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Do Now1. Get a packet from the desk in   the back of the room and write   your name on it.2. In your notebooks write the d...
Chapter 1Biology: The Study of         Life
Section 1.1 What is     Biology?
The Science of Biology• People have always been curious  about living things• The concepts, principles, and  theories that...
Biology• The study of Life        Bio logy (greek)      Life   Study of
Biologists study the interactions              of life.
Biologists study the diversity            of life.• Throughout your  study of biology you  will come to  appreciate the gr...
Biologists study the interactions      of the environment.• No living thing exists in isolation• The study of biology incl...
Ex.)studyingwild ratsmeans youhave tostudy what iteats andwhat eats it
Biologists study problems   and propose solutions.• Medical treatment• Disease prevention (humans and  other organisms)• E...
Where are all the bees?
Characteristics of Living        Things• Biologists have formulated a list  of characteristics by which we can  recognize ...
Organisms• Anything that possess all the  characteristics of life
1. Living things are organized
organization• Orderly structure• All organisms are composed of  one or more cells which contain  the genetic material or D...
2. Living things make more        living things
Reproduction• The production of offspring• Reproduction is not essential for  the survival of an organism, but it  is esse...
Species• A group of organisms that can  interbreed and produce fertile  offspring in nature
3. Living things change    during their lives
Growth• An increase in the amount of  living material and the formation  of new structures
Development• All the changes that take place  during the life of an organism
4. Living things adjustto their surroundings
Environment• An organisms surroundingsEx.) air, water, weather,  temperature, other organisms in  the area
Stimulus• Anything in an organisms external  or internal environment that  causes the organism to react
Response• A reaction to a stimulus
Homeostasis• Regulation of an organisms  internal environment to maintain  conditions suitable for survivalEx.) Body temp ...
Energy• The ability to cause change• Organisms get their energy from  food
5. Living things adapt and           evolve
Adaptation• any structure, behavior, or internal  process that enables an organism  to respond to environmental  factors a...
How Adaptations Work• Adaptations are inherited from  previous generations• There are always some  differences in the adap...
Evolution• The gradual change in a species  through adaptations over time• Clues to the way present diversity  of life cam...
In Conclusion• As we learn more about Earth’s  organisms in this course, take time to  reflect on the general characterist...
Do Now• Finish answering questions on page 4. I  would like to go over the answers in about  3 minutes.
Section 1.2 The Methods of          Biology
Why does rain bring out     the worms?
Observing and Hypothesizing• Curiosity is often what motivates biologists  to try to answer simple questions about  everyd...
The Methods Biologists        Use
Scientific Methods• The common steps that scientists  use to gather information and  answer questions• Scientific methods ...
The Story of the Brown Tree Snake
Hypothesis• An explanation for a question or a  problem that can be formally tested• A hypothesis is not a random guess!• ...
Experiment• An investigation that tests a  hypothesis by the process of  collecting information under  controlled conditions
What is a controlled      experiment?• Some experiments involve two  groups: the control group and the  experimental group
Control• The group in which all conditions  are kept the same
Experimental Group• The test group in which all  conditions are kept the same  except for the single condition  being tested
Does fertilizer help plants grow taller?     Water + Fertilizer   Water
Designing an experiment• In a controlled experiment, only  one condition is changed at a time
Does fertilizer help plants grow taller?     Water + Fertilizer    Water                  Controls             •Same volum...
Independent variable• The condition in an experiment  being changed
Dependent variable• The condition that results from a  change in the independent  variable
Does fertilizer help plants grow taller?         (centimeters)Growth                         Fertilizer   No Fertilizer
Now You Try…
A number of rats are divided into two groups:One group is fed a normal diet, whereas theother group is fed the same diet b...
A scientist conducted an experiment to determine theeffect of environment on the color of fur of aHimalayan rabbit. The Hi...
Using Tools• To carry out investigations,  scientists need tools that enable  them to record information
Maintaining Safety• Safety is another important factor  that scientists consider when  carrying out investigations
Safety Symbol• A symbol that warns you about a  danger that may exist from  chemicals, electricity, heat, or  procedures y...
