INQUIRY• Inquiry is at the heart of all science.• Inquiry is a search for information & explanation.• Inquiry is based on Observations.
OBSERVATION Quantitative Qualitative• Produces data that deals with • Produces data that is descriptive. counts & numbers. • Can be expressed with words and• Can be expressed using chart or pictures. graph. • Ex: The color of the plant, the• Ex: The height a plant grew, the softness of the flowers, the smell number of flowers in a field, the of the bacteria amount of bacteria growing
DISCOVERY SCIENCE• Discovery science (sometiems called descriptive sicence) describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and analysis of data.• Relies on both quanitative and qualitative research.• Ex: Quantitative: The Human Genome Project
DISCOVERY SCIENCEExample: Qualitative of Quantitative Discovery Science – Jane Goodall
INDUCTIVE REASONING• Discovery science leads to generalizations.• Ex: The Cell Theory• Robert Hooke, Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, Anton von Leeuvenhoek and Robert Brown all worked to create better microscopes for over the course of two centuries.• Their work caused them to conclude that “All living things are made of cell.”• This is an example of a generalization.• Generalizations comes from inductive reasoning.• Inductive goes from small observations to big thoughts.
HYPOTHESIS BASED SCIENCE• A hypothesis is a tentatice answer to a well-framed question.• When possible, use “If… then….” format for writing a hypothesis.• A hypothesis should be tested through an experiment. If it is supported, the scientist can make a conclusion. If it is not supported, if can be easily changed.Figure 1.25 in your book.• Hypothesis based science is deductive. It goes from general observations to specific causes for those observations.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES• Hypothesis-based science is tested by experiements.• Some experiments follow a model:• Control group- mimics the most normal circumsntances.• Experimental group- undergoing a change• Independent/manipulated variable- what the scientist changes; applied to the experimental group• Dependent variable- responds to the change• It is important to keep all other variables as constant as possible, so that only the independent variable is changing.• Ex: if testing a hypothesis about how sunlight affects plant growth, it would be important to maintain constant soil pH, watering methods, size of pot, etc. when comparing a control and an experimental group.
• THE MYTH OF THE METHOD• Very few scientific inquiries adhere to the rigidness of the scientific method. (IRFCAD)• Science is a process. This is one of the main themes of this course.• Read about the case study of mimicry in snake populations and answer the following questions.1. What is most likely the reason that predators rarely attack snakes with bold warning patterns?2. Describe the field experiment with artificial snakes. Identify the control & experimental groups.3. What the conclusion from this experiment?
HYPOTHESIS VS. THEORY Hypothesis Theory• Deals with specifics. • Is much broader.• Ex: “Mimicking poisonous snakes • Ex: “Evolutionary adaptations is an adaptation that protects evolve by natural selection.” nonpoisonous snakes from • Can spin off many new hypotheses. predators.” • Is supported by a wide body of• Is either supported or not evidence- many scientists supported by data collected during collaborating. a specifically designed experiemtn