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  • 1. Chapter 3Cell Structure and Function
  • 2. Section 3-1The History of the Cell Theory and Microscopes
  • 3. Historical View of the Cell Theory• As science improves, so do improvements in scientific instruments, and improved scientific instruments lead to new discoveries.
  • 4. 1590 – Zacharias Janssen• Built first simple microscope (one set of lenses)
  • 5. 1670’s Anton Van Leeuwenhoek• Made improvements• 270x magnification• Saw bacteria, protozoa, sperm cells, red blood cells and yeast cells
  • 6. 1665 – Robert Hooke• Produced a compound microscope• Saw hollow boxes and named them “cells”
  • 7. 1831 – Robert Brown• Saw central structure in plant cells, called this structure a nucleus
  • 8. 1838 – Matthias Schleiden• Concluded that all plants are made of cells
  • 9. 1838 – Theodor Schwann• Concluded that all animals are made of cells
  • 10. 1839 – Johannes Purkinje• Stated that “the cell is the unit of function of life”
  • 11. 1858 – Rudolf Virchow• Concluded that “ cells come only from previously existing cells”
  • 12. The Cell Theory1. All living things are composed of cells2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function3. New cells are produced from existing cells
  • 13. Compound Microscope• Contains a combination of two lenses
  • 14. Eyepiece or ocular lens• Lens closest to the eye
  • 15. Objective Lens• Lens closest to the specimen or object
  • 16. How to figure out magnification• Eyepiece X objective = Magnification• 10x X• 10x X• 10x X
  • 17. Nosepiece• Objectives fastened to this revolving structure
  • 18. Stage• Where you place your slide
  • 19. Stage clips• Hold slide in place
  • 20. Body Tube• Light travels through here
  • 21. Light Source• Provides light
  • 22. Diaphragm• Regulates the light reaching the objective lens
  • 23. Base• Supports the microscope
  • 24. Arm• Holds the body tube, acts as a handle
  • 25. Coarse focusing knob• Used to focus under low power only
  • 26. Fine focusing knob• Used to focus under high power only
  • 27. A microscope reverses and inverts the image of an object seen under itBeforeviewingunder themicroscope eWhileviewing eunder themicroscope
  • 28. Things moving under a microscope areactually moving in the opposite direction
  • 29. Things moving under a microscope areactually moving in the opposite direction
  • 30. Stereomicroscope• Binocular microscope• Object is seen in 3-D• Only used to see large objects• Does not reverse or invert images
  • 31. Transmission Electron Microscope• Uses a beam of electrons instead of light rays• 200,000x magnification• tissues have to be sliced really thin, dry and in a vacuum chamber• can’t be used with living material
  • 32. Scanning Electron Microscope• provides images with 3-D quality• can’t be used with living material
  • 33. Micromanipulator• Used to dissect cells, can remove nuclei• Knowledge of cells has been increased by manipulation and dissection of cells
  • 34. High – Speed Centrifuge• Spin at high speeds• Cell components sort out at different layers according to density
  • 35. Microscopic Measurements• Use the unit called the micrometer• 1/1000 of a meter
  • 36. How to convert millimeters to micrometers• Multiply by one thousand…or• Move the decimal point 3 places to the right
  • 37. How to convert micrometers to millimeters• Divide by 1,000…or• Move the decimal point 3 places to the left• Ex.) 2,500 micrometers =• .15 micrometers =
  • 38. How to find the diameter of your field of view• Place a transparent plastic ruler in the field of view like this• 1.3 mm• Convert to micrometers• 1.3 mm =
  • 39. Section 3-2Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
  • 40. Eukaryotes• Have a nucleus and membrane covered organelles
  • 41. Prokaryotes• Don’t have a nucleus and membrane covered organelles
  • 42. Eukaryotic Cell Structures
  • 43. Plasma Membrane• Separates the cell from its environment• Controls the transport of materials in and out• Allows some materials but not others to pass through this is called… – Selectively permeable
  • 44. Endoplasmic Reticulum• Extensive network of tube-like structures that forms a passageway that functions in the transport of materials throughout the cells
  • 45. Ribosomes• Site of protein synthesis• Attached to the walls of the ER or move freely in the cytoplasm
  • 46. Golgi Bodies• Stack of tiny, flattened sac-like tubes used in secretion• Package protein molecules in a membrane and send the package to the cells surface
  • 47. Mitochondria• Where cellular respiration takes place to release energy• “Mighty Mitochondria”• Powerhouse of the cell
  • 48. Microtubules• Tubes that serve as support for the cell
  • 49. Microfilaments• Thin threads attached to the cell membranes, play a role in movement
