CLT: going beyond
Current perspectives to language teaching
Mmiraglia / August 2013
• Our timeline with methods is here.
Did you post your content? (section 3)
20th Century Methods
If you think of one method, could you talk to another
classmate or a teacher about
01. The characteristics of the teaching/learning
02. The nature of teacher-student and student-
03. The ways in which students’ feelings and
emotions are handled?
04. The role of native language of students?
05. The language skills that are emphasized?
06. The way the teacher responds to student errors?
Talk to a
Language Teaching Today
• How much of a method still remains?
• Why we talk about post-method these days?
• What changes in our world have brought us to our current
status in ELT?
Teachers’ Choices: influenced by
possibilities, reasons, and
Features of CLT vs AL
Group work 1
•Get together with 3 or 4 other
•Recieve a set of characteristics written
on a slips of paper.
•Group the slips into 2 categories: AL and
•We’ll compare our results in the next 6
Features of CLT vs AL
•mainly focused on structure and form more than meaning
•rote learning of structure-based conversations
•language is commonly presented out of context
•achievement of “learning a language” is evidenced in language forms, sounds and words
•translation is not allowed from early in a course
•sequencing of a syllabus is determined by linguistic complexity
•errors are handled as instances to be corrected at all times
•accuracy (not fluency) is an important goal towards mastering a language
•motivation comes from wanting to learn more about the language
•meaning is at the heart of teaching / learning
•conversations are presented in terms of functions
•a key goal is communication
•trial and error is part of the learning process
•reading and writing can be included from early in any course
•drilling is done as a resource
•mastery of forms is achieved while negotiating meaning
•accuracy is evaluated in context
•group work is a common type of dynamics in the classroom
•motivation comes from what we are communicating
Group work 2
•Each group will receive some English textbooks
•Browse each textbook and discuss with your group.
•Question: what principles and characteristics do you recognize
in each textbook?
•Write down a list:
name of textbook + fact / observation + characteristic or principle
CLT key characterics
Changing roles: teachers and students
Choices are made based on possibilities, reasons, and context where learning happens
CLT & Post-methods:
• Cooperative and
• Interactive Learning
• Whole Language
• Content-Based Instruction
• Task-based Instruction
Cloud of key words
Brown, D. (2007) Teaching by Principles: an interactive approach
to language pedagogy, Third Edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006) Tesol Methods: Changing Tracks,
Challenging Trends. Tesol Quarterly, vol. 40 (1), 59-77.