Functions and Disorders of the Respiratory System

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2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system

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  • Nose- place for air to enter your respiratory system Sinuses- help to warm and moisten air as it passes through. Also give our voice resonance Pharynx-passageway for air and food Epiglottis-covering of our larynx to prevent things from going down into our lungs Larynx- voice box and where vocal cords are located
  • Trachea- windpipe which air passes into lungs Bronchi- two main branches Bronchial tubes- bronchi divide into smaller sections as it enters the lungs Bronchioles- smaller branches Alveoli- exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen Lungs pleura- covers the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity mediastinum-space between the lungs diaphragm- muscle to help push air out of the lungs
  • External respiration is breathing or ventilation. This is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs, body, and the outside environment. The breathing process consists of inspiration (inhale) and expiration (exhale). On inspiration, air enters the body and is warmed, moistened and filtered as it passes into the air sacs of the lungs (alveoli). The concentration of oxygen in the alveoli is greater than in the blood stream. Oxygen then diffuses from the area of greater concentration (alveoli) to an area of lesser concentration (bloodstream) and then into the red blood cells. At the same time, carbon dioxide in the blood is greater in the blood than in the alveoli so it diffuses from the blood into the alveoli. Expiration expels carbon dioxide from the alveoli of the lungs. There is also some water vapor given off during the process. Internal respiration includes the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the cells and lymph surrounding the cells, plus the oxidative process of energy in the cells. After we breath in, the alveoli is rich with oxygen and transfer the oxygen into the blood. The resulting greater concentration of oxygen diffuses the oxygen into the tissue cells. At the same time, the cells build up a high concentration of carbon dioxide. The CO2 will diffuse out into the blood stream where it will be carried away to be eliminated. Exhaling expels CO2 from red blood cells and plasma.
  • Inspiration- the ribs are lifted upward and outward by our intercostal muscles. This increases the volume of the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm will move downward and flatten out. This will cause a decrease in pressure in the lungs and the air will go rushing in our lungs all the way down to the alveoli. Expiration-(passive process) opposite happens- the intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax. The ribs move down, the diaphragm moves up. The surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli reduces the elasticity of the lung tissue and will cause the alveoli to collapse. This will force the air out of the lungs. An adult breaths on average 14-20 times a minute.
  • Students READ PAGE 362 in text. The respiratory center of the brain is located in the medulla oblongata. Phrenic nerve- controls the rhythm of your breathing …..leads to the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles
  • Students READ PAGE 362 in text. Depends on the level of CO2 in the body. Chemoreceptors in the carotids and the aorta. When they detect low oxygen levels in the arterial blood, you will start to breath deeper and faster.
  • Cough a forceful exhalation from the mouth to clear the lower respiratory tract Sneeze air is forced through the nose to clear the upper respiratory tract Hiccup caused by a spasm of the diaphragm and a spasmodic closure of the glottis. Believed to be a result of an irritation to the diaphragm or the phrenic nerves Yawning deep prolonged breath to fill the lungs, believed to be caused by the need to increase oxygen within the blood.
  • Apnea - the temporary stoppage of breathing movements Dyspnea - difficult, labored, or painful breathing Eupnea - normal or easy breathing Hyperpnea -increase in depth and rate of breathing Orthopnea - difficult or painful breathing when the body is in a horizontal position Tachypnea - rapid and shallow breathing Hyperventilation - rapid breathing occurs which causes the body to lose carbon dioxide too quickly. The blood level of CO2 is lowered which leads to alkalosis
  • Tidal volume (TV)- the amount of air that moves in and out with each breath. Normal is 500mL. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)- the amount of air a person can be forced to take in above and beyond the TV. Normal is 2100-3000mL. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)- the amount of air a person can be forced to exhale above and beyond the TV. Normal is 1000mL
  • Vital lung capacity (VLC)- this is the total amount of air involved in TV ERV IRV. The normal is 4500mL Residual volume (RV)- amount of air that CANNOT be voluntarily expelled. Norm is 1500mL Functional residual capacity - Sum of ERV and RV. Norm is 2500mL.
  • Norm 6000mL
  • Disease in which the airway becomes obstructed due to inflammatory response to a stimuli. The stimuli may be an allergen or even psychological stress. About 5% of Americans have asthma. Symptoms include difficulty exhaling, dyspnea, wheezing ( the sound produced by air rushing through a narrowed passageway), and tightness in the chest. Tx includes anti-inflammatory drugs and inhaled bronchodilator (MDI or nebulizer )
  • Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the trachea and the bronchial tubes which produces excess mucus. Acute- caused by the spreading of an inflammation from the nasopharynx or by inhalation of irritating vapors Characterized by cough, fever, substernal pain, and rales/rhonchi (raspy sound in the lungs) Chronic- usually occurs in middle or old age. Cigarette smoking is the most common cause. Symptoms include severe persistent cough and large amounts of discolored sputum. Chronic means lasts longer than 3 months and has occurred for 2 consecutive years.
  • COPD is same as chronic bronchitis Smoking is leading cause.
  • Caused by a virus and is highly contagious. Several hundred strains of the viruses that can cause the common cold. Symptoms include runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing, stuffy head, and sore throat. Tx- stay in bed, drink warm liquids and fruit juice, and eat wholesome nourishing foods. Wash hands at least 30 seconds.
  • Emphysema- the alveoli become overdilated, lose their elasticity, and cant rebound. The alveoli may eventaully rupture. Air becomes trapped in the alveoli and is difficult to exhale, and there is a reduced exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen. Tx- reduce exposure to respiratory irritants, stop smoking, prevent infections and modify activity to minimize the need for O2.
  • Flu Viral infection characterized by the inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory system. Symptoms include fever, mucous, muscle pain and extreme exhaustion. Tx the symptoms. Prevention- hand washing and flu vaccine.
  • Infection of the lungs caused by bacteria or virus. Alveoli become filled with thick fluid called exudate which contains pus and red blood cells. Symptoms include chest pain, fever, chills, and dyspnea. Tx- antibiotics and possibly oxygen
  • Build up of air within the pleural cavity on one side of the chest. The excess air causes the lung to collapse.
  • Infection of the mucous membrane which lines the sinus cavity. Symptoms-Pain and nasal discharge Tx- use humidifier to reduce congestion, drink lots of fluids, and apply warm wash cloth to face
  • Read text page 366 TB- contagious disease if the lungs cause by a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mostly the lungs are affected. However, kidneys, bones, and lymph nodes may be affected. Symptoms include cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weight loss, and night sweats.
  • Functions and Disorders of the Respiratory System