  • 50. Lysosomes• Vesicles that contain enzymes used in digestion• Fuses with food vacuoles to digest food into smaller pieces• Digest old cell structures to dispose of them or even entire cells
  • 51. Nucleus• Regulates all the cells activities
  • 52. Chromosomes• Long coiled fibers that carry the material of heredity• Made of protein and DNA
  • 53. Nucleolus• Composed of RNA• Involved in the passage of RNA into the cytoplasm
  • 54. Centrioles• Small cylinders in the cytoplasm that play a role in cell division
  • 55. Cilia
  • 56. Flagella
  • 57. Chloroplasts• Organelle found only in plants, used to make food
  • 58. Vacuoles• Spherical, bubble-like storage sacs• Plant cells have very large vacuoles compared to animal cells
  • 59. Cell Wall• Rigid structure Cell Wall that surrounds the cell membrane• Made of cellulose• Permits most things to pass through
  • 60. Section 3-3Cellular Processes
  • 61. The Big Idea• Cells need to regulate the movement of dissolved molecules on either side of the membrane
  • 62. Cell membrane• Regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and supportOutsideof cell Carbohydrate chains ProteinsCellmembrane Inside of cell Protein (cytoplasm) channel Lipid bilayer
  • 63. Cell membrane• Made of a double layered sheet called a lipid bilayerOutsideof cell Carbohydrate chains ProteinsCellmembrane Inside of cell Protein (cytoplasm) channel Lipid bilayer
  • 64. Cell Wall• Provide support and protection for cell• Found in more than just plants• Contrary to popular belief, not selectively permeable
  • 65. Cell Walls
  • 66. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries• One of the more important functions of the cell membrane is to regulate the movement of dissolved molecules from one side of a membrane to the other
  • 67. Concentration• The mass of solute in a given volume of solution• Mass/volume
  • 68. • What is the concentration of 12 grams of salt in 3 liters of water?• What is the concentration of 12 grams of salt in 6 liters of water?
  • 69. In a solution, particles move constantly
  • 70. Diffusion• Process by which molecules of a substance move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
  • 71. Diffusion
  • 72. Diffusion
  • 73. Equilibrium• When the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system
  • 74. • Because diffusion depends on random particle movements, substances diffuse across membranes without energy being used• Even during equilibrium, particles still move, but there is no net change in concentration
  • 75. Osmosis• The diffusion of water
  • 76. Osmosis
  • 77. Isotonic• The concentration of solutes is the same inside and outside the cell
  • 78. Hypertonic• Solution has a higher solute concentration than the cell
  • 79. Hypotonic• Solution has a lower solute concentration than the cell
  • 80. Facilitated Diffusion• Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels Glucose •Only go from high High molecules concentrations Concentration to low Cell concentrations Membrane •Does not require Low energy Concentration Protein channel
  • 81. Types of Active Transport• Sometimes cells must move materials in the opposite direction – Low concentrations to high concentrations
  • 82. Active Transport• Energy requiring process that moves materials across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient
  • 83. Molecule to be carriedActive Transport Energy Molecule being carried
  • 84. Molecular transport• Small molecules and ions are actively transported
  • 85. Carrier proteins• Proteins that act like pumps
  • 86. Endocytosis• The process of taking material into the cell by means of infolding of the membrane Food particle engulfing Forms a vacuole
  • 87. Phagocytosis • Cell eating • White blood cells do this
  • 88. Pinocytosis • Cell drinking
  • 89. Exocytosis• Forces contents out of the cell• Endocytosis in reverse
  • 90. Section 3-4The Diversity of Cellular life
  • 91. Unicellular Organism• Single celled• Do everything a living organism does
  • 92. Multicellular Organism• Many celled• Depend on communication and cooperation among specialized cells
  • 93. Specialization• When cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks
  • 94. Red Blood Cells • Transport oxygen
  • 95. Pancreatic Cells • Make proteins • Packed with ribosomes
  • 96. Skeletal Muscle • Generate force • Packed with mitochondria • Overdeveloped cytoskeleton
  • 97. Nerve Cell • Send messages
  • 98. Guard Cells• Open and close the stomata
  • 99. Levels of OrganizationCells Tissues Organs Organ Systems
  • 100. Tissues• Group of similar cells that perform specific function• Ex.) smooth muscle
  • 101. Organ• Group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function• Ex.) stomach
  • 102. Organ System• Group of organs that work together to perform a specific function• Ex.) digestive system• This organization creates a division of labor that makes multicellular life possible
  • 103. Biological organization