Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint

on

  • 706 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
706
Views on SlideShare
706
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Biology - Chp 26 - Animals - PowerPoint Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 26 Animals
  • 2. 26 – 1 Introduction to the Animal Kingdom• Of all the kingdoms of organisms, the animal kingdom is the most diverse in appearance
  • 3. What Is an Animal?• Animals are Multicelular• Animals are Eukaryotic heterotrophs• Animal cells lack cell walls• Animals belong to the kingdom Animalia• The bodies of most animals contain tissues• Ex.)epithelial, connective tissue (bone, blood) nervous tissue• Animals are informally grouped into 2 categories
  • 4. Invertebrates• Animals that don’t have a backbone• Over 95% percent of all animal species are grouped into this category
  • 5. Vertebrates• Animals that have a backbone
  • 6. What Animals Do To Survive • Animals carry out the following essential functions:
  • 7. 1. Feeding/Digesting
  • 8. Intracellular digestion• Process in which food is digested inside cells
  • 9. Extracellular digestion• Process in which food is broken down outside the cells in a digestive tract
  • 10. 2. Respiration (gas exchange)Ex.) skin, gills, lungs
  • 11. 3. Circulation
  • 12. Open circulation• System in which blood is not always continued within a network of blood vessels
  • 13. Closed circulation• System in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels
  • 14. 4. Excretion
  • 15. 5. Response
  • 16. 6. Movement/Support
  • 17. Hydrostatic skeletons• Layers of circular and longitudinal muscles that enable movementEx.) worms
  • 18. Exoskeleton• External skeleton; tough external covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebratesEx.) insects
  • 19. Endoskeleton• Structural support located inside the bodyEx.) sea stars, humans
  • 20. 7. Reproduction• Can be sexual or asexual
  • 21. Hermaphrodites• Individuals that have both male and female reproductive organs
  • 22. External fertilization• Eggs are fertilized outside the female
  • 23. Internal fertilization• Eggs are fertilized inside the female
  • 24. Oviparous• Eggs hatch outside the mother
  • 25. Ovoviviparous• Eggs hatch inside the mother
  • 26. Viviparous• Babies are born live and get nourishment from the mother
  • 27. Trends in Animal Evolution• Complex animals tend to have high levels of cell specialization and internal body organization, bilateral body symmetry, a front end or head with sense organs and a body cavity
  • 28. Cell Specialization and Levels of Organization • As animals evolved, their cells have become specialized to carry out different functions • Ex.) Movement, digestion, nervous system
  • 29. • Large animals need greater efficiency in body processes than smaller animals• Groups of specialized cells form tissues, which join together to form organs and organ system - all of which work together to carry out a variety of complex functions
  • 30. Body SymmetryAsymmetry – no symetryEx.) sponges
  • 31. Radial symmetry• Body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the bodyEx.) jelly fish, sea star
  • 32. Bilateral symmetry• Body plan in which only a single imaginary line can divide the body into 2 equal halvesEx.) worms, insects, chordates
  • 33. Cephalization• Most animals with bilateral symmetry also have a trend toward cephalization
  • 34. Cephalization• Concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animals body• Organisms with cephalization can respond to the environment in more sophisticated ways than can simpler organisms
