‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬                                                              ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻼﺗﻰﺩﺭﺳﺎﺧﺖﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ‬‫‪STEEL- FRAME INDUS...
‫‪Pedestrian bridge, Amsterdam‬‬                               ‫ﭘﻞ ﻋﺎﺑﺮ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ، ﺁﻣﺴﺘﺮﺩﺍﻡ‬                                  ...
‫‪Kansai airport terminal, Osaka‬‬                  ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﻓﺮﻭﺩﮔﺎﻩ ﻛﺎﻧﺴﺎﻱ، ﺧﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻭﺳﺎﻛﺎ‬   ‫‪Production line‬‬           ...
‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺐ ﺭﺍﻳﺞ‬                                                                                                   ...
‫‪Plasma cutting‬‬                                                         ‫ﺑﺮﺵ ﭘﻼﺳﻤﺎ‬   ‫‪Water jet cutting‬‬            ...
‫ﺧﻢ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺎﻝ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ‪Bending the column flange by applying heat & force‬‬   ‫‪Result of heat & impact ...
‫‪Tokyo international forum‬‬                             ‫ﻓﻮﺭﻭﻡ ﺑﻴﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻛﻴﻮ‬   ‫‪Beijing Olympic stadium‬‬           ...
‫ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﺳﺘﻮﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﻞ ﻣﻴﻼﻭ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ‬‫‪One of the Millau viaduct column headers before assembly‬‬                         ...
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تأمالتى درساخت صنعتى اسكلت فوالدى

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تأمالتى درساخت صنعتى اسكلت فوالدى

  1. 1. ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺻﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻼﺗﻰﺩﺭﺳﺎﺧﺖﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ‬‫‪STEEL- FRAME INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION‬‬‫‪Keyvan Salimi‬‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺩﻓﺎﺗﺮ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﺳﺔ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺗﻬﻴﺔ‬‫‪The article discusses the merits of steel- frame industrial‬‬‫‪construction in Iran, comparing with the traditional in place‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻳﻰ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﮔﺎﻫﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺤﺚ ﺩﺭﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ‬‫.‪construction‬‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺭﻭﺷﻰ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ: ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ، ﻳﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ. ﻓﺎﺭﻍ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﮔﺬﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ:‬‫ﭘﻴﺶ ﻣﻲﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻧﺎﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ، ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻰﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﺷﻬﺮﻯ، ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺑﻮﺍﻟﻔﻀﻮﻝﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪﺍﻯ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻟﻜﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﻴﺎﻫﻰ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺣﻤﻞ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﻧﻮﺭ ﺟﺮﺛﻘﻴﻞ، ﻧﺤﻮﺓ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻰ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﻭ ... ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﻴﺮﻩ ﮔﻢ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﻨﺪ. ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺷﺴﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﻣﻀﻤﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ:‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻯ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺗﺎ‬ ‫»ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ، ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺩﻗﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﺁﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺩﻭﻡ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﻴﺶﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ، ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻯ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﺎﻫﺮﺗﺮﻯ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰﺳﺎﺯﺩ، ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﻪ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﺪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻏﻠﺒﺸﺎﻥ ﺳﻮﻟﻪﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪ، ﭼﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎ ﻭ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ﻭ ... ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﭘﻴﺶﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺘﻰ ﻧﺎﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ، ...«.‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺑﺪﻯ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﺁﻥ ﻫﻢ ﮔﻨﺎﻩ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ، ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺣﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﺔ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺩﻭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﺩ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺯﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺳﻔﺎﺭﺵﺩﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﺷﺎﻥ ﭼﻴﺰﻯ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻮﺷﺎﻧﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﻧﺎﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﺳﺎﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮﻃﻪﺍﻯ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺩﻫﺎﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺖ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻭ ﺗﻜﻨﻴﻚﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﺍﻳﺞ، ﻭ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺩﻭﻡ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﺓ ﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻧﺎﻣﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ ﺁﻥﻫﺎﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺗﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﻭ ﺑﻌﻀﺎً ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻧﺼﺐ‬‫ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ: ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﺷﻴﺔ ﺷﻬﺮ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺨﺸﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪ.‬‫ﻣﺴﻘﻒ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻩﺍﻯ ﺑُﺮﺵﻛﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺟﻮﺵﻛﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺸﺘﻰ ﺁﻫﻦﺁﻻﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰﺑﺮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻰ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ: »ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﻛﻼﻏﺎﻧﺔ ﺧﻮﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺩﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻰﭼﺴﺒﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﺮﺛﻘﻴﻠﻰ ﺳﻘﻔﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭﻭﺍﺯﻩﺍﻯ ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻛﺒﻚ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻴﺎﻣﺪﻩ«. ﻭ ﻧﺎﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻧﻤﺎﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﮔﺎﻫﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺸﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺢ ﻛﺎﺭﻓﺮﻣﺎﻳﺎﻥ، ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﻮﺓ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺷﺮﻁﻫﺎﻯ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﺓ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﻫﻤﺔ ﺩﺳﺖﺍﻧﺪﺭﻛﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﺗﻠﺦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ )ﻃﺒﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺎﺭﻯ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ( ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺣﻮﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭﺱ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﮔﺰﻳﺪﻩ ﻧﺸﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫»ﺷﻴﻮﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ« ﻭ »ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻰ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ« ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻰ ﻛﺮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺿﻤﻦ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ،‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻭ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ، ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻓﻨﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻮﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ. ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻧﮕﺎﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﺳﺔ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺩﻭ ﭘﺮﻭژﺓ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻰ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﭘﻴﺶﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ، ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻰ ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪ ﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﺗﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ، ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻭﻫﻠﺔ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺗﻬﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ1‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺳﺪ ﻛﻪ: »ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﻋﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻴﺐ ﻭ ﻋﻠﺖ، ﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻳﻰ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺎﻩ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻰ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺷﺪﻧﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ.« ﻭﺍﻧﮕﻬﻲ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﭼﻪ ﻗﻄﻌﻪﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻪ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺗﻰ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﻮﺓ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺴﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻠﻰ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻩ، ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ، ﻭ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎژ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﺳﺎﺯﻩﺍﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻴﺐﻫﺎﻳﺶ ﺭﻓﻊﻧﺎﺷﺪﻧﻰ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺗﻬﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ،‬‫ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﺳﻪﺍﻯ ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﻪﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻲ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ‬‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ )ﺑﺮﺵ، ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﻛﺎﺭﻯ، ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎژ، ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ، ﻧﺼﺐ ﻭ...( ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ، ﺍﻳﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻠﻰ ﻣﺒﺘﻼﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻧﺪ: ﺿﻌﻒ ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ‬‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻯ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﻰ، ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻯ ﭘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻄﺎ، ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ،‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﻧﺎﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏ، ﻭ ﻋﻘﺐﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺗﻜﻨﻴﻚﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻧﻰ ﺭﺍﻳﺞ‬ ‫»ﺗﻬﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ« ﻭ »ﺳﺎﺧﺖ« ﺩﻭ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻄﻰ ﺑﻪ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮﻋﻰ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺷﻴﻮﻩﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻰ ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﻫﻢ ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺳﺮﺟﺎﻯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺵ ﻧﺸﺴﺘﻪﺍﻧﺪ. ﻧﺎﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖﻭﺳﺎﺯ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ‬‫ﻣﻲﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ ﻫﻤﭙﻮﺷﺎﻧﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. ﻫﺮ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﻳﮋﺓ ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺧﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻓﻠﻪﺍﻯ ﻭ ﺗﻜﻨﻴﻚﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺪﻭﻯ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻋﻴﺐ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺖ. ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﭼﻴﺰ ﻧﺎﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭﻯ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻨﺎﺭ ﻫﻢ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻋﻴﻮﺑﻲ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫28/28‬
  2. 2. ‫‪Pedestrian bridge, Amsterdam‬‬ ‫ﭘﻞ ﻋﺎﺑﺮ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ، ﺁﻣﺴﺘﺮﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺭﻭﻳﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺃﻡ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺮﻳﻦ، ﺗﻮﻛﻴﻮ‬‫‪An example of areas prone to get interference‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫‪Constructing upper floors and simultaneous operation in lower floors‬‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺪﻝﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﻪﺍﻯ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﻨﺪ، ﻭ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ، ﭼﻮﻥ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﺮﭼﻴﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻭﻩﺑﺮ ﺗﻬﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺮﺓ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻣﺪﻝ، ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻰ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻓﺮﻣﺎﻯ ﺑﻰﺧﺒﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻤﻪﺟﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ. ﻣﺜﻼ: ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻳﻰ ﭼﻮﻥ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺮﻩﻫﺎ، ﻭﺭﻕﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ2، ﻭ‬ ‫ً‬‫ﻫﻢ ﺑﺸﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﭼﻮﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻜﻨﻴﺴﻴﻦﻫﺎ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺁﺩﻡﻫﺎﻯ »ﺑﺎﻭﺟﺪﺍﻥ« ﻭ »ﺧﻮﺑﻰ«‬ ‫ﺳﺨﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎ3 ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻃﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﭘﺎﻯ ﺳﺘﻮﻥﻫﺎ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺗﻴﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ، ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻛﺎﻓﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ، ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺩﺍ ﺍﻃﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻯ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺗﻴﺮ ﻓﺮﻋﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ، ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﺩﺑﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻴﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻣﺎ »ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ« ﻧﻪ ﺭﺑﻄﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻰ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻯ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻧﻪ ﺟﺰء ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ‬ ‫... ﻧﺎﻣﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺪﺍﺧﻞﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻣﺪﻝﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻰ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻞ‬‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒﺷﺪﺓ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻓﻨﻰ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻰ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﻔﻜﺮﻯ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎ، ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎ، ﺁﻳﻴﻦﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎ، ﻭ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺑﺪﻳﻬﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻰ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺑﻪﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭ ﺣﻮﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻔﻜﺮﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻰ ﻭ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩﻯ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺟﻮﺵﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ ﻳﻚ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻳﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻫﺴﺖ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﻼﻍ ﻧﻘﺸﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬‫ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﻧﻤﻲﺭﻭﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺎﺷﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﺑﻼﻍ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﻪﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻭ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒﺷﺪﻩﺍﻯ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﻭ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﻓﻨﻰ ﻫﺮﭼﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺳﻮءﻧﻴﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺧﺒﺚ ﻃﻴﻨﺖ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﻪ: ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺮﭘﺮﺳﺖ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻯ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻰ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. »ﺧﻄﺎ« ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ، ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻛﻨﺪ، ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻮﺍﻗﺺ،‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﻨﺪ. ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻰ ﺑﺰﻧﻴﻢ: ﻓﺮﺽ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻳﻚ ﺗﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻰ ﺑﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ. ﭘﺮﺳﻪ ﺯﺩﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺧﻄﺎﻯ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻰ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ، ﻳﺎ ﺳﺆﺍﻝﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻴﺐ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺒﻴﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﻛﻨﺪ. ﻓﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻴﺴﻴﻦﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻲ، ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺑﻲﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻴﺐ، ﺑﺮﺵ ﻧﺎﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺨﺖﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩﻫﺎ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻲﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬‫ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺟﺰء ﻳﺎ ﻋﻀﻮ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﻳﻚ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦﺟﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻳﺎﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻧﺒﻮﺩ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻬﻤﻰ ﺩﺭ‬‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﻛﻴﻠﻮﮔﺮﻣﻰ ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ. ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﻋﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﺳﺖ. ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﺻﻼ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺷﻴﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ، ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺑﺮﺵ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻰﺷﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﺷﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﻣﺎﻛﺖﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺠﻮﻫﺎﺳﺖ. ﺩﻭﺭ ﻫﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻨﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﮔﺬﺍﺷﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻀﻮﻱ ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻪﭘﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺭﺍ ﺳﺮ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﭼﻴﺰﻯ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲﮔﺮﻓﺖ.‬ ‫ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺘﻲ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﻛﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺠﻮﻳﻰ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ.‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻬﻴﺔ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻨﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻨﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﺮ ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻩﺍﻯ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﺔ ﭼﻚﻟﻴﺴﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ، ﻫﻤﺔ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺮﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﭼﻚﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺻﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﻮﻟﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺍﻣﻮﺷﻲ ﺳﭙﺮﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻً ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﺓ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﺷﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺪﻫﺪ. ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﻟﻰ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ،‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭژﺓ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺗﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻳﺎ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ: ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ‬‫38/38‬
  3. 3. ‫‪Kansai airport terminal, Osaka‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻣﻴﻨﺎﻝ ﻓﺮﻭﺩﮔﺎﻩ ﻛﺎﻧﺴﺎﻱ، ﺧﻠﻴﺞ ﺍﻭﺳﺎﻛﺎ‬ ‫‪Production line‬‬ ‫ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻮﺟﺎﺝ ﺑﺎﻝﻫﺎ )ﺍﻳﺮﺍﺩﻯ ﺑﻪﺟﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻯ(‬‫‪Entrance stairs, metro station, Tokyo‬‬ ‫ﭘﻠﺔ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻯ ﺍﻳﺴﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﺘﺮﻭ، ﺗﻮﻛﻴﻮ‬ ‫)‪Distortion of the flanges (fault left by the steel bands construction‬‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻯ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﻰ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ، ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻬﻢ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ. ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭ ﺯﻳﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻄﻠﻰﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺎﺷﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎً ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻠﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﺁﻻﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩ. ﺑﺪﻳﻬﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻬﻴﺔ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻨﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻓﻨﻰ ﻭ ﭼﻚﻟﻴﺴﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﻮﺩ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻲ ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻰ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺯﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﻫﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ، ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻭﺍﻛﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻬﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻓﻀﺎﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻅ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻑ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺩﻳﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﺮ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺭﺣﻤﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ، ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺵﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﻭ ﺭﻧﮓﺁﻣﻴﺰﻯ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻨﺖﺍﻧﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺳﻮﻟﻪ ﺩﺳﺖﻳﺎﻓﺘﻨﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺍﻣﺎ ﺳﻮﻟﺔ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕﻫﺎ، ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ، ﻭ ﺍﻧﮕﻴﺰﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺣﻔﺎﻇﺖ ﺷﺨﺼﻰ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ،‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﻨﻤﻰ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻟﻰ ﻣﻨﺰﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﻚ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﺍﻯ ﺑﻰﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻻﺍﺑﺎﻟﻰ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺑﻰﺟﺎﻳﻰ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﻣﻬﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻠﻰ ﻧﺒﻮﺩ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩﺗﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻧﺴﭙﺎﺭﻳﺪ. ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﭘﺮﻭژﺓ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ: ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺘﺎً ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪﻱ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻃﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻼﻣﺘﻰ ﻭ ﺟﺎﻥ ﺧﻮﺩﺷﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ.‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﮔﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺫﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﻠﻘﻰ ﭘﺨﺶ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﻣﻰﺁﻻﻳﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻢ ﺭﺍﻳﺞ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺩﺍﻭﺭﻯ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻯﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺯﻳﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺳﻼﻣﺖ ﺁﺩﻣﻴﺰﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪﺷﺪﺓ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻳﺪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻭﻟﻰ ﻧﺎﻛﺎﻓﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺪﺕ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻛﻒ ﺁﻥ ﭘﻮﺷﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻜﻪﭘﺎﺭﻩﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﻛﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ، ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻰ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎً‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺩﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺁﻫﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﻛﺜﻴﻔﻰ ﻭ ﺷﻠﺨﺘﮕﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻧﺶ ﺑﺒﺎﺭﺩ، ﺗﺮﺩﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻣﻴﻠﻰﻣﺘﺮﻯ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻰﻣﺘﺮﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻟﺶ ﻫﻢ ﭼﻴﺰﻯ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﻳﻪﻫﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺪ. ﻳﺎ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻧﺼﺐ »ﻣﺨﻔﻰ« ﻛﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺟﻮﺭ ﻧﻤﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺿﺮﺏ ﻭ ﺯﻭﺭ ﺗﻴﻔﻮﺭ ﻭ ...‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺵﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﻣﺎ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﺟﺪﻯ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﻫﻢ »ﺧﻮﺭﺍﻧﺪ«. ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺘﻰ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﻰﻋﻴﺒﻰ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻓﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺶﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺑﻪﻫﻢ ﺧﻮﺭﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻱ ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﭼﺎﺭﻯ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﺶ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺴﻤﺎﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺑﺎﻗﻰ ﻣﻲﻣﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻟﺮﺯﻩ، ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫»ﭘﻴﺶﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ« ﻫﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺭﺍﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺮﺏﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥﺳﻨﺒﻪﻫﺎ ﭘﻨﻬﺎﻥ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺯﻫﺮ ﻛﺸﻨﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻰ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﺷﻌﻠﻪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ، ﺑﻪﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﮔﺮﻣﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺭﻳﺰﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻣﻄﻤﺌﻨﻰ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﻋﺪﻡ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻭ ﺳﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻻﻳﻞ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﺗﺮﻱ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻰ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﺑﺮﺷﻤﺮﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ. »ﺧﻮﺷﺒﺨﺘﺎﻧﻪ« ﺁﺳﻴﺐﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺎﺷﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎ، ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻜﻰ، ﻭ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﺁﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺘﻰ ﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﺓ‬ ‫48/48‬
  4. 4. ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﺐ ﺭﺍﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﺳﺎﺯﻯ‬ ‫‪An example of‬‬ ‫‪common flaws in‬‬ ‫‪constructing steel‬‬ ‫‪bands‬‬‫‪Production platform below crane maneuver area‬‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻀﺎﻯ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺎﻧﻮﺭ ﺟﺮﺛﻘﻴﻞ ﺳﻘﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺏﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺑﺮﺵ ﺑﺎ ﮔﻴﻮﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫‪Distortion create in the sheet because cutting with guillotine‬‬‫‪Guillotine cutting machine‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﮔﻴﻮﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫‪Plasma cutting‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺵ ‪ CNC‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺮﺵ ﭘﻼﺳﻤﺎ‬ ‫‪Flame cutting‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺵ ‪ CNC‬ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻴﻪﮔﺎﻫﻰ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺤﻮﻯ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻴﺐ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﻡ ﻣﻰﺍﻓﺘﻨﺪ، ﺍﻣﺎ »ﻣﺘﺄﺳﻔﺎﻧﻪ«‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻴﺐ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﺎً ﺭﻓﻊ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻣﻴﺪﻥ ﮔﻞﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻬﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻰﻫﺎ ﻻﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺷﻜﻠﻰ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﻣﺎﻧﺪ.‬‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺁﻥ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺧﻄﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺻﻔﺤﻪﺍﻯ )ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ( ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ. ﺍﮔﺮ‬‫ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﺓ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻰ، ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ، ﺑﺎ ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎﻱ ﻏﻴﺮﻗﺎﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻮﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻃﺒﻌﺎً ﻓﻀﺎﻫﺎ، ﺳﻄﻮﺡ، ﻭ ﺳﻜﻮﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻰﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺮ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺎﻩ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﺑﻪ »ﻣﻴﺰ ﻛﺎﺭ« ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﺰﺭگ ﻭ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦﺍﻧﺪ، ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﻴﺶﺑﻴﻨﻰ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻭ ﺳﻜﻮﻯ ﻧﺎﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺮﺗﺮﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ )ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ( ﻭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺎﻫﻰ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ، ﭼﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻰ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻯ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺎﻣﺘﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ، ﺭﻭﻯ ﺳﻜﻮﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺣﺴﻦ ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻋﻴﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺗﺨﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺴﻠﻂ ﻭ ﺍﺣﺎﻃﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻰ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻠﻰ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺘﻰ ﻳﺎ ﻧﻴﻮ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺟﺎﺑﻪﺟﺎﻳﻰ ﻭ ﺭﻳﺨﺘﻦ ﻓﻠﺰ ﻣﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩ. ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻰ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺩﻭﻡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ، ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﭘﺴﺘﻰ ﻭ ﺑﻠﻨﺪﻯ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﻤﻪﺳﺎﺯﻯ )ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﺑﺎﻝ ﺗﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﺁﻻﺕ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻮﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻟﺐ ﺑﻪ ﻟﺐ ﻧﻮﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺧﺎﻡ( ﺍﮔﺮ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺻﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﺁﻻﺕ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻧﺪﻳﺪﻩﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺟﺬﺍﺏ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻫﺮﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻴﻮﺑﻰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺑﻌﺪﻯ ﺻﺪﺍﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺭﻣﻰﺁﻳﺪ.‬‫ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﻭ ﺳﺮﻭﺻﺪﺍﻯ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﺁﻻﺕ ﺑﺰﺭگﺗﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺟﺬﺍﺏﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻭﻗﺘﻰ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺖ ﺭﺳﻴﺪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻗﻀﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﻗﻒﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻳﺪﻫﺎ، ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﭘﺮ ﺳﺮﻭﺻﺪﺍﻳﻰ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺧﻮﺍﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺳﻜﻮﻳﻰ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻨﻪﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﻰ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ »ﮔﻴﻮﺗﻴﻦ« ﺑﻪ ﺭﺍﻩ ﻣﻲﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﻨﺪ )ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺳﺘﻮﻧﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﻚﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﻮﺗﻴﻦ ﻳﻚ ﻗﻴﭽﻰ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺎﻣﺶ ﺑﺮﻣﻰﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﺳﺮﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﺗﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ(. ﺷﺮﻁ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﺳﻜﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺩﺳﺖﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺑﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻮﺽ ﮔﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﺩﻣﻴﺰﺍﺩ ﻭﺭﻗﻪﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺁﻥ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺗﻜﺎﻥ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻻﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻰﺑﺮﺩ. ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﻫﺎ ﺩﻫﺎﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺷﺶ ﻣﺘﺮﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻳﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ )ﻟﻄﻔﺎً ﻣﺮﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﻬﻢ ﻧﻜﻨﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﻭﺭﻕ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺗﺎ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺷﺶ ﻣﺘﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺒﺮﻧﺪ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﮔﺮﺍﻧﻘﻴﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻜﻮﻫﺎﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺟﻮﻋﻰ، ﺩﻭﺭﺭﻳﺰ، ﻳﺎ ﻫﺮ ﺗﻜﻪﭘﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻫﺮ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﺍﺳﺖ ﭼﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﺵﺯﻧﻰ ﺭﺍ )ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻼﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﺳﺮﻫﻢ ﻛﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺸﻢ ﺩﻳﺪﻩﺍﻡ(.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻗﺪﻡ ﺍﻭﻝ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ( ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﻣﻰﺑﺮﺩ: ﻣﺜﻼ ﻭﺭﻗﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺷﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻡ ﺳﻜﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺗﺮﺍﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ ﻭ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﺩﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻰﻣﺘﺮ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻧﺶ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﺮﺵ ﺩﺳﺘﻰ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺸﻢ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﭘﻨﻬﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ، ﻭ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬‫58/58‬
