Scope & co

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This talk is about the typical indicators of projects that surpass a certain volume. Key alements are the definition of Scope and the elements of controlling, the essential stages of a large project and how to keep the process agile

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Scope & co

  1. 1. Memi Beltrame Scope & co. Management of medium and large size projects phpday, may 15th 2010 Corropoli Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  2. 2. Who am I? ● PM / Interaction designer at Liip in Zurich ● Working on the web since 1997 ● 10 years of php ● Degree in cinematography ● Film & foto enthusiast ● Pet project: artypedia.org ● Twitter: bratwurstkomet Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  3. 3. What is a large project ? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  4. 4. Typical indicators Trivial Non-trivial Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  5. 5. Typical indicators Trivial Non-trivial Size Complexity Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  6. 6. Typical indicators Trivial Non-trivial Size Complexity ● Easy to measure ● Obviuous ● Impressive! Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  7. 7. Typical indicators Trivial Non-trivial Size Complexity ● Easy to measure ● Hard to evaluate ● Obviuous ● Vague, hidden ● Impressive! ● Interesting... Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  8. 8. Typical indicators Size ● Money involved ● Size of team needed ● Duration of project and development ● Size of customer's company ● Amount of Data used for the project Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  9. 9. Typical indicators Complexity ● Types of systems involved ● The customer's organizational structure ● Workfows ● Data structure & quality ● Legacy Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  10. 10. Complexity is underrated. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  11. 11. A too familiar scenario Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  12. 12. A too familiar scenario Credit: www.projectcartoon.com http://bes.tw/zaq Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  13. 13. Now that you have mvc framework Agile methods Unit & functional tests Contineous integration Code reviews Coding standards Valid markup ... Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  14. 14. Now that you have mvc framework XYZ Agile methods Unit & Functional Tests Why do Contineous Integration Code reviews projects Coding standards Valid markup still fail? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  15. 15. Why projects fail: Running out of time Use shortcuts & hacks Negligence on both sides You work more than planned You lose money. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  16. 16. How Why projects fail: Running out of time Use shortcuts & hacks Negligence on both sides You work more than planned You lose money. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  17. 17. What can you do to keep software projects from failing? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  18. 18. The standard Project Structure Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  19. 19. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  20. 20. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Delay because important infos are missing Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  21. 21. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Important dev-time is already consumed Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  22. 22. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ dev Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop Unrealistic expectations: Developers motivation drops. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  23. 23. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ dev ++dev Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop Putting more devs on a late project Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  24. 24. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ --$ dev ++dev Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop This is the day you run out of budget Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  25. 25. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ --$ dev ++dev Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop On delivery you go and ask for more time Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  26. 26. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ --$ ☹ dev ++dev cust Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop Deploy Now the customer is worried & frustrated Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  27. 27. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ --$ ☹ !☹! dev ++dev cust cust Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop Deploy Deadline missed, customer pissed. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  28. 28. The standard Project Structure SUCKS Not ready „ready“ ☹ --$ ☹ !☹! X dev ++dev cust cust --cust Offer Evaluate Develop Deploy Evaluate scope Develop Deploy Debug Low quality on a late project. Wave goodbye. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  29. 29. The standard Project Structure Problem #1 It doesn't scale Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  30. 30. The standard Project Structure Problem #2 It isn't agile Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  31. 31. The standard Project Structure Problem #1 It doesn't scale --$ Evaluate Develop Deploy If this happens in a small project you might get away with it. On a large project it might put your company at risk. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  32. 32. The standard Project Structure Problem #2 It isn't agile. Customers need a defned project they can sell internally to a superior instance Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  33. 33. An Alternative Project Structure Offer scope eval Offer Phase 1 First Evaluate Scope & prepare offer Pre-project contact Phase 2 Project Development iterations Debriefng Phase 3 Deployment iterations Post Roll out Warranty warranty End of warranty Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  34. 