Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Chap12
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply
Published

 

Published in Technology , Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
246
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 12 Balancing Function and Fashion
  • 2. Introduction
    • User experiences with computer system prompts, explanations, error diagnostics,
    • and warnings play a critical role in influencing acceptance of software systems.
    • The wording of messages is especially important in systems designed for novice
    • users; experts also benefit from improved messages. Messages are sometimes
    • meant to be conversational, as modeled by human-human communications, but
    • this strategy has its limits because people are different from computers and
    • computers are different from people.
    • Another opportunity for design improvements lies in the layout of information on
    • a display. Cluttered display may overwhelm even knowledgeable users; but with
    • only modest effort, we can create well-organized information abundant layouts
    • that reduce search time and increase subjective satisfaction. Large, fast, highresolution
    • color displays offer many possibilities and challenges for designers.
  • 3. Copyright © 2005, Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 4. Error messages
    • Overview
    • User experience with computer-system prompts,
    • explanations, error diagnostics, and warnings is crucial
    • in influencing acceptance of SW systems
    • Why do errors occur?
    • Lack of knowledge, incorrect understanding, inadequate slips
    • What is the consequence?
    • Users are likely to be confused, are anxious or feel inadequate
    • What is a solution?
    • Make error messages as user-friendly as possible; this is
    • especially important for novice users as they commonly have a
    • lack of knowledge, confidence, and are sometimes easily
    • frustrated or discouraged
  • 5. Error messages (cont.)
    • Improving Error Messages
    • Measure where errors occur frequently, focus
    • on these issues
    • Improve messages but also revise error
    • handling procedures, improve documentation
    • and training manuals, change permissible
    • actions, etc.
    • All error messages should be reviewed by
    • peers, managers, should be tested empirically,
    • and be included in user manuals
  • 6. Error messages (cont.)
    • Guidelines
    • Product
    • Be as specific and precise as possible
    • Be constructive: Indicate what the user needs to do
    • Use a positive tone: Avoid condemnation
    • Choose user centered phrasing
    • Consider multiple levels of messages
    • Maintain consistent grammatical forms, terminology, and abbreviations
    • Maintain consistent visual format and placement
    • Process
    • Increase attention to message design
    • Establish quality control
    • Develop guidelines
    • Carry out usability tests
    • Record the frequency of occurrence for each message
  • 7. Error messages (cont.)
    • Examples - 1/2
    • Specificity
    • Avoid being too general (e.g., “Syntax Error”)
    • This makes it difficult to understand what went wrong and how
    • it can be fixed
    • Constructive Guidance and Tone
    • Avoid hostile messages and violent terminology
    • Do not only focus about what went wrong (give guidance)
    • Eliminate negative words (e.g., error, illegal, fatal, bad,
    • catastrophic)
    • Options for guidance: Automatic error correction, present
    • possible alternatives, avoid errors from occurring
  • 8. Error messages (cont.)
    • Examples - 2/2
    • User Centered Phrasing
    • User initiates more than responds
    • Avoid negative and condemning tone
    • Be brief but provide more information if needed
    • Appropriate Physical Format
    • Upper vs. lower case: Use “all upper case” only in specific
    • situations
    • Never use code numbers or, if you must, place them at the end
    • of the message or hide them from users that can not deal with
    • the codes
    • Sound may be important if there is a chance that something will
    • otherwise be overlooked; however, be always careful with
    • using sound
  • 9. Nonanthropomorphic Design
    • Overview
    • Deals with conversational messages between
    • humans and computers
    • Meaningful design of such dialogs is crucial to
    • create comprehensible, predictable and
    • controllable interfaces
    • Questions: Why not let computers talk as they
    • were people, appear as being intelligent,
    • human, emotional, autonomous?
    • Controversy: appealing, productive vs. deceptive,
    • confusing, misleading, ...
  • 10. Nonanthropomorphic Design Design
    • Arguments for Nonanthropomorphic Design
    • People feel disillusionment, distrust computers
    • if they can not live up to their expectations
    • Clarification of the difference between humans
    • and computers. Can we blame the computer?
    • People feel less responsible for their
    • actions/performance if they interact with an
    • anthropomorphic interface
    • Distraction from the actual task
    • Anxiety, which leads to less accuracy in task
    • performance
  • 11. Nonanthropomorphic Design Design
    • Guidelines
    • Be cautious in presenting computers as people, either
    • with synthesized or cartoon characters
    • Use appropriate humans for audio or video
    • introductions or guides
    • Use cartoon characters in games or children’s software,
    • but usually not elsewhere
    • Provide user-centered overviews for orientation and
    • closure
    • Do not use “I” when the computer response to human
    • action
    • Use “you” to guide users, or just state facts
  • 12. Display design
    • Overview
    • Deals with layout of information on the display
    • Goal: Avoid clutter, reduce search time, increase subjective
    • satisfaction
    • Task performance goes up!
