Moouth & Tongueee


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Moouth & Tongueee

  1. 1. THE MOUTH
  2. 2. MOUTH <ul><li>Extends from the lips to the oropharyngeal isthmus (the junction of the mouth with the pharynx). </li></ul>
  3. 3. SUBDIVIDED INTO: <ul><li>Vestibule </li></ul><ul><li>- Lies between the teeth and cheeks externally and the gums and teeth internally </li></ul><ul><li>- slit-like space that communicates with the exterior through the oral fissure </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth Cavity Proper </li></ul>
  4. 4. VESTIBULE <ul><li>Superiorly and inferiorly, limited by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucous membrane from the lips and cheeks onto the gums </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laterally: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheeks (buccinator) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opposite upper 2 nd molar - opening of the parotid duct </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. MOUTH CAVITY PROPER <ul><li>Lies within the alveolar arches, gums, and teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Roof: hard palate in front and the soft palate behind </li></ul><ul><li>Floor: anterior two-thirds of the tongue and by the reflection of the mucous membrane from the sides of the tongue to the gum on the mandible. </li></ul>
  6. 7. MOUTH CAVITY PROPER <ul><li>Midline: fold of mucous membrane ( frenulum of the tongue) connects the undersurface of the tongue to the floor of the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>On each side is a papilla containing the orifice of the submandibular duct </li></ul><ul><li>Rounded ridge of mucous membrane extending laterally from the papilla, sublingual fold </li></ul>
  7. 11. SENSORY NERVE SUPPLY OF THE MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF THE MOUTH <ul><li>ROOF is supplied by the greater palatine and nasopalatine nerves (maxillary nerve) </li></ul><ul><li>FLOOR is supplied by the lingual nerve (mandibular nerve) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>closely related to the lower 3 rd molar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CHEEK is supplied by the buccal nerve (mandibular nerve) </li></ul>
  8. 12. TEETH <ul><li>There are two sets of teeth, which make their appearance at different times of life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first set, called the DECIDUOUS TEETH , is temporary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second set is called the PERMANENT TEETH. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 13. TEETH <ul><li>Deciduous teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are 20 in number. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They begin to erupt at about 6 months after birth and have all erupted by the end of the 2nd year of life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 incisors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 canines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 molars </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 14. TEETH <ul><li>Eruption of deciduous teeth: </li></ul><ul><li>Central Incisors 6-8 months </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Incisors 6-10 months </li></ul><ul><li>First Molars 1 year old </li></ul><ul><li>Canines 18 months </li></ul><ul><li>Second Molars 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>teeth of the lower jaw usually appear earlier </li></ul>
  11. 15. TEETH <ul><li>Permanent teeth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are 32 in number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They begin to erupt at the sixth year. However, the last tooth to erupt is the third molar, and this may take place between 17 th and 30 th years. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. TEETH <ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 incisors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 canines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 premolars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 molars </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 17. TEETH <ul><li>Eruption of permanent teeth: </li></ul><ul><li>First molar 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>Central incisors 7 years </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral incisors 8 years </li></ul><ul><li>First premolars 9 years </li></ul><ul><li>Second premolars 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Canines 11 years </li></ul><ul><li>Second molars 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Third molars 17-30 years </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth of the lower jaw appear earlier </li></ul>
  14. 19. TONGUE <ul><li>Is a mass of striated muscle covered with mucous membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Its anterior 2/3 lies in the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Its posterior 3 rd lies in the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>muscles attach the tongue to the styloid process and the soft palate above and to the mandible and the hyoid bone below </li></ul>
  15. 20. TONGUE <ul><li>Fibrous septum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides the tongue into right and left halves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as median sulcus </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Sulcus terminalis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V-shaped sulcus that divides the mucous membrane of the upper surface of the tongue to anterior and posterior parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This sulcus serves to divide the tongue into anterior two-thirds, or oral part , and posterior third, or pharyngeal part . </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF THE TONGUE <ul><li>Foramen cecum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small pit that marks the apex of the sulcus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an embryological remnant and marks the site of the upper end of the thyroglossal duct </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. TYPES OF PAPILLAE <ul><li>FILIFORM papillae </li></ul><ul><li>FUNGIFORM papillae </li></ul><ul><li>VALLATE papillae </li></ul><ul><li>posterior 3 rd of tongue is devoid of papillae but has a nodular irregular surface due to the lingual tonsil </li></ul>
