Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Functions and disorders of the Nervous Systems

1,085

Published on

3.02 The functions and disorders of the Nervous system

3.02 The functions and disorders of the Nervous system

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,085
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
49
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Constructed to carry out the function of transmitting a message from one cell to the next. Sensory (afferent)- emerge from the skin or sense organs and carry messages or impulses toward the spinal cord and brain Motor (efferent)- carry messages or impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles or glands Associative (interneurons)- carry messages or impulses from the sensory neuron to the motor neuron
  • Frontal lobe is responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement. Cells in the right hemisphere activate movement that occurs on the left side of the body. Whereas cells in the left hemisphere activate movement that occurs on the right side of the body. Frontal lobe is also responsible for speech. Parietal lobe is responsible for receiving and interpreting nerve impulses from the sensory receptors for pain, touch, heat, cold, and balance. It also helps us to determine distance, size, and shapes Occipital lobe is responsible for controlling eyesight. Temporal lobe (anterior portion) is responsible for smell (olfactory area). The rest of the temporal lobe is responsible for hearing (auditory area). The Wernicke area is the central language area for speech understanding and comprehesion.
  • Located in the center of the brain beneath the other four lobes and it encircles the top of the brain stem. The limbic system influences unconscious and instinctive behaviors that relate to survival. The behavior is modified by the action of the cerebral cortex. OLFACTORY BULB- this connection explains why the sense of smell is associated with emotions (ie.. Think of smells that recall happy memories) AMYGDALA- influences behavior appropriate to meet the body’s needs. It is also associated with emotional responses especially fear, anxiety, and aggression HIPPOCAMPUS- involves memory and learning, recognizes new information, and recalls spatial relationships PARAHIPPOCAMPUS- helps monitor strong emotions such as rage and fright FORNIX- the pathway of nerve fibers from the hippocampus to the mammillary body MAMMILLARY BODY- this nucleus transmits messages between the fornix and the thalamus CINGULATED GYRUS- this is one part that makes up the limbic cortex- which modifies behavior and emotion SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM- connects the fornix and the corpus callosum
  • Thalamus acts as a relay station for incoming and outgoing nerve impulses. It receives direct or indirect nerve impulses from various sense organs of the body EXCEPT OLFACTORY SENSATIONS. These nerve impulses are then relayed to the cerebral cortex. Thalamus also receives nerve impulses from the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and other areas of the brain. Damage to this area may result in increased sensitivity to pain or total loss of consciousness. Hypothalamus is part of the limbic system and is considered to be the “brain” of the brain. Through the use of feedback, the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to release hormones. Some of the vital functions of the hypothalamus include: Autonomic nervous control- regulates the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems of the autonomic nervous system cardiovascular control- controls blood pressure, regulates the constriction and dilation of blood vessels and the beating of the heart temperature control- helps to maintain our normal body temp at 98.6 appetite control- assists in regulating the amount of food we ingest. The “feeding center” found in the lateral hypothalamus is stimulated by hunger “pangs” which prompts us to eat. In turn the “satiety center” in the medial hypothalamus becomes stimulated when we have eaten enough. water balance- certain cells will respond when the osmotic pressure of the blood. When it is high due to water deficiency, the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is secreted. The “thirst area” is found near the satiety area, becomes stimulated when the the blood’s osmolarity is high which will cause us to drink more liquids manufacture of oxytocin- which is needed for the uterus to contract during labor gastrointestinal control- increases peristalsis and secretion from the intestinal glands emotional state- plays a role in the display of emotions such as fear and pleasure sleep control- helps keep us awake when necessary mind over body experiences- the hypothalamus might be involved in cases when patients are diagnosed with a terminal illness , they refuse to accept the diagnosis and experience an unexplained cure.
  • Pineal gland- produces melatonin Pituitary gland- “master” gland because its major influence on the body’s activities.