  • 35. Body Cavity Formation• Most animals have a body cavity which is a fluid filled space that lies between the digestive tract and the body wall• A body cavity is important because it provides a space in which internal organs can be suspended so that they are not pressed on by muscle or twisted out of shape by body movements• Body cavities also allow for specialized regions to develop, and they provide room for internal organs to grow and expand
  • 36. Adaptive Radiation• Over the course of evolution, the appearance of new adaptations – such as jaws and paired appendages – has launched adaptive radiations in chordate groups
  • 37. Adaptive radiation• Rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms
  • 38. Convergent Evolution• Adaptive radiations sometimes produce species that are similar in appearance and behavior, even though they are not closely related. This trend is called convergent evolution
  • 39. Kingdom Animalia Major Phyla
  • 40. Phylum Porifera (Sponges)
  • 41. Asymetrical
  • 42. Some specialized cells
  • 43. Phylum Cnidaria
  • 44. Radial Symmetry
  • 45. Stinging Cells
  • 46. Tentacles
  • 47. Nerve Net
  • 48. Two Body Forms
  • 49. Cnidarian Lifecycle
  • 50. Asexual Reproduction
  • 51. Coral
  • 52. Sea Anemones
  • 53. Box Jellyfish
  • 54. Portuguese Man-of-War
  • 55. Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms
  • 56. Flattened Body, one opening
  • 57. Bilateral Symmetry
  • 58. Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
  • 59. Budding
  • 60. Some are parasites
  • 61. Tape worm mouth parts
  • 62. Phylum Nematoda Roundworms
  • 63. Round Body, tapered at both ends, two openings
  • 64. Bilateral symmetry
  • 65. Heartworm
  • 66. Ascaris
  • 67. Trichinella
  • 68. Elephantitus
  • 69. Phylum Mollusca Mollusks
  • 70. One Shell
  • 71. Two Shell
  • 72. No Shells
  • 73. Nautilus
  • 74. Squid
  • 75. Octopus
  • 76. Bilateral Symmetry
  • 77. Phylum Annelidia Segmented Worms
  • 78. Leech
  • 79. Clamworm
  • 80. Feather dusters
  • 81. Phylum Arthropoda Arthropods
  • 82. Arthropod Traits• Segmented body, jointed legs, exoskeleton• Bilateral symmetry• Tissues and organs – Open circulatory system – Complete digestive tract – Simple excretory organs – Brain and nerve cords• Sexual reproduction (separate sexes)
  • 83. 5 Major Arthropod Classes
  • 84. Centipedes
  • 85. Millipedes
  • 86. Crustaceans
  • 87. Crustaceans
  • 88. Crustaceans
  • 89. Crustaceans
  • 90. Crustaceans
  • 91. Insects
  • 92. Insects
  • 93. Insects
  • 94. Arachnids
  • 95. Arachnids
  • 96. Arachnids
  • 97. Arachnids
  • 98. Phylum Echinodermata Echinoderms
  • 99. Echinodermata = Spiny Skin
  • 100. Water Vascular System
  • 101. Tube Feet
  • 102. Radial Symmetry
  • 103. Brittle Sea Star
  • 104. Sea Star
  • 105. Sand Dollar
  • 106. Sea Urchin
  • 107. Sea Cucumber
  • 108. Sea Star Eating
  • 109. Phylum Chordata Chordates
  • 110. Chordate Traits• Dorsal notochord at some time• Pharyngeal gill slits (or pouches) at some time• Dorsal hollow nerve cord at some time• Bilateral symmetry
  • 111. Chordate Traits• Tissues and organs of vertebrates – Backbone – Brain and nervous system – Closed circulatory system – Complete digestive tract – Paired kidneys – Gills or lungs – Paired image forming eyes• Sexual reproduction (separate sexes)
  • 112. Invertebrate Chordates 2 groups
  • 113. Tunicates
  • 114. Lancets
  • 115. Vertebrate Chordates 7 classes
  • 116. 1. Agnatha
  • 117. Lamprey
  • 118. 2. Chondrichthyes
  • 119. 2. Chondrichthyes
  • 120. 2. Chondrichthyes
  • 121. 3. Osteicthyes
  • 122. 3. Osteicthyes
  • 123. 3. Osteicthyes
  • 124. Swim Bladder
  • 125. 4. Amphibia
  • 126. 4. Amphibia
  • 127. 4. Amphibia
  • 128. Two Stage Life Cycle
  • 129. 5. Reptilia
  • 130. 5. Reptilia
  • 131. 5. Reptilia
  • 132. 6. Aves
  • 133. 6. Aves
  • 134. 6. Aves
  • 135. 6. Aves
  • 136. 7. Mammalia
  • 137. 7. Mammalia
  • 138. 7. Mammalia
  • 139. 7. Mammalia
  • 140. 7. Mammalia