18 century[1]


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18 century[1]

  1. 1. The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century1660-1798<br />
  2. 2. The Grow of English Democracy1660 Charles the second. 1665 plague. (70 000).1666 The Great Fire.1632-1723 Architect Christopher Wren Rebuilt England.Charles study of natural science.Catholic King of France-$James II dismissed the Parliament.<br />
  3. 3. A Glorious Revolution<br />Mary and William (Protestants).<br />James escaped to France. (No blood-GR).<br />Bill of Rights. (Law). Parliament.<br />Democratic England.<br />Political Parties emerge.<br />1707 Queen Anne joined the realms of England and Scotland Great Britain.<br />
  4. 4. France an Britain were at war.<br />Changes Political factions: The Tories and the Whigs.<br />The split between Tories and Whigs would remain a basic fact of British politics for many decades.<br />Parliament (Only protestants could inherit the throne).<br />Anne signed to end the war. (1713).<br />
  5. 5. Anne dies in 1714, and the successor was a relative of James I.<br />A cabinet and Prime Minister<br />George I relied on minister, chosen from the Parliament.<br />Robert Walpole.<br />Cabinet- PRIME MINISTER.<br />Unification of the Cabinet government in the person of the Prime Minister.**<br />
  6. 6. 1760 <br />George III<br />American revolution.<br />William Pitt. (PM-1782)<br />
  7. 7. The Transformation of Britain’s Economy.<br />Gradually democratic<br />Landlord-----laborers.<br />1700 Industry revolution. $<br />The Industrial Age Dawns<br />Inventions.<br />Eli invented the Cotton Gin.<br />Telescope by Newton.<br />Spinning and weaving of cloth.<br />
  8. 8. The Enlightenment<br /><ul><li>Industrial Rev. began when British inventors found practical ways to apply the ideas of Scientific Rev.
  9. 9. Isaac Newton (1687)</li></li></ul><li>The Enlightenment<br /><ul><li>British people wanted to understand the world, so it was the era of astronomy, physics, and chemistry.
  10. 10. People started analyzing and studying</li></ul> everything from a rational point of view. <br />John Locke, philosopher who brought<br /> rationalism to the study of political issues.<br />
  11. 11. Neoclassical Ideal<br /><ul><li>The Enlightenment thinkers based their ideas on writers of Ancient Greece and Rome like Homer and Horace. They are called neoclassical because they used classical styles.
  12. 12. Main characteristics of Neoclassicism:</li></ul>Frequent use of classical allusions (references to myths, gods, and ancient heroes).<br />Generalization about the world (The study of mankind)<br />Writers used satire to criticize society, but it was in a formal and inoffensive way. <br />
  13. 13. Literary World<br /><ul><li>Education made people able to read and to buy books. News papers appear and also publishers. The 1st copyright laws were established. </li></ul>Coffee house of the 18th Century<br />
  14. 14. Literary World<br />The Age of Dryden (1660-1700)<br /><ul><li>He was the official poet of king Charles II
  15. 15. He wrote satirical poems, plays, and essays
  16. 16. His most famous work was “MacFlecknoe” (1682)
  17. 17. He made fun of their heroes, that it is why his poems are called mock epics.
  18. 18. He created poems to celebrate a public event, for example: “A Song for St. Cecilia´s Day”
  19. 19. He wrote the best tragedy of the period which was about the romance between Antony and Cleopatra
  20. 20. Dryden wrote a series of essays which are considered the 1st modern prose because they are clear, direct, and colloquial. </li></li></ul><li>Literary World<br /> The Age of Pope & Swift<br />
  21. 21. Eighteenth century or The Age of Johnson (1709-1784) <br /><ul><li>He grew up in poverty in a small town north of Birmingham
  22. 22. A brilliant child who read Hamlet at the of eight
  23. 23. He entered Pembroke Collage, Oxford in1728,but forced to leave after fourteen months because of lack of founds
  24. 24. At the age of twenty –six he married a widow more older than he </li></ul> His Work : <br /><ul><li>1775 published A Dictionary of the English Language
  25. 25. Published the Idler in a newspaper
  26. 26. 1765 publish an acclaimed edition of Shakespeare
  27. 27. 1779 and 1781 published his last important work The Lives of the Poets</li></li></ul><li> The Literature of Eighteenth century <br />Historical context <br />Literary Moments<br />Writer’s Techniques <br />
  28. 28. The Age of Reason <br />The Age of Reason looked to science to make life better for humanity. <br />The style of written change to a neoclassicism .<br />New voices were being raised ,and they no longer spoke in the clipped and polished language of rationalist neoclassicism. The 1800’s started new literary age. <br />
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