Constructivism new implications for education in EFL ESL
what are the assumptions we make
about our learners when designing?
LEARNING AND TECH
• learning theories & how they inform the design of
instructional materials & moments
• Communication Technologies across time
• Education across time
• Education & Technology Today?
The Shift from…
• content to competencies
• teaching to learning
• teachers to learners
• Mr./Ms. know it all to Mr./ Ms facilitator
• teaching to coaching
• right answers to right questions
• making questions to posing questions
• Education in the classroom to education across life time
• fixed curriculum to learner-centered plan, prompted to be changed
• Prescriptive content to descriptive learning
• Situations to Experiences
• ready-made objects to objects in the making
• Assessing Content to assessing competencies
What learners see as a goal…
• not to master pure content, but also to
• understand and use information to solve
• the world is completely and correctly
structured in terms of entities, properties
and relations prior knowledge may lead
here to misunderstandings
• knowledge exists independently of
• learning involves the acquiring of
information and the production of rules.
• does not deny there IS a real world, but it
argues that the meaning to this world is
given by us, thus, there's no correct
• meaning is rooted and indexed by
• cognitive experiences need to be
situated in authentic activities
• Planning is part of the subject
matter for purposeful action
• There is not one ultimate reality.
• Reality is the consequence of
• a making-meaning process.
• Human behavior is situationally determined and no
machines can replicate this.
• We need to honor the unformalized background
experiences of each individual.
• abstraction v/s meaning
• learning outcomes as products
• learners as designers
• plausible interpretations of a
complex world and its challenges
• Emphasis on right questions rather
than on “right answers”
• the 'active' learner
• WIG and BIG
• variety of contexts and examples.
• different understandings on the part of the learner
• a criss-crossing landscape of contexts
• Situated learning, ST
in macro-contexts ST allows for
sustained exploration - generative learning,
ie. getting home safely-
Learners work on contexts for an extended period of time.
How does constructivism…
• Inform our classroom pracitices
• Shape the activites we design
• Describe group assignments
• Help us design individual tasks
• Support assessment of tasks for our
Are we willing and ready to give
up the objectivist power and
co-learners and co-designers
in our classroom?
teachers become learners,
learners become designers...
Teachers and students become
partners indeed and in deed.