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  • 2.  Concept of mental retardation  Definition of mental retardation  Classifications of mental retardation  Incidence and prevalence  Causes of mental retardation  Learning and Behaviour characteristics  Assessment Procedures  Models of assessment  Educational programs  Educational Approaches
  • 3. “There is no one who cannot find a place for himself in our kind of worlds. Each one of us has some unique capacity for realization. Every person is valuable in his her own existence.” - George H. Bender
  • 4. I. Early Development II. Behaviour and Psychosocial development III. Psychomotor Skills IV. Cognitive development and Communication Skills V. Quantitative Skills Daily Living Skills, Personal management and Pre- Vocational Skills VI. Future plans
  • 5.  In 1992, the American Association for Mental Retardation stressed that the distinction between the terms trait and state is central to the understanding of mental retardation.  Mental retardation is not a trait.  Mental retardation is a condition or state.
  • 6. Experiences difficulties in coping with various environments because he/ she lacks the mental, emotional and social skills and competencies to function in environments mental for normal people.
  • 7. Suffers from lags or delays in his or her general development profile.  DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY – attribute to mental or physical impairment or a combination of both factors that is likely to continue indefinitely.
  • 8.  These are self- care, receptive and expressive languange, learning, mobility, self- direction, capacity for independent living and economic self- sufficiency.
  • 9.  Mental retardation was an all- or-none phenomenon. The condition is accepted to be changeable.
  • 10. Described as “in transition”.  Refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. Characterized by significantly sub- average intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following adaptive skills.  Manifests before age 18.
  • 11.  Difficulty in performing everyday activities related to taking care of one’s self, doing ordinary tasks at home and work related to the other adaptive skills areas.
  • 12.  The person finds difficulty in learning skills in school that children of his age are able to learn.  INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING- a broad summation of cognitive abilities, such as the capacity ‘to learn, solve problems, accumulate knowledge and adapt to new situations.  Means the person has significantly below average intelligence.
  • 13.  The intelligence quotient score is approximately in the flexible lower IQ range 0 to 20 and upper IQ range of 70-75 based on the result of assessment using one or more individual intelligence tests.  SUB- AVERAGE INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING - Indicates that intelligence or at least intelligence test scores, are not static and unchangeable.
  • 14. Fail to meet the standards of personal independence and social responsibility expected of their chronological age and cultural group.  Adaptive skills are assessed by means of standardized adaptive behaviour scales.
  • 15. 1. COMMUNICATION- ability to understand and communicate information. (facia expressions , touch or gestures) 2. SELF- CARE- ability to take care of one’s needs in hygiene, grooming, dressing, eating, toileting.
  • 16. 3. HOME LIVING- ability to function in the home, housekeeping clothing care, property maintenance, cooking, shopping, home safety daily scheduling of work. 4. COMMUNITY USE- travel community, shopping, obtaining services. 5. SOCIAL SKILLS- initiating and terminating interactions, conversations, responding to social cues, recognizing feelings, regulating own behaviour, assisting others, fostering friendship.
  • 17. 6. SELF- DIRECTION- making choices, following schedules, completing required tasks, seeking assistance and resolving problems. 7. HEALTH AND SAFETY- maintaining own health, identify and preventing illness, first aid, sexuality, physical fitness and basic safety. 8. FUNCTIONAL ACADEMICS- learning the basic skills taught in school.
  • 18. 9. LEISURE- recreational activities that are appropriate to the age of the person 10. WORK- or employment, appropriate to one’s age.
  • 19. Manifests before age 18 to 22. It is a developmental disability. The old labels are mentally defective, mentally deficient, feebleminded, moron, imbecile, and idiot.
  • 20. 1. The existence of limitations in adaptive skills occurs within the context of community environments typical of the individual’s age peers and is indexed to the person’s individualized needs for supports. 2. Valid assessment considers cultural and linguistic diversity, as well as difference in communication, sensory poor, and behavioural factors. 3. Specific adaptive limitations often coexist with strengths in other adaptive skills or other personal capabilities.
  • 21. 4. The purpose of describing limitations often coexists with strength. 5. With appropriate supports over a sustained period, the life- functioning of the person with mental retardation will generally improve.
  • 22. 1. Mild MR with IQ scores from 55 to 70 2. Moderate MR with IQ scores from 40 to 54. 3. Sever MR with IQ scores from 25 to 39, and 4. Profound MR with IQ scores below 25. .