  • The brain stem provides a pathway for the ascending and descending tracts ( messages/nerve impulses going to the cerebrum and messages/nerve impulses coming back from the cerebrum). Extending the length of the brain stem is the gray matter of the reticular formation system. These neurons are involved with our sleep-wake cycle. If there is damage to this area, the result will be a coma. Midbrain- extends from the mammillary body to the pons. the cerebral aquaduct travels through the midbrain which contains the nuclei for reflex centers involved in vision and hearing Pons/bridge- serves as a two way conductive pathway for nerve impulses between the cerebrum, cerebellum and other areas of the nervous system. This is also the site for the emergence of four pairs of cranial nerves and it contains the center that controls respiration. Medulla Oblongata-between the pons and the spinal cord. The medulla is white matter on the outside because it has mylenated nerve fibers that serve as a passageway for nerve impulses between the brain and the spinal cord. It contains the nuclei for vital functions such as your heart rate, the depth and rate of respirations, the vascoconstrictor center which affects blood pressure and the center for swallowing and vomiting.
  • The cerebellum is responsible for the maintenance of balance. If the body is not balanced, sensory receptors in our inner ears send nerve messages to the cerebellum. The cerebellum carries impulses to the motor controlling areas of the brain. These brain areas will then stimulate muscle contractions to restore balance. The cerebellum transmits nerve impulses to the nucleus which in turn relays them to the spinal cord and then to the skeletal muscles Any voluntary movement is initiated in the cerebral cortex. However once the movement is started, it’s smooth execution is the role of the cerebellum. The cerebellum allows each muscle to contract at the right time, with the right strength, and for the right amount of time. This ensures the movement is smooth and flowing. This function is important when doing complex movements like speaking, walking, or writing. Even simple movements need the coordination abilities of the cerebellum. An action like raising your hand requires the synchronized action of 50 or more muscles. These muscles then act on 30 separate bones in the arm and hand.
  • Blood pressure Breathing & blood pressure while swimming Vision while driving Eating The brain stem provides a pathway for the ascending and descending tracts ( messages/nerve impulses going to the cerebrum and messages/nerve impulses coming back from the cerebrum). Extending the length of the brain stem is the gray matter of the reticular formation system. These neurons are involved with our sleep-wake cycle. If there is damage to this area, the result will be a coma. Midbrain- extends from the mammillary body to the pons. the cerebral aquaduct travels through the midbrain which contains the nuclei for reflex centers involved in vision and hearing Pons/bridge- serves as a two way conductive pathway for nerve impulses between the cerebrum, cerebellum and other areas of the nervous system. This is also the site for the emergence of four pairs of cranial nerves and it contains the center that controls respiration. Medulla Oblongata-between the pons and the spinal cord. The medulla is white matter on the outside because it has mylenated nerve fibers that serve as a passageway for nerve impulses between the brain and the spinal cord. It contains the nuclei for vital functions such as your heart rate, the depth and rate of respirations, the vascoconstrictor center which affects blood pressure and the center for swallowing and vomiting.
  • It is white and soft. It lies within the vertebrae of the spinal column. It is made up of a series of 31 segments- each has a pair of spinal nerves. The major function of the spinal cord is to carry messages/nerve impulses from the sensory neurons to the brain for interpretation and then the response is carried back from the brain through the motor neurons to the muscles and glands. The second function is to serve as the reflex center for the body.
  • Cranial- 12 pairs which begin in the brain page 175 (table 9-1) Spinal- originate at the spinal cord and are connected to each segment of the spinal cord. They exit through the openings in the vertebrae. They are connect by attachments called roots. One is the posterior or dorsal which only contains sensory nerves (afferent). It conducts impulses from the periphery ( like the skin) to the spinal cord. The other attachment is called the anterior or ventral root. It is the motor root and only contains motor nerve fibers (efferent). It conducts impulses from the spinal cord to the periphery (like the muscles)
  • Carries impulses to all smooth muscles, secretory glands, and heart muscle. Regulates the activity of the visceral organs (heart, blood vessels, respiratory organs, digestive tract, kidneys, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs)
  • Sympathetic Nervous System- consists of primarily two cords which begin at the base of the brain and proceed down both sides of the spinal column. The cords consist of nerve fibers and ganglia () of nerve cell bodies. The cord between the ganglia is a cable of nerve fibers which is closely associated with the spinal cord. The nerves of the SNS extend to all vital internal organs ( liver heart pancreas stomach intestines blood vessels iris of eye sweat glands and the urinary bladder). The SNS is often called the “flight or fright system” . When the body perceives it is in danger or is under stress, it prepares to run away or stand our ground and fight. The SNS sends a message to the adrenal medulla which secretes hormones to prepare the body for this action. When the danger passes, the Parasympathetic Nervous System ( PNS) will help restore the balance to the system (like a parachute). If your body receives too much stress hormone, health problems may result.
