Chapter 18Classification
18 – 1 Finding Order    in Diversity
• Evolution has lead to a staggering  variety or organisms• Biologists have identified and  named about 1.5 million specie...
Taxonomy• The science of classifying and  naming organisms
Assigning Scientific Names• By the 18th century, European  scientists recognized that  referring to organisms by common  n...
Mountain Lion
Cougar
Puma
Panther
Early Efforts at Naming        Organisms• First attempts at standard scientific names  often described physical characteri...
Binomial Nomenclature• Carolus Linnaeus (18th Century)• Swedish Botanist• Developed a system for naming  organisms
Binomial Nomenclature• Two word naming system
Rules for Binomial      Nomenclature• Written in italics• First word is capitalized• Second word is lowercasedEx.)Genus sp...
• The name often tells you something  about the species• Ex.) Tyranosaurus Rex• Tyrant Lizard King
Taxon (taxonomic category)• A group or level of organization
Linnaeus’s system of classificationuses seven taxonomic categories           Largest / LeastKingdom    SpecificPhylumClass...
Mnemonic Device Kingdom   •   King Phylum    •   Phillip Class     •   Came Order     •   Over Family    •   For Genus    ...
18 -2 Modern Evolutionary      Classification
Problems with Traditional Classification • Sometimes, due to convergent   Evolution organisms that are quite   different f...
Evolutionary Classification• Darwin’s theory of evolution  changed the entire way that  biologists thought about  classifi...
Classification Using          Cladograms• Many biologists now prefer a  method called cladistic analysis• This method of c...
Derived characteristics• Characteristics that appear in  recent parts of a lineage but not in  its older members
Cladograms• Diagram that shows the  evolutionary relationships among  a group of organisms
Similarities in DNA and RNA• Suppose you were trying to compare  diverse organisms such as yeast and  humans• It wouldn’t ...
Molecular Clocks• Use DNA comparison to estimate  the length of time that two species  have been evolving independently
Molecular Clocks• Mutations happen all the time at  about the same rate• A comparison of DNA sequences in  two species can...
18 -3 Kingdoms and      Domains
• In taxonomy, as in all areas of  science, ideas and models change as  new information arises, some  explanations have be...
The Tree of Life Evolves• Before Linnaeus’s time, the only  two Kingdoms that existed were  Plants and Animals• As scienti...
The Old 5 Kingdom System1.   Animals2.   Plants3.   Fungi4.   Protist5.   Bacteria
• In recent years, as evidence  about microorganisms continued  to accumulate, biologists come to  recognize that the Mone...
The New 6 Kingdom System1.   Animals2.   Plants3.   Fungi4.   Protist5.   Eubacteria6.   Archaebacteria
The Three Domain System• Molecular analysis has given rise  to a new taxonomic category that  is now recognized by many  s...
Domain• Larger than a kingdom
3 Domains1. Bacteria• Eubacteria2. Archaea• Archaebacteria3. Eukarya• Protists, fungi, plants, animals   (Everything with ...
Domain Bacteria• Unicellular• Prokaryotic - no nucleus, no membrane  bound organelles• Thick walls (containing peptigoglyc...
Agar      Bacteria      ColoniesPetri dish
What is thisused for?
Domain Archaea•Unicellular•Small•Prokaryotic•Live in extreme environmentsEx.) volcanic hotsprings, brine pools, black orga...
• Acidophiles – live in acidic  environments• Thermophiles – can tolerate hot  temperatures 50 – 110 degrees• Halophiles –...
Acidophiles
Thermophile
Halophile
Domain Eukarya• Consists of all organisms that  have a nucleus
Protista• Small• Mostly unicellular• Eukaryotic – has a nucleus, and  membrane bound organelles• Cannot be classified as a...
Plant like Protists• Algae• Photosynthetic – can make their  own food
Euglenas           Flagella
Diatoms
Dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates• Red tide
Green Algae
Red Algae
Brown Algae
Animal like Protists• Protozoans• Heterotrophic – can’t make their  own food
Fungus like Protists• Slime molds, water molds• Decompose their food
Fungi• Mostly multicellularEx.) Mushroom, yeast• Cell walls
Fungi• Heterotrophs• Feed on decaying organic matter• Secrete digestive enzymes into  food source then• Spread and reprodu...
Spores• Reproductive cells that form new  organisms without fertilization
Many are used in medicine• Antibiotics• Anti rejection• Anti viral
Penicillium
Plantae• Multicellular• Photosynthetic autotrophs – make  their own food by photosynthesis• Non-motile• Cell walls (cellul...
Animalia•   Multicellular•   Heterotrophic•   No cell walls•   Most move•   Incredible diversity
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint
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Biology - Chp 18 - Classification - PowerPoint

  1. 1. Chapter 18Classification
  2. 2. 18 – 1 Finding Order in Diversity
  3. 3. • Evolution has lead to a staggering variety or organisms• Biologists have identified and named about 1.5 million species so far• They estimate anywhere between 2 and 100 million additional species have yet to be discovered
  4. 4. Taxonomy• The science of classifying and naming organisms
  5. 5. Assigning Scientific Names• By the 18th century, European scientists recognized that referring to organisms by common names was confusing• Common names vary among regions within a country
  6. 6. Mountain Lion
  7. 7. Cougar
  8. 8. Puma
  9. 9. Panther
  10. 10. Early Efforts at Naming Organisms• First attempts at standard scientific names often described physical characteristics• As a result, these names could be 20 words long!• Ex.) The English translation of the scientific name of a particular tree might be “Oak with deeply divided leaves that have no hairs on their undersides and no teeth around their edges.”