    • For most interactive systems the display is key
    • component of successful design
    • General rule: Always start with task analysis without
    • consideration of display size
    • Consider:
    • Provide all necessary data in a proper sequence to carry out
    • the task
    • Meaningful grouping of items (with labels suitable to users’
    • knowledge)
    • Use consistent sequences of groups and orderly formats
  • 13. Display design
    • Example Guidelines
    • Ensure that any data a user needs, at any step in a
    • transaction sequence, are available for display
    • Display data to users in directly usable forms; do
    • not require that the users convert displayed data
    • Maintain a consistent format, for any particular type
    • of data display, from one display to another
    • Use short, simple sentences
    • Ensure that labels are sufficiently close to their data
    • fields to indicate association, yet are separated at
    • least by one space
  • 14. Display design (cont.)
    • Example Principles
    • 1. Elegance and simplicity: Unity, refinement and
    • fitness
    • 2. Scale, contrast, and proportion: Clarity, harmony,
    • activity, restraint
    • 3. Organization and visual structure: Grouping,
    • hierarchy, relationship, balance
    • 4. Style: Distinctiveness, integrity, comprehensiveness,
    • appropriateness
  • 15. Display design (cont.)
  • 16. Display design (cont.)
    • Some specific guidelines for web-based design
    • These examples of guidelines are based on
    • studies:
    • Use a columnar organization
    • Limit the use of animated graphical adds
    • Average link text: 2-3 words
    • Use Sans-Serif fonts
    • Vary colors to highlight text and headings
  • 17. Display design (cont.)
    • Display-complexity :
    • The complexity of using color was demonstrated in studies of decision-making
    • tasks, rather than of simple location of information or recall, with management
    • information systems. Although color-coding was found to be beneficial and
    • preferred, there was an interaction with personality factors. Further intricate
    • relationships were found in a comparison of monochrome versus color coded pie
    • charts, bar charts, line graphs, and data tables, in which color coding sped
    • performance in all but the line graphs.
  • 18. Display design (cont.)
    • Layouts in which related information was clusters were found to benefit users
    • when the cognitive load on working memory was large. Accuracy increased
    • when related items were clusters, thus reducing the scanning needed to locate
    • distant items.
  • 19. Window design
    • Overview
    • For many tasks it is required to deal with multiple
    • documents, windows, forms
    • Problem: There is a limit of how many of such
    • documents etc. can be displayed simultaneously
    • Goal: Offer sufficient information and flexibility to
    • accomplish the task while reducing window
    • housekeeping actions and minimizing distracting
    • clutter
    • This leads to users being able to complete their
    • task more rapidly and most likely with fewer
    • mistakes
  • 20. Window design
    • More concrete
    • How to coordinate multiple windows?
    • Synchronized scrolling: One scrollbar (window 1) is
    • connected to another scrollbar (window 2); enables, for
    • instance, simultaneous document review
    • Hierarchical browsing (e.g., Windows Explorer)
    • Opening/closing of dependent windows
    • Saving/opening of window state
    • Image Browsing
    • Good example: Google Maps!
  • 21.
        • Zoom factors: 5-30
          • Larger suggests an intermediate view is needed
        • Semantic zooming
        • Side by side placement, versus fisheye view
  • 22. Color
    • Overview
    • The use of colors can be highly influential in regard to
    • the acceptance of interfaces. With the high-resolution
    • color display that are available and common today, this
    • brings challenges for the designer
    • Influence of color:
    • Soothes or strikes the eye
    • Adds accents to an uninteresting display
    • Facilitates subtle discrimination in complex displays
    • Emphasizes the logical organization of information
    • Draws attention to warning
    • Evokes string emotional reactions of joy, excitement, fear,
    • or anger
  • 23. Color
    • Guidelines for alphanumeric displays, spreadsheets, graphs, ...
    • Use color conservatively
    • Limit the number of colors
    • Recognize the power of color as a coding technique
    • Ensure that color coding supports the task
    • Have color coding appear with minimal user effort
    • Place color coding under user control
    • Design for monochrome first
    • Consider the needs of color-deficient users
    • Use color to help in formatting
    • Be consistent in color coding
    • Be alert to common expectations about color codes
    • Be alert to problems with color pairings
    • Use color changes to indicate status changes
    • Use color in graphic displays for greater information density
  • 24. Color
    • Color a key component in style
    • Color can:
      • “ Soothe or strike the eye”
      • Add accents to an uninteresting display
      • Facilitate subtle discrim. in complex displays
      • Emphasize logical organization of information
      • Draw attention to warnings
      • Evoke string emotional reactions of joy, excitement, fear, or anger
    • Design principles and guidelines have long existed for graphics design and broader use
      • E.g., red for danger, yellow for caution
      • In general adopted for user interface design
    • Color can be misused, or, as a design element, done poorly
      • Use with understanding and restraint