out & closing Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  57. 57. Technology ● Plan enough time for API negotiaton ● Find out about Environment. Load Balancing, Master/Slave model ● Plan time for data modelling ● Make a data audit Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  58. 58. Data audit ● Does the data exist? ● What is the form of the data? DB, XML, Excel... ● In what state is the data? Normalized? A mess? ● How much do you have to build from scratch? ● How much to refactor? ● How good is the data quality? ● What data-synchronisation processes are there? ● What is the amount of data in GigaBytes? ● Does the planned application cannibalize another? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  59. 59. In my experience most project disasters are data related Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  60. 60. Knowing the scope of a project lets you: ● make projections ● identify risks ● make realistic budget ● make customers realize - What they need vs. what they want - What they can pay for Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  61. 61. Controlling Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  62. 62. Controlling Ensuring project objectives are met. Monitoring, correcting and measuring progress. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  63. 63. Essesntial Tasks #1 Know your numbers #2 Keep scope #3 Enforce deadlines Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  64. 64. Know your numbers Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  65. 65. At any time you must know: ● Your budget ● % of budget used ● % of work done ● When will you run out out of budget? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  66. 66. What does one hour of develper cost your company? Basic costs like ● Wages ● Insurance ● Infrastructure Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  67. 67. What does one hour of develper cost your company? Basic costs like ● Wages basic costs = loss limit ● Insurance ● Infrastructure Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  68. 68. What is the post calculation rate? Budget Post calculation rate = Hours spent Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  69. 69. Example 1: Your basic cost: 100 € Post calculation rate: 145 € Proft per hour: 45 € Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  70. 70. Example 2: Your basic cost: 100 € Post calculation rate: 90 € loss per hour: -10 € Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  71. 71. Keep scope ● Stop and prevent feature creep ● Manage customer expectations ● Channel change requests Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  72. 72. Enforce Deadlines ● Make the customer deliver! ● Sprint planning & reviews ● Insist on warranty period Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  73. 73. Thank you! Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
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