  • A progressive disease in which the initial symptom is usually a problem with remembering recently learned information. The nerve endings in the cortex of the brain degenerate which then blocks the signals to pass between nerve cells. These areas of degeneration have a unique appearance and are called plaques. The plaques are made up of bits of proteins that float around the brain and the will start to stick together. The nerve cells further change due to a buildup of abnormal fibers (neurofibrallary tangles). It is like a tangled up phone cord. The cause is unknown. However, the cells that produce the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine are sometimes destroyed in this disease. The cause may be virus related, involve environmental factors, or be associated with a gene defect on chromosome 21. It usually has 3 stages. The first stage may last from 2 to 4 years and involves confusion, short term memory loss, anxiety and poor judgment. The second stage may last 2 to 10 years sees an increase in memory loss, difficulty recognizing people, motor problems, logic problems, and loss of social skills. The third stage may last 1 to 3 years and this stage includes the inability to recognize ones self, weight loss, seizures, mood swings, and aphasia (loss of speech). Tx- no cure but meds can help delay or minimize the symptoms. There is some limited evidence that staying mentally active can lower your risk for developing alzheimers.
  • Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a disturbance in voluntary muscular action due to brain damage. It is caused by abnormalities in the parts of the brain that cause movement. The most pronounced characteristic is spastic quadriplegia ( the spastic movement of all four limbs) S&S- disturbance in walking difficulty with speech difficulty with voluntary mvt like walking, running, grasping objects… TX- physical therapy occupational therapy meds for spasticity
  • Disorder of the brain characterized by recurring and excessive discharge from neurons. Cause is sometimes unknown. S/S hallucinations loss of consciousness seizures Grand mal- have severe shaking (tonic/clonic) Petite mal- staring off or daydreaming TX medications (anticonvulsants) magnet therapy
  • A condition that involves increased volume (amount) of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain. Usual cause is a blockage somewhere in the third or fourth ventricles. S/S- enlarged head TX- VP shunt will divert the fluid from the ventricles to the abdomen so it can be excreted from the body. This will prevent pressure build up in the head .
  • The inflammation of the meninges or the linings of the brain and spinal cord. Cause is either bacterial and viral S/S- HA fever and stiff neck May cause paralysis, coma or even death TX- bacterial= antibiotics viral- let it run its course and treat the symptoms Prevention= immunization (before staring college)
  • Chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in which immune cells attack the myelin sheath covering the axons. The myelin sheaths are destroyed leaving scar tissue on the nerve cells. This scar tissue causes nerve impulses to be delayed or completely blocked. Cause is unknown S/S- weakness of extremities numbness double vision nystagmus ( tremors in the eyes) speech problems lack of coordination and possibly paralysis Usually seen between 20-40 years old and 2/3 are women There are outbreaks but periods of remission (no signs) TX- adequate rest exercise and minimal stress will lessen the effects Medications
  • The inflammation of one or more nerves. symptoms of neuritis include pain and tenderness; impaired sensation, strength, and reflexes; and abnormal circulation and decreased ability to sweat in the distribution of the inflamed nerve or nerves. Neuritis frequently results from an injury that causes pressure on a nerve just underneath the skin. The condition may also result from a tumour or from infected or scarred connective tissue that compresses the nerve. Inflammations of sensory neurons in a nerve fibre cause sensations of tingling, burning, or stabbing pains that are worse at night and are aggravated by touch or temperature change. The inflammation of motor neurons cause symptoms ranging from muscle weakness to complete paralysis. Muscles in the area served by the affected nerve lose tone, become tender, and may atrophy. Treatment is directed toward the cause of the neuritis; analgesics may be prescribed for pain relief. Recovery is usually rapid in less severe cases.