  11. 11. Binomial Nomenclature• Carolus Linnaeus (18th Century)• Swedish Botanist• Developed a system for naming organisms
  12. 12. Binomial Nomenclature• Two word naming system
  13. 13. Rules for Binomial Nomenclature• Written in italics• First word is capitalized• Second word is lowercasedEx.)Genus speciesGenus speciesG. species
  14. 14. • The name often tells you something about the species• Ex.) Tyranosaurus Rex• Tyrant Lizard King
  15. 15. Taxon (taxonomic category)• A group or level of organization
  16. 16. Linnaeus’s system of classificationuses seven taxonomic categories Largest / LeastKingdom SpecificPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenus Smallest / Most Specificspecies
  17. 17. Mnemonic Device Kingdom • King Phylum • Phillip Class • Came Order • Over Family • For Genus • Good species • Soup
  18. 18. 18 -2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  19. 19. Problems with Traditional Classification • Sometimes, due to convergent Evolution organisms that are quite different from each other evolve similar body structures • Ex.) Crab, limpet, barnacle
  20. 20. Evolutionary Classification• Darwin’s theory of evolution changed the entire way that biologists thought about classification• Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, not just physical similarities
  21. 21. Classification Using Cladograms• Many biologists now prefer a method called cladistic analysis• This method of classification identifies and considers only those characteristics that arise as lineages evolve over time
  22. 22. Derived characteristics• Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members
  23. 23. Cladograms• Diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
  24. 24. Similarities in DNA and RNA• Suppose you were trying to compare diverse organisms such as yeast and humans• It wouldn’t make sense to try to classify anatomical similarities• The genes of many organisms show important similarities at the molecular level• These similarities can be used as criteria to help determine classification• Ex.) Myosin in humans & yeast
  25. 25. Molecular Clocks• Use DNA comparison to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
  26. 26. Molecular Clocks• Mutations happen all the time at about the same rate• A comparison of DNA sequences in two species can reveal how dissimilar the genes are• The degree of dissimilarity is an indication of how long ago the two species shared a common ancestor
  27. 27. 18 -3 Kingdoms and Domains
  28. 28. • In taxonomy, as in all areas of science, ideas and models change as new information arises, some explanations have been discarded altogether, whereas others such as Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, have been upheld• So it should not be surprising that since the 1800’s, the tree of life has been revised and edited since the discovery of all this new information
  29. 29. The Tree of Life Evolves• Before Linnaeus’s time, the only two Kingdoms that existed were Plants and Animals• As scientists discovered new organisms that didn’t fit into the plant or animal category, they made a new category
  30. 30. The Old 5 Kingdom System1. Animals2. Plants3. Fungi4. Protist5. Bacteria
  31. 31. • In recent years, as evidence about microorganisms continued to accumulate, biologists come to recognize that the Monera were composed of two distinct groups
  32. 32. The New 6 Kingdom System1. Animals2. Plants3. Fungi4. Protist5. Eubacteria6. Archaebacteria
  33. 33. The Three Domain System• Molecular analysis has given rise to a new taxonomic category that is now recognized by many scientists
  34. 34. Domain• Larger than a kingdom
  35. 35. 3 Domains1. Bacteria• Eubacteria2. Archaea• Archaebacteria3. Eukarya• Protists, fungi, plants, animals (Everything with a nucleus)
  36. 36. Domain Bacteria• Unicellular• Prokaryotic - no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles• Thick walls (containing peptigoglycan)• Free living and parasitic• Important decomposers• Some photosynthesize• Some don’t need oxygen – Anerobic• Some need oxygen – Aerobic
  37. 37. Agar Bacteria ColoniesPetri dish
  38. 38. What is thisused for?
  39. 39. Domain Archaea•Unicellular•Small•Prokaryotic•Live in extreme environmentsEx.) volcanic hotsprings, brine pools, black organic mud without oxygen
  40. 40. • Acidophiles – live in acidic environments• Thermophiles – can tolerate hot temperatures 50 – 110 degrees• Halophiles – can stand extreme concentrations of NaCl• Methanogens – Produce methane CO2 + H  CH4
  41. 41. Acidophiles
  42. 42. Thermophile
  43. 43. Halophile
  44. 44. Domain Eukarya• Consists of all organisms that have a nucleus
  45. 45. Protista• Small• Mostly unicellular• Eukaryotic – has a nucleus, and membrane bound organelles• Cannot be classified as animals, plants or fungi, but share many characteristics with plants, animals and fungi
  46. 46. Plant like Protists• Algae• Photosynthetic – can make their own food
  47. 47. Euglenas Flagella
  48. 48. Diatoms
  49. 49. Dinoflagellates
  50. 50. Dinoflagellates• Red tide
  51. 51. Green Algae
  52. 52. Red Algae
  53. 53. Brown Algae
  54. 54. Animal like Protists• Protozoans• Heterotrophic – can’t make their own food
  55. 55. Fungus like Protists• Slime molds, water molds• Decompose their food
  56. 56. Fungi• Mostly multicellularEx.) Mushroom, yeast• Cell walls
  57. 57. Fungi• Heterotrophs• Feed on decaying organic matter• Secrete digestive enzymes into food source then• Spread and reproduce by spores
  58. 58. Spores• Reproductive cells that form new organisms without fertilization
  59. 59. Many are used in medicine• Antibiotics• Anti rejection• Anti viral
  60. 60. Penicillium
  61. 61. Plantae• Multicellular• Photosynthetic autotrophs – make their own food by photosynthesis• Non-motile• Cell walls (cellulose)
  62. 62. Animalia• Multicellular• Heterotrophic• No cell walls• Most move• Incredible diversity

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