  5. 5. ‫‪Plasma cutting‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺵ ﭘﻼﺳﻤﺎ‬ ‫‪Water jet cutting‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺗﺮﺟﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺧﻮﺩﻛﺎﺭ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺯﻳﺮﭘﻮﺩﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻮﺵ 2‪CO‬‬‫‪Submerged arc welding‬‬ ‫‪CO2 gas metal arc welding‬‬ ‫‪Water jet cutting‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺗﺮﺟﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺵ ‪ CNC‬ﺑﺎ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﺮﺵ ﻛﻔﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻤﻪﺧﻮﺩﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺖ، ﺩﺭ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻣﻰﺑﺮﺩ. ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺧﻮﺑﻰ ﻣﻰﺩﻫﺪ.‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﻳﻰ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﻭﺝ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﭘﻴﺶ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﺑﺮﺵ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺑﺮﺵﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﺠﺰﻩﺍﻯ ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻜﻨﺪ، ﺍﻭﻻً ﻃﺒﻖ ﺿﻮﺍﺑﻂ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻃﻰ ﺁﻥ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥﻫﺎﻯ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ )ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎژ(‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻫﺴﺖ: ﻭﺭﻕﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻟﺒﺔ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺩﺭﻳﻞ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﺎﻝ )ﺷﻌﺎﻋﻰ( ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻰ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﻧﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩﺍﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺷﻌﺎﻉ ﺑﺎﺯﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺷﻴﻮﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﺮﺵ، ﻭﺍﺗﺮﺟﺖ ﻭ ... ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﻯ‬‫ﺁﻥ، ﺩﻗﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑﭘﺬﻳﺮﻯ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ. ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺟﺎﺑﻪﺟﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻨﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺑﺮﺵ ﻧﻤﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﺑﻪﺟﺎﻳﻰ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻛﺎﺭ )ﻛﻪ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺖ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ ﻭ ﺣﻮﺻﻠﻪ ﺍﭘﺮﺍﺗﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ. ﺑﮕﺬﺭﻳﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ( ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻯ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ، ﻧﻮﻙ ﻣﺘﻪ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﻇﺮﻳﻒ ﻭ ﻣﻴﻨﻴﺎﺗﻮﺭﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ.‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺑﻪﺟﺎ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻼ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭﻳﻞ ﺳﺘﻮﻧﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻴﺐ ﺭﺍ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻨﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﻘﺎﻯ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺗﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪﮔﻴﺮﻯ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺳﻮﺭﺍﺥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫‪ CNC‬ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﭼﻴﺰﻯ ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﭘﻼﺗﺮﻫﺎﻯ ﻗﻠﻤﻰ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪﺟﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﺑﺎ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ.‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻢ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪﺍﻯ ﺑﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ، ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺮﺵ‬‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎژ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ. ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞﺩﻫﻨﺪﺓ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺧﺎﻡ ﭘﻴﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ. ﺑﻪ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﺪﻩﺍﻡ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺧﺎﻝﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﻪﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪﻭﺩﻯ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻰ ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻝ ﺑﺮﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺎﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺧﺎﻡ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ. ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎژ، ﺳﻜﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺵ ‪ CNC‬ﻧﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ، ﻛﻪ ﺿﺎﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻻﺩ ﺧﺎﻡ ﺭﺍ ﻫﻢ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺟﺮﺛﻘﻴﻞ ﺳﻘﻔﻰ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻰ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎژﻛﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﺓ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻰﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪ: ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺪﻝﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻫﺮﭼﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎژ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮﭼﻴﺰ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ، ﺩﻗﺖ، ﻭ ﺣﻮﺻﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻯ ﺑﺮﺵ4 ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﺓ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒﺷﺪﺓ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺧﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻢﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻳﻰ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺔ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻫﻢ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻃﻮﺭﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻣﻮﻧﺘﺎژﺷﺪﻩ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻕ ﺧﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﭼﻴﻨﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﻭﺭﺭﻳﺰ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺗﻴﻎ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ‪CNC‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺷﻜﻞﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻋﻮﺟﺎﺝﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺗﻨﺶﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺴﻤﺎﻧﺪ ﻃﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻫﻮﺍﺑﺮﺵ، ﺑﺮﺵ ﭘﻼﺳﻤﺎ، ﺑﺮﺵ ﻟﻴﺰﺭ، ﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﺗﺮﺟﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﻭ ﻇﺮﺍﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﻧﺪ، ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺩﺭﺳﺘﻰ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﺧﻂ ﺑﺮﺵ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻛﻢ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻤﺎﻧﻌﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻭﻫﻠﺔ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺔ ﺩﺭﺳﺘﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻓﻮﻻﺩ ﻭ ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ ﻭﺭﻕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﺑﻼﻍ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺔ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﻳﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫... ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ. ﻭﺍﺗﺮﺟﺖ ﻧﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﻗﻴﻖﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺑﺮﺵ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﻪﻭﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ: ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻳﻚ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺠﺎ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺑﺎ ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﺮﺵ ﺳﺎﻟﻢﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻫﻢ ﻫﺴﺖ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻭ ﺁﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ، ﺍﺯ ﻛﺪﺍﻡ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺍﻥ ﺁﻥ ﻓﻘﻂ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺑﺮﺵ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﺵﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺩﻗﺖﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺗﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻗﻄﻌﺔ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻛﺎﺭ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻋﻀﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ ﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻴﻠﻰﻣﺘﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ. ﺗﺎ ﺟﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﺪﻩﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ‬ ‫68/68‬