    1. 1. 2.06 Understand the functionsand disorders of the respiratorysystem
    2. 2. 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system Essential questions What are the functions of the respiratory system? What are some disorders of the respiratory system? How are disorders of the respiratory system treated? What is the importance of the respiratory system as it relates to immunity? How do you relate the body’s use of nutrients to the respiratory system? 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 2
    3. 3. Functions of the Respiratory SystemUpper Respiratory System  Nose  Sinuses  Pharynx  Epiglottis  LarynxLower Respiratory System  Trachea  Lungs  Bronchi  Alveoli 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 3
    4. 4. Functions of theUpper Respiratory System Structures Nose Sinuses Pharynx Epiglottis Larynx 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 4
    5. 5. Functions of theLower Respiratory System StructuresTrachea  Bronchi  Bronchial tubes  Bronchioles  AlveoliLungs  Pleura  Mediastinum  Diaphragm 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 5
    6. 6. Functions of the Respiratory System1- Provide structures forthe exchange of oxygenand carbon dioxide in thebody through respiration2- Responsible for theproduction of sound 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 6
    7. 7. BreathingExternal respiration ExhalationInternal respiration Inhalation 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 7
    8. 8. Breathing 1 inspiration + 1 expiration = 1 respiration How many times does a normal adult breath per minute? 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 8
    9. 9. Control of breathingNeural Factors 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 9
    10. 10. Control of breathing  Chemical Factors  What are the chemical factors involved in breathing? 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 10
    11. 11. Respiratory MovementsCoughing HiccupsSneezing YawningWhy do they occur? 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 11
    12. 12. Types of breathing Apnea Dyspnea Eupnea Hyperpnea Orthopnea Tachypnea Hyperventilation 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 12
    13. 13. Lung capacity and volume Tidal volume (TV) Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 13
    14. 14. Lung capacity and volume Vital lung capacity (VLC) Residual volume (RV) Functional residual capacity (FRC) 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 14
    15. 15. Lung capacity and volume Total lung capacity  Tidal volume  Inspiratory reserve volume  Expiratory reserve volume  Residual volumeSample 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 15
    16. 16. Respiratory disorders Asthma 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 16
    17. 17. Respiratory disorders Bronchitis What is bronchitis?  Acute  Chronic 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 17
    18. 18. Respiratory disorders Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 18
    19. 19. Respiratory disorders COMMON COLD  What is it? What causes it?  Hand-washing – best preventative measure 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 19
    20. 20. Respiratory disordersEmphysema 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 20
    21. 21. Respiratory disordersInfluenza 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 21
    22. 22. Respiratory disordersPneumonia 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 22
    23. 23. Respiratory disordersPneumothorax 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 23
    24. 24. Respiratory disordersSinusitis 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 24
    25. 25. Respiratory disordersTuberculosis 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 25
    26. 26. Relevance of nutrients to the respiratory systemThe respiratory system plays a vital role in homeostasis 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 26
    27. 27. 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system Essential questions What are the functions of the respiratory system? What are some disorders of the respiratory system? How are disorders of the respiratory system treated? What is the importance of the respiratory system as it relates to immunity? How do you relate the body’s use of nutrients to the respiratory system? 2.06 Understand the functions and disorders of the respiratory system 27

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