34. An Alternative Project Structure Phase 1 Pre-project Initiate First contact Plan Evaluate Scope Phase 2 Project Execute & Control Develop Phase 3 Roll out Close Deployment Debriefng Warranty Post warranty Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  35. 35. 2 Key Processes: Evaluating Scope Controlling Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  36. 36. Scope Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  37. 37. The project management triangle Scope Efficiency Time Cost Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  38. 38. Common Defniton of Scope: Scope Requirements specifed to achieve the end result. Efficiency Time Cost Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  39. 39. Scope is treated as equivalent to Specifcations Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  40. 40. Scope is treated as equivalent to Specifcations On Time, On Budget, On Specs Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  41. 41. Scope ≠ Specs Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  42. 42. Scope ≠ Specs Scope On Time, On Budget, On Specs Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  43. 43. A project plan based on the customer's specifcations will fail. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  44. 44. Why? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  45. 45. Specifcations refect a feature-list Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  46. 46. Specifcations refect a feature-list Scope refects the production process Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  47. 47. The Scope of a project covers every ● Feature ● Process ● System ● Investigation ● API ● Administration ● Department ● Negotiation ● Third Party Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  48. 48. Anticipate Scope Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  49. 49. De Facto Anticipated Scope Scope Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  50. 50. De Facto Scope Anticipated Scope ≈ Probability of Failure Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  51. 51. The probability of a project's failure increses the more the anticipated scope fails to match the de facto scope. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  52. 52. The long list of underestimated & neglected items Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  53. 53. Offering ● Don't offer to ft a budget ● Don't offer to ft a time frame But most important: Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  54. 54. Offering ● Don't offer to ft a budget ● Don't offer to ft a time frame But most important: Don't lower your offer just to beat the competition Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  55. 55. People ● Find out who is in charge. The board? Your contact? ● Know the project's priority for your customer and all involved entities? rd ● Brief 3 parties. How ft are the other companies involved? ● Be aware of your resources. ● Take into account existing projects. ● Know your escalation paths. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  56. 56. Process ● Know your customer's processes ● Think through dependencies What elements are critical? ● Plan time for UX/Prototyping/Design Technical reviews, handovers ● Plan enough time for quality assessment ● PM: In a large project it is a full time job ● Plan enough time for roll-out & closing Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  57. 57. Technology ● Plan enough time for API negotiaton ● Find out about Environment. Load Balancing, Master/Slave model ● Plan time for data modelling ● Make a data audit Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  58. 58. Data audit ● Does the data exist? ● What is the form of the data? DB, XML, Excel... ● In what state is the data? Normalized? A mess? ● How much do you have to build from scratch? ● How much to refactor? ● How good is the data quality? ● What data-synchronisation processes are there? ● What is the amount of data in GigaBytes? ● Does the planned application cannibalize another? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  59. 59. In my experience most project disasters are data related Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  60. 60. Knowing the scope of a project lets you: ● make projections ● identify risks ● make realistic budget ● make customers realize - What they need vs. what they want - What they can pay for Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  61. 61. Controlling Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  62. 62. Controlling Ensuring project objectives are met. Monitoring, correcting and measuring progress. Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  63. 63. Essesntial Tasks #1 Know your numbers #2 Keep scope #3 Enforce deadlines Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  64. 64. Know your numbers Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  65. 65. At any time you must know: ● Your budget ● % of budget used ● % of work done ● When will you run out out of budget? Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  66. 66. What does one hour of develper cost your company? Basic costs like ● Wages ● Insurance ● Infrastructure Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  67. 67. What does one hour of develper cost your company? Basic costs like ● Wages basic costs = loss limit ● Insurance ● Infrastructure Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  68. 68. What is the post calculation rate? Budget Post calculation rate = Hours spent Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  69. 69. Example 1: Your basic cost: 100 € Post calculation rate: 145 € Proft per hour: 45 € Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  70. 70. Example 2: Your basic cost: 100 € Post calculation rate: 90 € loss per hour: -10 € Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  71. 71. Keep scope ● Stop and prevent feature creep ● Manage customer expectations ● Channel change requests Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  72. 72. Enforce Deadlines ● Make the customer deliver! ● Sprint planning & reviews ● Insist on warranty period Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
  73. 73. Thank you! Memi Beltrame: Scope & co
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