  6. 6. ‫ﺧﻢ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺎﻝ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺮﻭ ‪Bending the column flange by applying heat & force‬‬ ‫‪Result of heat & impact on made piece‬‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺮ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻭ ﺿﺮﺑﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻋﻀﻮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ‬‫‪Louvre pyramid‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮﻡ ﻟﻮﻭﺭ‬ ‫‪Seatle library‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺨﺎﻧﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ »ﻣﺘﺄﺳﻔﺎﻧﻪ« ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﺍﻱ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ.‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺍﻋﻮﺟﺎﺝ ﺷﻜﻠﻰ ﻭ ﺗﻨﺶﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﺴﻤﺎﻧﺪ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﻭ ﺳﺮﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻓﻮﻻﺩﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻗﻠﻴﻢﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻴﻂﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻼﻥ ﻋﻠﻰﺍﻻﺻﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻬﺪﺓ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻼ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺪﺭﻯ ﻧﻜﺎﺕ ﺭﻳﺰ ﻓﻨﻰ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭﻯ،‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﺎً ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﻭﻳﮋﺓ ﺳﻨﺪﺑﻼﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺁﻥ ﻛﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻮﺯﺓ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ، ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻬﺪﺓ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﻤﻲﺁﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﻧﮓﺁﻣﻴﺰﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻟﻦ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻨﺸﻴﻨﻰ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺑﺎ ﺟﻮﺵ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺵ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻻﻳﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺗﺌﻮﺭﻯ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﺔ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺃﻣﺎﻥ‬‫ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻮﺍﻯ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﺎﺑﺶ ﺁﻓﺘﺎﺏ ﻭ ﻭﺯﺵ ﺑﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭﺵ ﺑﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ. ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﺯ ﭘﺎﻯ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﻓﻨﻰ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻻﻳﻠﻰ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ »ﻣﻜﺮﻭﻩ« ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺁﻳﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ )ﻛﻪ ﺍﻧﺸﺎءﺍﷲ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ( ﻭ ﻫﻤﻔﻜﺮﻯ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ، ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺗﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪﺍﻯ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺘﻨﻲ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺓ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﮔﺮﻭﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻳﺪﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻣﻴﺪﻭﺍﺭ ﺑﻮﺩ. ﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ، ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻋﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺭﻛﺘﻴﻔﺎﻳﺮ،‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻭ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻨﺘﻔﻲ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﺪ. ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺵ ﺯﻳﺮﭘﻮﺩﺭﻯ، ﺟﻮﺵ 2‪ CO‬ﻭ ... ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻴﭻﻳﻚ ﺑﺮﺗﺮﻯ ﺑﺮ ﺁﻥﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻋﻼﻭﻩﺑﺮ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻠﻰ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻫﺮﻛﺪﺍﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﻨﺪ. ﻣﺜﻼ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺯﻳﺮﭘﻮﺩﺭﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﺯ ﺟﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﻰ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻫﻢ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺩﻫﻢ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻭ ﺯﻳﺒﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﻪﺟﺎ ﻣﻲﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺳﺎﺯﻩﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺎﻥ )ﺍﻛﺴﭙﻮﺯ( ﺍﻳﺪﻩﺁﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻠﻰ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﺎﺕ 55، 462 ﻭ 822 ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻯ ﻧﺎﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﻛﺸﺶ ﻭ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﻳﺰﻯ )ﺳﺎﺑﻖ( ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺳﺘﻰ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﺎً ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻮﺟﺎﺝ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﻳﺎ ﺟﻮﺵ 2‪ CO‬ﻛﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻯ ﮔﻞ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﭼﻪ ﺍﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﻫﺴﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ. ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﭘﺸﺖ ﺳﭙﺮﻯ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺎﺯ ﻛﺮﺑﻨﻴﻚ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﺪ )ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺟﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻰﻧﻘﺺ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﻪﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻡﻫﺎ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﭘﺎﺱ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻫﻢ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺍﻳﺪﻩﺁﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ( ﺩﺭ ﺟﺎﻳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺍﻗﺼﻰ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ: ﻣﺜﻼ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻛﻤﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺷﻜﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ )ﻛﻪ ﺳﭙﺮ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺩ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﺮﺩ( ﺑﻰﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﺩ، ﺩﺭ ﺑﺤﺚ »ﺭﻭﺍﺩﺍﺭﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ« ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻡﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺁﻣﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺟﺒﺎﺭﺍ ً‬ ‫ﺑﻪﺭﻏﻢ ﻫﻤﺔ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎً ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺗﻨﺶ ﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏﻧﺎﭘﺬﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻨﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ ﺭﺍ )ﻛﻪ ﺁﻥﮔﺎﻩ ﺧﻴﻠﻰ ﻫﻢ »ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ« ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ( ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻤﻬﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﺸﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﻣﻦ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪﺍﻯ ﺷﺨﺼﻰ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﻡ: ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﭘﻴﺶ ﻭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ »ﺩﺭﺯ« ﻭ »ﻭﺻﻠﻪ« ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺒﻊ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺗﻨﺶ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻧﺎﮔﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﻣﺎﺳﺖ ﺭﻛﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﭼﺎﺭ ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻳﻢ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ، ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﺁﻫﺴﺘﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﻫﻨﮓ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﺁﺩﺭﺳﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﻣﺒﺤﺚ ﺩﻫﻢ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺩﺭﺝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻳﻤﻴﻠﻰ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﺎﺩﻳﻢ.‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺵ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﻲ ﺗﺎﺣﺪﻱ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﻝ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻰ ﻧﮕﺮﻓﺘﻪﺍﻳﻢ )ﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻡ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪﻱ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﻣﻲ ﺳﺮﺩ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻮﺭﻩﻫﺎ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬‫78/78‬