Safety Symbols
Gathering Data• To answer their questions about  scientific problems, scientists  seek information from other  investigati...
Data• Info obtained from investigations  or experimental results
Thinking about what happened• After careful review of the results, the  scientist must come up with a conclusion• Was the ...
Reporting results• Results and  conclusions of  investigations are  reported in  scientific journals
Verifying results• When a hypothesis that is  supported by many separate  observations and investigations  usually over a ...
Theory• An explanation of a natural phenomenon  that is supported by a large body of  scientific evidence obtained from ma...
Do Now• Get your homework out (pg 8)  and place it on top of your desk  so I can check it.• In your notebook, please descr...
Do Now200 carrot seeds each were used in aninvestigation to test for the influence oftemperature on germination of seeds.G...
Section 1.3 The Nature of         Biology
Kinds of Information• Scientific information can usually  be classified into one or two main  types, qualitative or quanti...
Quantitative information• Numerical data• Numerical values are compared• Quantitative data may be used to  make graphs or ...
Measurements in the      International System• Scientists use a form of the metric  system called the International  Syste...
Advantage of SI• Only a few basic units• Decimal system, measurements  can be expressed in multiples of  ten or tenths of ...
Metric Units•        meter    _______________ (length)•        gram    _______________ (mass)•        liter    ___________...
Qualitative information• Observational data• Some phenomena aren’t easily  expressed as quantitative  information
Science and Society• Some people blame scientists for the  existence of controversial things in  science• To comprehend th...
Ethics• The moral principles and values  held by humans
Can science answer all       questions?• No, some questions are simply not in  the realm of science• Ex.) good vs. evil, u...
Technology• The application of scientific  research to societies needs and  problems
Technology has helped us     in many ways • Increase production of food • Decrease the amount of manual   labor • Aided in...
The advances of technology hasresulted in some serious problems too • Too much fertilizer can   contaminate water • Automo...
In Conclusion• Science and technology will never answer  all of the questions we ask, nor will they  solve all of our prob...
Biology - Chp 1 - Biology The Study Of Life - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 1 - Biology The Study Of Life - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 1 - Biology The Study Of Life - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 1 - Biology The Study Of Life - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 1 - Biology The Study Of Life - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 1 - Biology The Study Of Life - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 1 - Biology The Study Of Life - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 1 - Biology The Study Of Life - PowerPoint
Biology - Chp 1 - Biology The Study Of Life - PowerPoint
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Transcript of "Biology - Chp 1 - Biology The Study Of Life - PowerPoint"

  1. 1. Do Now1. Get a packet from the desk in the back of the room and write your name on it.2. In your notebooks write the date in the margin and the following Do Now assignment• What is it that you think makes something alive?
  2. 2. Chapter 1Biology: The Study of Life
  3. 3. Section 1.1 What is Biology?
  4. 4. The Science of Biology• People have always been curious about living things• The concepts, principles, and theories that allow people to understand the natural environment form the core of Biology
  5. 5. Biology• The study of Life Bio logy (greek) Life Study of
  6. 6. Biologists study the interactions of life.
  7. 7. Biologists study the diversity of life.• Throughout your study of biology you will come to appreciate the great diversity of life on Earth
  8. 8. Biologists study the interactions of the environment.• No living thing exists in isolation• The study of biology includes the investigation of living interactions• The study of one living thing always involves the study of the others in which it interacts
  9. 9. Ex.)studyingwild ratsmeans youhave tostudy what iteats andwhat eats it
  10. 10. Biologists study problems and propose solutions.• Medical treatment• Disease prevention (humans and other organisms)• Endangered species prevention
  11. 11. Where are all the bees?
