Curriculum And Pedagogy


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Curriculum And Pedagogy

  1. 1. curriculum and pedagogy Presented by: Rommel M. Gonzales, MAST Taken from: Workshop on Ignatian Curriculum and Pedagogy (2007)
  2. 2. curriculum and pedagogy <ul><li>Three Essential Questions </li></ul><ul><li>1. How does LEARNING happen? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What is LEARNING? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Given the above, how should we teach (PEDAGOGY), and how should we organize our content (CURRICULUM) – an essential component of the Curriculum? </li></ul><ul><li>The way we teach (Pedagogy) and the way we organize our content (Curriculum) should depend on the way students learn. </li></ul><ul><li>WICP, 2007 </li></ul>
  3. 3. curriculum and pedagogy <ul><li>Two Problems in Education Today </li></ul><ul><li>1. Superficial Coverage : Total coverage is neither possible nor desirable. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Education by Exposure (Learning WITHOUT understanding) leads to: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Amnesia: Students forget what they learn ten minutes after the test. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Misunderstanding: Students know the correct answer, but don’t “get it.” </li></ul><ul><li>c. Rigid or Inert Knowledge: Students are unable to apply what they learn beyond the test. (rigid = unyielding; inert = lifeless, unmoving, static) </li></ul><ul><li>WICP, 2007 </li></ul>
  4. 4. curriculum and pedagogy <ul><li>HOW DOES LEARNING HAPPEN? </li></ul><ul><li>THE 4 C’s of LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualized in Previous Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding is always contextualized in previous knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>We never learn tabula rasa . We never learn beginning with an empty canvas. Previous knowledge (prior skills, knowledge, beliefs, and concepts) influences data-gathering, interpretation, understanding, and MIS-understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>People construct new knowledge and understanding based on what they already know and believe. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous knowledge can help lead to UNDERSTANDING – or hinder it, leading to MIS-understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>WICP, 2007 </li></ul>
  5. 5. curriculum and pedagogy <ul><li>HOW DOES LEARNING HAPPEN? </li></ul><ul><li>THE 4 C’s of LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed Actively by the Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding is constructed actively by the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Active Learning: It is DOING that leads to UNDERSTANDING. </li></ul><ul><li>From Subject Area to Discipline: Students must “do” the subject and not just accept the results other people got from doing the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>An Example from Geometry: When students don’t know how to find the area for an irregularly-shaped geometric figure, the teacher should not bail them out prematurely by solving it or giving clues too early, thereby depriving them of the opportunity to struggle with the problem and construct their understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>WICP, 2007 </li></ul>
  6. 6. curriculum and pedagogy <ul><li>HOW DOES LEARNING HAPPEN? </li></ul><ul><li>THE 4 C’s of LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Connected and Organized in a Conceptual Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding happens when ideas are connected and organized in a conceptual framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning with Understanding happens only when the student has the means for the effective organization of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual Framework: Learners must be able to connect and organize new knowledge around important concepts that can serve as organizing principles. “Big Ideas”: To serve as pegs or organizing principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Big Ideas are general concepts, principles, or processes underlying the topic or lesson that teachers should UN-cover. They recur again and again throughout a student’s schooling in one or more disciplines, repeated each time in a more creative, deeper, and more enriching manner. </li></ul><ul><li>WICP, 2007 </li></ul>
  7. 7. curriculum and pedagogy <ul><li>HOW DOES LEARNING HAPPEN? </li></ul><ul><li>THE 4 C’s of LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Connected and Organized in a Conceptual Framework </li></ul><ul><li>New facts and ideas are understood in the context of their conceptual framework. One difference between an EXPERT and a NOVICE lies in their ability to recognize patterns: The EXPERT notices meaningful patterns of information that escape the NOVICE. S/he is able to do this because of the sophistication of one’s conceptual framework. </li></ul><ul><li>WICP, 2007 </li></ul>
  8. 8. curriculum and pedagogy <ul><li>HOW DOES LEARNING HAPPEN? </li></ul><ul><li>THE 4 C’s of LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>There is understanding when it is capable of transfer – that is, use or application in a different context (beyond the test). </li></ul><ul><li>TRANSFER: Application in a different context, situation, or problem, but involving similar concepts and principles, or a combination of. The primary goal of education is Transfer: For students to use their knowledge and acquire flexible adaptation to new problems and settings. Students should be able to do more than what the teacher taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Example from Literature: Explain the meaning of the proverb, “Haste makes waste.” The student who understands knows not only the meaning of the proverb, but also the conditions in which it is true, the situations when it can be applied (transfer). Compare “Haste makes waste” with “He who hesitates is lost.” </li></ul><ul><li>WICP, 2007 </li></ul>
  9. 9. curriculum and pedagogy <ul><li>HOW DOES LEARNING HAPPEN? </li></ul><ul><li>THE 4 C’s of LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Example from Science: A multiple-choice item regarding arteries will measure the student’s recall of the elasticity of arteries and their function of pumping blood from the heart. However, it fails to measure understanding or transfer. A Performance Task that asks students to design an artificial artery will require them to apply their understanding of how arteries work and why they must be elastic to the task. </li></ul><ul><li>WICP, 2007 </li></ul>
  10. 10. curriculum and pedagogy- personal reflections <ul><li>1. Look back at your own present curriculum. Is it responsive to the challenges of present education? What does your curriculum uphold or promote? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Does it promote learning among your students? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Examine your teachers in your school. Are they pedagogically equipped? Or do they show signs of mediocrity? </li></ul><ul><li>4. How do you respond to these realities in your school, given what you have learned from these workshops on leadership and the trends that beset the present educational system? </li></ul><ul><li>5. What plans do you have in mind to slowly address this being mindful of our school’s context? </li></ul>