  7. 7. ‫‪Tokyo international forum‬‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺭﻭﻡ ﺑﻴﻦﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ ﺗﻮﻛﻴﻮ‬ ‫‪Beijing Olympic stadium‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﭙﻴﻚ ﭘﻜﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ( ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ ﺩﭘﻮﻯ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺧﻮﺩﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻛﺮﺩﻳﻢ(. ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺧﻮﺵﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﻭ ﭼﻪ ﺑﺴﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻫﻤﻪﮔﻴﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻭﻻً ﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﻭ ﻧﻮﺍﻗﺺ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺍﮔﺮ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﻫﺎﻯ ﺩﺭﺏﻭﺩﺍﻏﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺑﻪﻃﺮﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎً ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻳﻤﻴﻞﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻓﺮﺳﺘﺎﺩﻳﻢ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ‬‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻳﻤﻦ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﭘﻴﺶﺑﻴﻨﻰ ﺑﺴﺘﺮ ﻭ ﺗﻜﻴﻪﮔﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﻣﻦ ﻛﺒﺮﻳﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ.‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺳﺮﻭﻛﻮﻝ ﻫﻢ ﺭﻳﺨﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻫﻤﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﻓﺮﻣﻪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ، ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ، ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻧﻀﺒﺎﻁ ﻭ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺰﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺵﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﻪﺳﺎﺩﮔﻰ ﺩﻭﺩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ. ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﻭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﺟﻮﺵﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﻫﻨﮓ ﺧﺮﻭﺝ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ، ﺣﻤﻞ ﻭ ﺩﭘﻮﻯ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ،‬ ‫ﺑﻪﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﻰﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﮕﻰ ﻭ ﺑﻰﺳﺮﻭﺳﺎﻣﺎﻧﻰ،‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮓ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻳﺪﻩﺁﻟﻴﺴﺘﻰ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺷﻮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻮﺍﻗﺺ ﻭ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎﻯ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ ﺗﻮﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺯﻭﻳﻰ ﻣﺤﺎﻝ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﺶﺑﻴﻨﻰ ﺣﺪﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ.‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻣﻴﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ‬‫ﺳﺎﻳﺖ، ﻣﻌﻄﻠﻰ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ، ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻰﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻥ ﺗﻴﻢ ﻧﺼﺎﺏ ﺭﺥ ﻧﺪﻫﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻰ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻡﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺗﻬﻴﺔ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻓﺮﻣﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻣﻴﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻭ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﭘﻴﺶﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺟﺎﻧﻤﺎﻳﻰ ﺟﺎﻯ ﻗﻼﺏ ﺟﺮﺛﻘﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﺑﺮ ﻋﻬﺪﺓ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ »ﻫﺮ ﭼﻴﺰﻯ ﺑﺴﺎﺯﺩ ﺧﻮﺩﺵ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﭘﻴﺶﺑﻴﻨﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻳﻤﻨﻰ ﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺳﻘﻮﻁ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻭ ﺩﻭﻣﻴﻦ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ« ﺧﻴﺎﻝ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺷﻮﺍﺭﻯﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻰ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺩﻓﺮﻣﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻋﻀﻮ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺭﺍﺣﺖ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ، ﺩﺭﺣﺎﻟﻰﻛﻪ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ »ﻧﺼﺐ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ« ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﺭﻏﻢ ﻫﻤﺔ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝﻫﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻻﺗﻰ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻧﺼﺐ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫»ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﺼﺐ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ« ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺗﺎ ﺁﺳﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪﺷﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ، ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻧﻪ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺗﺎً ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﻝﺳﺎﺯﻯ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻫﺮ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﻭ ﻛﺞﻭﻛﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻫﺮ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﺧﻮﺭﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ، ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎﻯ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺳﺮ ﻫﻢ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺘﻰ ﺑﺮﭘﺎ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﻻﺯﻣﺔ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻨﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﻰ ﮔﺮﻳﺨﺘﻪﺍﻧﺪ. ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻰ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎ،‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﭘﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﻰ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ. ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻰ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻇﺮﺍﻳﻒ ﻭ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻰﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖﻛﺎﺭﻯ ﻋﺎﻗﻼﻧﻪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺨﺶﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻛﻤﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ، ﭼﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﺁﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻯ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻄﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻓﺮﺻﺘﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻋﻴﺐ ﻭ ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﺧﻄﺎ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺷﺎﻳﺪ‬‫ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﻰ ﻛﺮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻌﻮﻳﺾ ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ ﻣﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﭘﺮﺭﻧﮓﺗﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻯ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﻰ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ )ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﻮﺓ ﻫﺎﻣﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦﺁﻻﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ: ﺗﻴﻢ ﻧﺼﺎﺏ »ﻣﺎﻫﺮ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺸﻰ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺩﻫﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻴﻪﺭﻭﻯ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻫﺮ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭ ﻏﺶ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ(.‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻓﻨﻰ، ﺑﺎ ﺩﻗﺖ، ﺻﺒﻮﺭ ﻭ ﭘﺮ ﺣﻮﺻﻠﻪ« ﺷﺮﻁ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺷﻤﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺮﺗﺮﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﭘﻴﺶﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺎﺑﻰ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﺧﻮﺍﻧﻰ ﺑﻠﺪ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ، ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺑﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻛﻼﻓﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻛﻮﺭﻩ ﺩﺭﻣﻰﺭﻭﺩ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺷﻐﻠﺶ ﺭﺍ ﻋﻮﺽ ﻛﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺳﻔﺖ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﺗﺮﺩﻳﺪﻯ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺴﺘﻦ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﭘﻴﺶﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ )ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺻﺤﺖ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﻭ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻰ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫88/88‬
