Nutri report


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Nutri report

  1. 1.  Hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the blood) Hypercalcinuria (excess calcium in the urine) Kidney stones (result in high levels of calcium in the serum and urine calcification of soft tissues) Hyperparathyroidism
  2. 2.  One of the most essential elements of the body Available in all foods of plant and animal origin Second most abundant mineral in body, after calcium >600 g of phosphorus in the normal human body, 80-90% combined with calcium to form bones and teeth
  3. 3.  Dietary phosphorus intake : 1.5 g/day Phosphorus balance is regulated by the metabolic and hormonal factors vitamin D, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone Amount of phosphorus in the body is controlled by excretion in the urine rather than by absorption
  4. 4.  Major functions: -formation of bone and tooth mineral -production and transfer of high-energy phosphates Plays a role in absorption and transport of nutrients Regulates the acid-base balances Plays an important role in cell protein synthesis (part of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the substances that control heredity) Buffers in blood and tissue (chemicals that prevent change in the concentration of other chemicals)
  5. 5.  Attachment of phosphate to the matrix of bone and teeth is one of the initial steps in their mineralization Failure of bone calcification results from a lack of phosphorus as often as from a lack of calcium Increase in serum alkaline phosphatase is associated with poor bone calcification as seen in rickets (vitamin D deficency disease resulting in bone deformities) and osteomalacia (softening of the bone in adults)
  6. 6.  Intakes of 800 to 1200 mg of phosphorus daily are recommended Animal foods rich in protein are also rich in phosphorus (meat, fish, poultry, eggs and milk) Nuts, legumes and whole-grain cereals are also good sources of phosphorus* Excess dietary phosphorus in animals will increase bone loss and bone porosity (significantly decrease bone mineral and cause calcification of the kidney, tendons, heart and thoracic aorta)
  7. 7.  A condition in which the rate of bone resorption is greater than the rate of bone formation, resulting in decreased bone density and a reduction in the total bone mass Caused by deficiencies of calcium and estrogen hormone
  8. 8. OSTEOMALACIA OSTEOPOROSIS  Abnormal organic matrix formation Abnormal bone calcification  Due to: Due to: -deficiencies of calcium and estrogen - deficiency of Vitamin D,  Results in: Calcium and phosphates -decreased ossification (forming Results in: activity) - excessive uncalcified osteiod -mineral composition of bone remains -Abnormal bone mineral normal composition  Clinical Manifestations: Clinical Manifestations: -hip and back pain -weakness -decreased height -aching -tendency to bone fracture Treatment  Treatment -dietary calcium and vitamin D -estrogens, protein, calcium, vitamin D and fluoride
  9. 9.  Heredity Smoking Alcohol Coffee(5 or more cups daily) Low calcium intake Certain levels of hormones, PTH, calcitonin, estrogen, androgen, insulin, growth hormone, throid hormones, protein Drugs like phenytoin (anticonvulsant) and phenobarbital
  10. 10.  Osteoporosis occurs most commonly in older people, >60 age Osteoporotic individuals tends to have a lower intake and a higher urinary excretion of calcium than normal persobs Loss of height because of shortening of the trunk and collapsed of the vertebrae
  11. 11.  Ingestion of high calcium diets , estrogen, fluoride, calcitonin, PTH, active form of vitamin D Estrogen and diet: reduces vertebral, hip and forearm fractures Fluoride: large doses of fluoride can stimulate bone formation Calcitonin: can increase bone mass PTH increases with age, also found to increase bone mass