Beyond Methods: CLT (and more?)


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A quick overview of ESL / EFL methods that dominated our past century and what has emerged over the past decades.
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Beyond Methods: CLT (and more?)

  1. 1. CLT: going beyond methods? Current perspectives to language teaching Mmiraglia / August 2013
  2. 2. Recapping • Our timeline with methods is here. Did you post your content? (section 3) perspectives-in-TEFL
  3. 3. Initial definitions • Approach • Method • Technique 20th Century Methods (visit timeline) If you think of one method, could you talk to another classmate or a teacher about 01. The characteristics of the teaching/learning process? 02. The nature of teacher-student and student- student interaction? 03. The ways in which students’ feelings and emotions are handled? 04. The role of native language of students? 05. The language skills that are emphasized? 06. The way the teacher responds to student errors? Talk to a classmate or another teacher 
  4. 4. Language Teaching Today Class discussion • How much of a method still remains? • Why we talk about post-method these days? • What changes in our world have brought us to our current status in ELT?
  5. 5. Teachers’ Choices: influenced by possibilities, reasons, and context
  6. 6. Features of CLT vs AL Group work 1 •Get together with 3 or 4 other classmates. •Recieve a set of characteristics written on a slips of paper. •Group the slips into 2 categories: AL and CLT. •We’ll compare our results in the next 6 minutes
  7. 7. 6 minutes
  8. 8. Features of CLT vs AL AL •mainly focused on structure and form more than meaning •rote learning of structure-based conversations •language is commonly presented out of context •achievement of “learning a language” is evidenced in language forms, sounds and words •translation is not allowed from early in a course •sequencing of a syllabus is determined by linguistic complexity •errors are handled as instances to be corrected at all times •accuracy (not fluency) is an important goal towards mastering a language •motivation comes from wanting to learn more about the language CLT •meaning is at the heart of teaching / learning •conversations are presented in terms of functions •a key goal is communication •trial and error is part of the learning process •reading and writing can be included from early in any course •drilling is done as a resource •mastery of forms is achieved while negotiating meaning •accuracy is evaluated in context •group work is a common type of dynamics in the classroom •motivation comes from what we are communicating
  9. 9. Identifying principles Group work 2 •Each group will receive some English textbooks •Browse each textbook and discuss with your group. •Question: what principles and characteristics do you recognize in each textbook? •Write down a list: name of textbook + fact / observation + characteristic or principle
  10. 10. CLT key characterics Changing roles: teachers and students Choices are made based on possibilities, reasons, and context where learning happens
  11. 11. CLT & Post-methods: important notions • Learner-Centered Instruction • Cooperative and Collaborative Leaning • Interactive Learning • Whole Language Education • Content-Based Instruction • Task-based Instruction Cloud of key words
  12. 12. References Brown, D. (2007) Teaching by Principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy, Third Edition. White Plains, NY: Pearson Education. Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006) Tesol Methods: Changing Tracks, Challenging Trends. Tesol Quarterly, vol. 40 (1), 59-77.