  • 23. Educable Mental Retardation (EMR) Trainable Mental Retardation (TMR)
  • 24. 1. INTERMITTENT SUPPORTS-are on as needed” 2. LIMITED SUPPORTS- required consistently, though not only daily basis. 3. EXTENSIVE SUPPORTS- are needed on a regular basis; daily supports are required in some envir0nments. 4. PERVASIVE SUPPORTS- daily extensive supports, perhaps of a life sustaining nature required in multiple environments.
  • 25. Mental retardation can occur in 3% of a given population. About 15% of these children have greater than mild disabilities Concomitant conditions associated with mental retardation may occur .such as Down Syndrome, physical handicaps, speech impairment, visual impairment, hearing defect, epilepsy and others.
  • 27. Known about two-thirds of individuals with more severe forms that include the MODERATE, SEVERE and PROFOUND types. The causes listed are conditions, disease and syndromes that are associated with mental retardation.
  • 28.  refers to the number of symptoms or characteristics that occur together and provide the defining features of a given disease or condition.
  • 29. Traced to a psychological disadvantage which is a combination of a poor and cultural environment early in the child’s life. DEVELOPMENTAL RETARDATION- used to refer to mild mental retardation thought to be caused primarily by environmental influences such as minimal opportunities to develop early language, child abuse and neglect and/ or chronic social or sensory deprivation.
  • 30. 1. Limited parenting practices that produce low rates of vocabulary growth in early childhood. 2. instructional practices in high school and adolescence that produce low rates of academic engagement during the school years. 3. lower rates of academic achievement and early school failure and early school dropout; and 4. parenthood and continuance of the progression into the next generation.
  • 31. - Originate during conception or pregnancy until before birth are chromosomal disorders.
  • 32. CHROMOSOMAL DISORDER NATURE IMPLICATION PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTI C A. DOWN SYNDROME -Named after Dr. Langdon Down. -Caused by chromosomal abnormality. -TRISOMY 21 -most common in which the 21st set of chromosomes is a triplet rather than a pair. -Estimated to account for 5 to 6% of all cases. - DS affects about 1 in 1000 live births. - Most often results in moderate level of mental retardation although some individuals function in the mild or severe ranges. --DS increases to approximately 1 in 30 for women at age 45. -Older women are at “high risk” for babies with DS and other developmental disabilities. 1. Short stature 2. Flat broad face with small ears and nose 3. Upward slanting eyes 4. Small mouth with short roof 5. Protruding tongue 6. Hypertonia or floppy muscles 7. Heart defects; susceptibility to ears and respiratory infections 8. Alzheimer’s disease
  • 33. NATURE CAUSES B. KLINEFELTER SYNDROME -Males receive an extra X chromosomes. - STERILITY, underdevelopment of male sex organs, acquisition of female sex characteristics secondary sex characteristics are common. -Social skills , auditory perception, language, sometimes mild levels of cognitive retardation are often problems. -More associated with learning disabilities than with mental retardation.
  • 34. NATURE CAUSES FRAGILE X SYNDROME -A triplet or repeat mutation on the X chromosome interferes with the production of FMR-1 protein. -Females may carry and transmit the mutation to their children. -It is the most common clinical type of mental retardation after Down Syndrome. -Majority males experience mild to moderate to severe deficit in adulthood. - Affects approximately 1 in 4,000 males.
  • 35. NATURE CAUSES CHARACTERITIC S WILLIAM SYNDROME - Caused by the deletion of a portion of the seventh chromosomes. - Ranges from normal and moderate to mild levels of mental retardation. -Elfin r dwarf-like facial features -Cheerfulness and happiness. -Overly friendly -Lack of reserve towards strangers -Uneven profiles of skills -Strengths in vocabulary and storytelling skills and weakness in visual- spatial skills -hyperactive
  • 36. NATURE CAUSES CHARACTERISTII CS PRADER- WILLI Syndrome -A syndrome disorder. -Infants have hypertonia or floppy muscles and may to be tube-fed -Development of insatiable appetite.. -Caused by the deletion of a portion of chromosome 15. -1 in 10 to 25,000 live births. -Mild retardation and learning disabilities -Impulsivity -Aggressiveness -Temper tantrums -Obessive- compulsive behaviour. -Skin picking -Delayed motor skills -Short stature -Small hands and feet -Underdeveloped genitalia.
  • 37. NATURE CAUSES PHENYLKETONURIA(PK U) -One of the inborn errors of metabolism. -Genetically inherited condition in which a a child is born without an important enzyme needed to break down an amino acid called phenylalanine found in dairy products and other protein rich foods. -Brain damage Aggressiveness Hyperactivity Severe mental retardation. Doctors can treat it with a special diet.