  12. 12. Characteristics of Living Things• Biologists have formulated a list of characteristics by which we can recognize living things
  13. 13. Organisms• Anything that possess all the characteristics of life
  14. 14. 1. Living things are organized
  15. 15. organization• Orderly structure• All organisms are composed of one or more cells which contain the genetic material or DNA that provides all the information needed to control the organisms life processes
  16. 16. 2. Living things make more living things
  17. 17. Reproduction• The production of offspring• Reproduction is not essential for the survival of an organism, but it is essential for the continuation of the organisms species
  18. 18. Species• A group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring in nature
  19. 19. 3. Living things change during their lives
  20. 20. Growth• An increase in the amount of living material and the formation of new structures
  21. 21. Development• All the changes that take place during the life of an organism
  22. 22. 4. Living things adjustto their surroundings
  23. 23. Environment• An organisms surroundingsEx.) air, water, weather, temperature, other organisms in the area
  24. 24. Stimulus• Anything in an organisms external or internal environment that causes the organism to react
  25. 25. Response• A reaction to a stimulus
  26. 26. Homeostasis• Regulation of an organisms internal environment to maintain conditions suitable for survivalEx.) Body temp regulation, water, minerals• Without this ability to adjust to internal changes, organisms die
  27. 27. Energy• The ability to cause change• Organisms get their energy from food
  28. 28. 5. Living things adapt and evolve
  29. 29. Adaptation• any structure, behavior, or internal process that enables an organism to respond to environmental factors and live to produce offspring• Anything that makes an organism better at life
  30. 30. How Adaptations Work• Adaptations are inherited from previous generations• There are always some differences in the adaptations of individuals of a population• As the environment changes, some adaptations are more suited Evolution to the new conditions than others• Individuals with more suitable adaptations are more likely to survive and reproduce• As a result, individuals with these adaptations become more numerous
  31. 31. Evolution• The gradual change in a species through adaptations over time• Clues to the way present diversity of life came about may be understood through the study of evolution
  32. 32. In Conclusion• As we learn more about Earth’s organisms in this course, take time to reflect on the general characteristics of life• Rather than simply memorizing facts about organisms or the vocabulary terms, try to see how these facts and terms are related to the characteristics of living things
  33. 33. Do Now• Finish answering questions on page 4. I would like to go over the answers in about 3 minutes.
  34. 34. Section 1.2 The Methods of Biology
  35. 35. Why does rain bring out the worms?
  36. 36. Observing and Hypothesizing• Curiosity is often what motivates biologists to try to answer simple questions about everyday observations• The knowledge obtained when scientists answer questions provides better understanding of general principles or may lead to practical applications or may lead to new questions
  37. 37. The Methods Biologists Use
  38. 38. Scientific Methods• The common steps that scientists use to gather information and answer questions• Scientific methods usually begin with identifying a problem to solve
  39. 39. The Story of the Brown Tree Snake
  40. 40. Hypothesis• An explanation for a question or a problem that can be formally tested• A hypothesis is not a random guess!• The scientist has some idea of what the answer might be through personal observations, extensive research, or previous investigations
  41. 41. Experiment• An investigation that tests a hypothesis by the process of collecting information under controlled conditions
  42. 42. What is a controlled experiment?• Some experiments involve two groups: the control group and the experimental group
  43. 43. Control• The group in which all conditions are kept the same
  44. 44. Experimental Group• The test group in which all conditions are kept the same except for the single condition being tested
  45. 45. Does fertilizer help plants grow taller? Water + Fertilizer Water
  46. 46. Designing an experiment• In a controlled experiment, only one condition is changed at a time
  47. 47. Does fertilizer help plants grow taller? Water + Fertilizer Water Controls •Same volume of water •Same temperature •Same sun exposure
  48. 48. Independent variable• The condition in an experiment being changed
  49. 49. Dependent variable• The condition that results from a change in the independent variable
  50. 50. Does fertilizer help plants grow taller? (centimeters)Growth Fertilizer No Fertilizer
  51. 51. Now You Try…
  52. 52. A number of rats are divided into two groups:One group is fed a normal diet, whereas theother group is fed the same diet but with onenecessary mineral left out. The animalsreceiving the normal diet remained healthy;those in the other group grew weaker.Formulate a hypothesis based on thisexperiment.