  8. 8. ‫ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮﺳﺘﻮﻥﻫﺎﻯ ﭘﻞ ﻣﻴﻼﻭ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺼﺐ‬‫‪One of the Millau viaduct column headers before assembly‬‬ ‫‪Remaining errors from construction stage‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺮﺍﺩﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺮﺟﺎﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺷﺔ ﭘﻞ ﻣﻴﻼﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶﺑﻴﻨﻰ ﺟﺎﻯ ﻗﻼﺏ ﺟﺮﺛﻘﻴﻞ‬ ‫‪Sendai mediateque‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺎﺗﻚ ﺳﻨﺪﺍﻱ‬‫‪Millau viaduct deck under assembly‬‬ ‫‪Predicted crane hook‬‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻰﻋﻴﺐ ﺳﺎﺩﻩﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺍﻣﺎ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﻡ ﺁﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺖ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻟﻰ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ. ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻧﺎﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻫﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ:‬ ‫ﮔﺎﻡ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎﻯ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻯ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻼ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻰ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ، ﻭﺭﻕﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺘﻴﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﮔﺮﺩ ﻛﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻛﻰ ﻫﻢ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ، ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺳﻔﺘﻰ ﭘﻴﭻﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﺸﻪﻫﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ، ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺔ ﺩﻳﺘﻴﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭘﻴﭻﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺁﭼﺎﺭ ﮔﺸﺘﺎﻭﺭﺳﻨﺞ5 ﺳﻔﺖ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺭﻭﺣﻴﻪ ﻭ ﻫﻮﻳﺖ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻰ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻕﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩ ﺍﺻﻄﻜﺎﻛﻰ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﺓ ﺳﻔﺘﻰ ﭘﻴﭻﻫﺎ‬‫ً‬‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ. ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻫﻮﺷﻤﻨﺪﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻋﻤﻼ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﭘﻴﭻﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺎﺣﺪﻯ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻋﻀﺎ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻕﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻰﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻯ ﺑﺮ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻯ )ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﻔﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺴﺖ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺳﻔﺖ ﻛﺮﺩ. ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺳﻔﺘﻰ ﭘﻴﭻﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ( ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻛﻨﺪ. ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻭﻗﺘﻰ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻛﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ، ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﻴﭻﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺑﺰﺭگ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ )ﻣﺜﻼ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻬﺎﺭـ ﭘﻨﺞ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ، ﻳﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﻫﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﺑﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﻩ ﻭﺍﻛﻨﺶ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻧﻰ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ. ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺷﺶـ ﻫﻔﺖ ﻣﺘﺮ(، ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩﺍﻯ ﻣﻰﺭﺳﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻔﺖ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﭘﻴﭻﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎﻳﻰ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺁﭼﺎﺭ ﺭﻳﻨﮕﻰ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺨﺖ ﻣﻨﻌﻰ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ ﻭ ﭘﻨﻬﺎﻥ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﻻﻯ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺳﻘﻒ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻛﻤﺪ ﻭ ...‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻧﺼﺎﺏ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﻡ ﺗﺎ ﺷﺎﻡ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻯ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻧﻰ ﺑﺮ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ، ﻣﮕﺮ ﺁﻧﻜﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺁﮔﺎﻫﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﭼﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺯﻭﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﻭﻯ ﻫﻤﺔ ﻧﺼﺎﺏﻫﺎ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺧﺪﻣﺖ ﻃﺮﺡ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻯ ﻭ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ. ﺑﻪﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﮔﺮ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺸﺮﻋﻴﻦ »ﺍﺣﻮﻁ« ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺮﻩﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﭻ ﺑﻨﺪﻫﺎﻯ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺰﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺑﻨﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺷﻜﻞﻫﺎﻯ ﺭﺍﻳﺞ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻴﺮ ﺍﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻰ ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫)ﺑﺎﺩﻯ( ﺳﻔﺖ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺧﺴﺘﮕﻰ ﺳﺮﺷﺎﻥ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺑﺮ ﻓﻀﺎ ﻓﻜﺮ ﻧﻜﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻧﻰ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻰﻛﻨﻨﺪ.‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭ ﺑﺴﭙﺎﺭﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﻰ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻌﻤﺎﺭﻯ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺁﻥﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ،‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﭘﻴﺶﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻡ ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩ ﻭ ﻛﻮﺷﺶ‬ ‫ﮔﻨﺎﻫﺶ ﮔﺮﺩﻥ ﭼﻪ ﻛﺴﻰ ﺟﺰ ﺧﻮﺩﺷﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ؟ ﺷﺮﻁ ﺍﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﻜﻠﺖ ﺧﻮﺏ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺮ ﺑﺮﺳﺪ، ﭼﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﺣﺬﻑ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻪ ﺑﻪﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﭼﻴﺰﻯ ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻢ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻠﻰ، ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺜﺎﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﻰ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﺎﺭﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﺑﺪﻯ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻰ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ: ﻣﺜﻼ ﺍﺻﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪﺓ ﻓﻀﺎﺳﺖ. ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻰ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻯ ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺘﻮﻥ ﻳﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺗﻴﺮ ﺑﺰﺭگ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﭘﻴﭻ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺮﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ.‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﺪﺍﻳﺶ ﻓﻠﻨﺞﻫﺎﻯ ﻏﻮﻝﭘﻴﻜﺮﻯ ﺑﻴﻨﺠﺎﻣﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻗﻞ ﺿﺮﺭﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻠﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻀﺎﺳﺖ. ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻧﻮﺷﺖﻫﺎ:‬ ‫ﺩﺷﻮﺍﺭﻯﻫﺎ ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎً ﻣﺮﺩﻭﺩ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﺰﺍﺭﻯ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺩﺷﻮﺍﺭ ﻫﺴﺖ ﻭﻟﻰ‬‫‪1- shop drawing‬‬‫‪2- Splices‬‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ. ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎﺭﻯﻫﺎﻯ ﺷﺎﻩ ﺗﻴﺮ ﭘﻞ‬‫‪3- Stiffeners‬‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﻭ6 ﺩﺭ ﺟﻨﻮﺏ ﻓﺮﺍﻧﺴﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻜﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺰﺭگﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺣﺴﺎﺱﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﺎﺯﻩﻫﺎﻯ‬‫‪4- cutting sheet‬‬‫‪5- torque meter‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝﻫﺎﻯ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ، ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕﻫﺎﻯ ﻧﺎﺷﻰ ﺍﺯ ﺣﻤﻞ‬‫‪6- millau viaduct‬‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ، ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ.‬‫98/98‬

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