  • 38. ANENCEPHALY- major portions of the brain is absent. MICROCEPHALY- the skull is small and conical , the spine is curved. HYDROCEPHALY- blockage of cerebrospinal fluid in the cranial cavity.
  • 39. Maternal malnutrition, irradiation during pregnancy, juvenile diabetes mellitus and fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. .
  • 40. one of the leading causes of mental retardation. Diagnosed when the child has two or more craniofacial malformation and growth is below the 10th percentile for height and weight.
  • 41.  a condition associated with hyperactivity and learning problems.  The incidence is higher then Down syndrome and Cerebral Palsy.  Cognitive impairment, sleep disturbances, motor dysfunctions, hyperirritability,aggression and conduct problems.  Pregnant women should a void drinking alcohol anytime.
  • 42. 1. INTRAUTERINE DISORDERS- maternal anemia, premature, delivery abnormal presentation, umbilical cord accidents and multiple gestation in the case of twins. triplets, quadruplets and other types of multiple births. Birth Trauma-result from anoxia or cutting off of oxygen supply to the brain. 2. NEONATAL DISORDERS- intracranial hemorrhage, neonatal seizures, respiratory disorders, meningitis, encephalities, head trauma at birth.
  • 43.  HEAD INJURIES- cerebral concussion, contusion or laceration.  INFECTIONS- encephalitis, meningitis, malaria, German measles, rubella.  DEMYELINATING DISORDERS- post infectious disorders, post immunization disorders.  DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS- Rett syndrome, Huntington disease, Parkinson’s disease.  SEIZURE DISORDERS- Epilepsy, toxic-metabolic disorders such as Reye’s Syndrome, lead or mercury poisoning.
  • 44. MALNUTRITION- lack of proteins and calories. ENVIRONMENTAL DEPRIVATION- psychosocial disadvantage, child abuse and neglect, chronic social/sensory deprivation. HYPOCONNECTION syndrome.
  • 45. SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME- crying infant is violently shaken by a frustrated caregiver. Internal bleeding Brain damage Death Traumatic brain injury
  • 46. Refers to the existence of lowered intelligence of unknown origin associated with a history of mental retardation in one or more family members. Results from the lack of adequate stimulation during infancy and early childhood.
  • 47. Sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, AIDS, toxoplasmosis(blood poisoning) and rubella. Maternal rubella- most likely to cause retardation, blindness and deafness when the disease occurs during the trimester of pregnancy.
  • 48.  Manifest substantial limitations in age appropriate intellectual and adaptive behaviour.  Deficits in cognitive functioning ;(poor memory, slow learning rates, attention problems, difficulty and generalizing, lack of motivation)  Able to acquire the skills for adaptive behaviour  Find difficulties in doing school work and fail the grade levels.
  • 49. Moderate retardation show significant delays in development during the preschool years. Intellectual development and adaptive functioning become wider when compared o normal age-mates.
  • 50. a.1SUB-AVERAGE INTELLECTUAL SKILLS- below average mental ability as measured by standardized tests. a.2 LOW ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT- mentally retarded are likely to be slower in reaching levels of academic achievement equal to their peers. a.3 DIIFFICULTY IN ATTENDING TO TASKS- distracted by irrelevant stimuli rather than those that pertain to the lesson. - difficulties in remembering and generalizing newly learned lessons and skills.
  • 51.  Difficulty in retaining and recording information in the short term or working memory. • DIFFICULTY WITH THE GENERALIZATION OF SKILLS.- often have trouble in transferring their new knowledge and skills. • LOW MOTIVATION- lack of interest in learning their lessons. • Develop learned helplessness where they continue to fail in doing certain tasks. • tend to set very low expectations for oneself.
  • 52.  SELF- CARE AND DAILY LIVING SKILLS- Direct instruction, simplified routine, prompts and task analysis, hygiene, grooming, eating, toileting, communication.  SOCIAL DEVLOPMENT- cognitive processing skills, poor language development. Making friends and sustaining personal relationships.
  • 53. BEHAVIORAL EXCESS AND CHALLENGING BEHAVIOR- difficulties in accepting criticisms, limited self- control, aggression or self- injury. PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS- slower psychological development (toilet training, walking) POSITIVE CHARACTERISTICS- Friendliness and kindness. - Being with them make’s one appreciate one’s normal attribute.