  19. 24. TYPES OF PAPILLAE <ul><li>Filiform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very numerous and cover the anterior two-thirds of the tongue on the upper surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They form small conical projections and are whitish in color due to the thickness of the cornified epithelium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains no taste buds </li></ul></ul>
  20. 26. TYPES OF PAPILLAE <ul><li>Fungiform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less numerous than filiform papillae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are scattered on the sides and at the apex of the tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mushroom shaped and possess a vascular connective tissue core, which imparts a reddish tinge to the papillae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceives sweet and salty taste </li></ul></ul>
  21. 28. TYPES OF PAPILLAE <ul><li>Vallate papillae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are 10-12 in number and are situated in a row immediately in front of the sulcus terminalis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each papillae measures about 2mm in diameter and protrude slightly from the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by circular furrow, inside are the taste buds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bitter taste </li></ul></ul>
  22. 30. TYPES OF PAPILLAE <ul><li>Foliate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceives sour taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found on the tongue margin at the junction of the body and root </li></ul></ul>
  23. 32. <ul><li>Frenulum of the tongue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the lingual vein can be seen lateral to the frenulum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lateral to the lingual vein, the mucous membrane forms a fringed fold called the plica fimbriata </li></ul></ul>
  24. 33. MUSCLES OF THE TONGUE <ul><li>2 TYPES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic </li></ul></ul>
  25. 34. MUSCLES OF THE TONGUE <ul><li>Intrinsic muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are confined to the tongue and are not attached to the bone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They consist of longitudinal, transverse, and vertical fibers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve supply: hypoglossal nerve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action: they alter the shape of the tongue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 36. MUSCLES OF THE TONGUE <ul><li>Extrinsic muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are attached to the bones and the soft palate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genioglossus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hyoglossus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Styloglossus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palatoglossus is associated with the soft palate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 39. Muscle Origin Insertion Nerve supply action Intrinsic Muscles Longitudinal Median septum & submucosa Mucous membrane Hypoglossal nerve Alters shape of tongue Transverse Vertical Extrinsic Muscles Genioglossus mandible Blends w/ other muscles of tongue Hypoglossal nerve Protrudes apex of tongue Hyoglossus Hyoid bone Depresses tongue Styloglossus Styloid process Draws tongue upward and backward Palatoglossus Palatine aponeurosis Side of tongue Pharyngeal plexus Pulls roots of tongue upward and backward, narrows oropharyngeal isthmus
  28. 40. BLOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>Is supplied by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lingual artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonsillar branch of facial artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascending pharyngeal artery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Veins drain into the internal jugular vein </li></ul>
  29. 41. LYMPH DRAINAGE <ul><li>Tip of the tongue drains into the submental lymph nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>The remainder of the anterior 2/3 of the tongue drains into the submandibular and deep cervical lymph nodes on both sides </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph from the posterior 3 rd of the tongue drains into the deep cervical lymph nodes on both sides </li></ul>
  30. 42. SENSORY INNERVATION <ul><li>The mucous membrane covering the anterior 2/3 of the tongue is supplied by the lingual nerve for general sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Taste fibers from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, excluding vallate papillae, run in the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve </li></ul><ul><li>General sensation and taste from the posterior 3 rd of the tongue including the vallate papillae are served by the glossopharyngeal n. </li></ul>
  31. 43. MOVEMENTS <ul><li>Protrusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be brought about by the genioglossus muscles on both sides acting together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is produced by the styloglossus and by the hyoglossus muscles on both sides acting together </li></ul></ul>
  32. 44. MOVEMENTS <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by the hyoglossus and the genioglossus muscles on both sides acting together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retraction and Elevation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is produced by the styloglossus and palatoglossus muscles on both sides acting together. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 45. <ul><li>The shape of the tongue is modified by the intrinsic muscles </li></ul>