  53. 53. A scientist conducted an experiment to determine theeffect of environment on the color of fur of aHimalayan rabbit. The Himalayan rabbit typically has awhite coat except for its colder nose, feet, tail, andears, which are black. The scientist shaved an area ofhair on the back of each rabbit, then placed an icepack over the shaved area on one rabbit (A).
  54. 54. Using Tools• To carry out investigations, scientists need tools that enable them to record information
  55. 55. Maintaining Safety• Safety is another important factor that scientists consider when carrying out investigations
  56. 56. Safety Symbol• A symbol that warns you about a danger that may exist from chemicals, electricity, heat, or procedures you will use
  57. 57. Safety Symbols
  58. 58. Gathering Data• To answer their questions about scientific problems, scientists seek information from other investigations
  59. 59. Data• Info obtained from investigations or experimental results
  60. 60. Thinking about what happened• After careful review of the results, the scientist must come up with a conclusion• Was the hypothesis supported by the data?• Was it not supported? Is more data needed?• Does the experiment need to be repeated?• After analyzing the data, most scientists have more questions than they had before the investigation
  61. 61. Reporting results• Results and conclusions of investigations are reported in scientific journals
  62. 62. Verifying results• When a hypothesis that is supported by many separate observations and investigations usually over a long period of time, becomes a theory
  63. 63. Theory• An explanation of a natural phenomenon that is supported by a large body of scientific evidence obtained from many different investigations• A theory results from continual verification and refinement of a hypothesis• In addition to theories, scientists also recognize certain facts of nature called laws or principlesEx.) gravity
  64. 64. Do Now• Get your homework out (pg 8) and place it on top of your desk so I can check it.• In your notebook, please describe this class in anyway you’d like.
  65. 65. Do Now200 carrot seeds each were used in aninvestigation to test for the influence oftemperature on germination of seeds.Group A had 150 seeds and was kept ata temperature of 20 degrees Celcius andGroup B had 50 seeds and was kept at 10degrees Celcius. All other conditions werethe same.
  66. 66. Section 1.3 The Nature of Biology
  67. 67. Kinds of Information• Scientific information can usually be classified into one or two main types, qualitative or quantitative
  68. 68. Quantitative information• Numerical data• Numerical values are compared• Quantitative data may be used to make graphs or tables
  69. 69. Measurements in the International System• Scientists use a form of the metric system called the International System of measurements or SIQ: Why is it important that all scientific measurements be done in the same way?A: Not everyone uses the English system of measurements that we use
  70. 70. Advantage of SI• Only a few basic units• Decimal system, measurements can be expressed in multiples of ten or tenths of a basic unit by applying a standard set of prefixes to the unit• In biology, the metric units you will encounter most often are…
  71. 71. Metric Units• meter _______________ (length)• gram _______________ (mass)• liter _______________ (volume)• second _______________ (time)• Celsius _______________ (temperature)
  72. 72. Qualitative information• Observational data• Some phenomena aren’t easily expressed as quantitative information
  73. 73. Science and Society• Some people blame scientists for the existence of controversial things in science• To comprehend the nature of science, people must understand that knowledge gained through scientific research is never inherently good or bad• Society as a whole must take responsibility for the ethical use of scientific discoveries
  74. 74. Ethics• The moral principles and values held by humans
  75. 75. Can science answer all questions?• No, some questions are simply not in the realm of science• Ex.) good vs. evil, ugly vs. beautiful• These questions cannot be tested using scientific methods• However, this does not mean that these questions are unimportant
  76. 76. Technology• The application of scientific research to societies needs and problems
  77. 77. Technology has helped us in many ways • Increase production of food • Decrease the amount of manual labor • Aided in the reduction of wastes and environmental pollution
  78. 78. The advances of technology hasresulted in some serious problems too • Too much fertilizer can contaminate water • Automobiles have led to increased air pollution
  79. 79. In Conclusion• Science and technology will never answer all of the questions we ask, nor will they solve all of our problems• However, during your study of Biology you will have many of your questions answered, and you will explore new concepts• Don’t forget, you are part of this living world and you can use the process of science to ask and answer questions about that world
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