  • 54. AINITIAL ASSESSMENT(CHECKLIST OF THE LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR) B.FINAL ASSESSMENT PROCESS: 1. More intensive observation and evaluation of the child’s cognitive and adaptive skills. 2. Analysis of medical history
  • 55. A. Informal and standardized tests B. Home visit C. Interview D. Observation E. Evaluation report F. Inclusion and participation of family
  • 56. A. TRADITIONAL ASSESSMENT - Parents fill in a pre-referral form - Referred to a team of clinical practitioners - Consist of developmental psychologist, early childhood special educator, early childhood educator, speech/language pathologist(SLP), occupational therapist, physical therapist, physical therapist, child psychiatrist or clinical psychologist, physician and nurse, audiologist.
  • 57. - It is described as multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary in nature; a. MULTIDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT- independently assessed the child and report results without consulting or integrating their findings with one another. b. . INTERDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT- the members conduct an independent assessment and evaluation individually the findings are integrated together with the recommendations.
  • 58. - Allows other team members as facilitators during the assessment process.
  • 59. - The assessment materials have a curriculum and evaluation components and do not require specialized materials or test kits. - CRITERION REFERENCED ASSESSMENT TOOLS-ARE; - Assessment evaluation and programming system for infants and children(AEPS) - Infant preschool Assessment Scale(IPAS)
  • 60. 1. Differential Ability Scales(DAS) 2. Wechsler preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence- revised(WPPSIR) 3. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III(WISC-III) 4. Stanford- Binet : Fourth edition
  • 61. 1. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale 2. AAMR Adaptive Behaviour Scale- School 3. Scales of Independent Behaviour revised(SIB-R)
  • 62.  Early Intervention Program TRENDS -Natural setting home - Willingness on their part to be patient - Set strong base for future special education programs and activities. - Formal training in early childhood education and special education - Participate in in-service training programs and agencies, conferences and workshops. - Intervisitation among programs and agencies.
  • 63. 1. During intervention secondary disabilities can be observed. 2. Prevent the occurrence of secondary disabilities, 3. Lessen the chances for placement in a residential school. 4. Family gains information 5. Hasten the child’s acquisition of the desirable learning and behaviour characteristics.
  • 64. 1. HOME-BASED INSTRUCTION PROGRAM - Its goal is to provide a continous program of instruction - Utilizes the Filipino adaptation of the Portgage Project (NCR, REGION V, DAVAO). - Monitoring and evaluation of the program show positive results.
  • 65. 2. HEAD START PROGRAM - Addresses preschool education for the socially and economically deprived children - Operates on the principle of early intervention as a preventive measure against behaviour problems among young children - The participants are young offenders, slum dwellers, street children and other preschool age. - Adopted by the Special education centers of manila,.
  • 66. 3. COMMUNITY- BASED REHABILITATION(CBR) SERVICES - Measures taken at the community level - Use to build on the resources of the community - Assist in the rehabilitation of those who need assistance(disabled and handicapped person) - Acclaimed as the answer to the rehabilitation needs in poverty- stricken areas - Piloted by National Commission for the Disabled persons(NCWPD) - Expanded to selected communities in Luzon,Visayas, Mindanao - Employed and maximized in providing rehabilitation programs to urban and rural communities.
  • 67. - Utilized the Filipino adaptation of the Portgage Guide to Early Intervention - Twelve(12) barangays or villages identified as depressed and underserved - Twenty two parents are trained yearly - Minimizing the effects of the disabilities and increasing the children’s readiness and response to rehabilitation programs.
  • 68. THE CURRICULUM It goal is toward self- direction and regulation and the ability to select appropriate options in everyday life Fosters independent living Enjoyment of leisure and social activities Improved quality of life
  • 69.  based on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development, and Feuerstein’s concept of mediated learning. Builds its instructional program around the child’s deficits in cognition.
  • 70. - The child is trained to develop a sense of intentionality and a feeling of competence.
  • 71.  study, the student’s IEP and agree on the teacher’s roles and responsibilities  Set regular meetings with each other  Encourage acceptance of the student by the classmates  Use instructional procedures  Abstract concepts, procvide multipole concrete examples.  Supplement verbal instructions  Assign a peer tutor to assist
  • 72.  Vary y the tasks and drills  Encourage the use of computer- based tutorials  Utilize the lecture  use-pause technique.  Have a volunteer tape- record reading assignments  Use cooperative learning strategies.  Use multilayered activities  Pair students with mental retardation  Encourage regular students to assist students with mental retardation  Transition service- Provide the bridge to life after school and help individual in both community, adjustment and employment.