  • Paralysis is the loss of muscle function PAGE 166
  • Cause is a decreased amount of the neurotransmitter Dopamine S/S- tremors, shuffling gait, pill rolling (mvt of finger and thumb) Muscular rigidity, difficulty initiating movement Tx- drugs to help control the symptoms of the disease.
  • Virus on the spinal cord that leads to the classic manifestation of paralysis. Direct person-to-person contact Contact with infected mucus or phlegm from the nose or mouth Contact with infected feces The virus enters through the mouth and nose, multiplies in the throat and intestinal tract, and then is absorbed and spread through the blood and lymph system. The time from being infected with the virus to developing symptoms of disease (incubation) ranges from 5 - 35 days (average 7 - 14 days). Most people do not develop symptoms General discomfort or uneasiness (malaise) Headache Red throat Slight fever Sore throat Vomiting Paralysis TX- The goal of treatment is to control symptoms while the infection runs its course. People with severe cases may need lifesaving measures, especially breathing help. Symptoms are treated based on their severity. Treatment may include: Antibiotics for urinary tract infections Moist heat (heating pads, warm towels) to reduce muscle pain and spasms Painkillers to reduce headache, muscle pain, and spasms (narcotics are not usually given because they increase the risk of breathing trouble) Physical therapy, braces or corrective shoes, or orthopedic surgery to help recover muscle strength and function
  • Page 165 and 166
  • Mosquito borne illness. Mosquitos can carry the virus when they feed on a bird that is infected. Most people have no symptoms or experience flu-like symptoms. In the elderly it may cause an encephalitis or meningitis. There is no specific treatment for WNV infection. In cases with milder symptoms, people experience symptoms such as fever and aches that pass on their own, although even healthy people have become sick for several weeks. In more severe cases, people usually need to go to the hospital where they can receive supportive treatment including intravenous fluids, help with breathing and nursing care.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 3.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the nervous system 3.02 Understand the functions and 1 disorders of the nervous system
    • 2. 3.02 Essential Questions What are the functions of the nervous system? What are some disorders of the nervous system? How are nervous system disorders treated? How does the nervous system relate to the body’s communication systems? 3.02 Understand the functions and 2 disorders of the nervous system
    • 3. Functions of the nervous system: NeuronsWhat do they do?SensoryMotorAssociative 3.02 Understand the functions and 3 disorders of the nervous system
    • 4. Functions of the central nervoussystem: Brain Think abouT iT… how do you use your brain? 3.02 Understand the functions and 4 disorders of the nervous system
    • 5. Functions of the central nervous system: Brain how do you use your Cerebrum? Frontal lobe  Movement  Speech Parietal lobe  Interpretation of sensory impulses Occipital lobe  Vision Temporal lobe  Smell  Hearing 3.02 Understand the functions and 5  Understanding speech disorders of the nervous system
    • 6. Functions of the central nervous system: Brainhow do you use your limbiCsysTem?OLFACTORY BULBAMYGDALAHIPPOCAMPUSPARAHIPPOCAMPUSFORNIXMAMMILLARY BODYCINGULATED GYRUSSEPTUM PELLUCIDUM 3.02 Understand the functions and 6 disorders of the nervous system
    • 7. Functions of the central nervous system: Brainyour limbiC sysTem aT work! 3.02 Understand the functions and 7 disorders of the nervous system
    • 8. Functions of the central nervous system: BRAIN Diencephalon  Located between the cerebrum and the midbrain  Thalamus  Hypothalamus 3.01 Remember the structures of the 8 nervous system
    • 9. Functions of the central nervous system: BRAINDiencephalon  Pineal body  Pituitary gland 3.01 Remember the structures of the 9 nervous system
    • 10. Functions of the central nervous system: BrainHow do you use your brain stem?  Midbrain  Pons  Medulla oblongata 3.02 Understand the functions and 10 disorders of the nervous system
    • 11. Functions of the central nervous system: Brain How do you use your cerebellum? •Maintenance of balance •Maintenance of muscle tone •Coordination of muscle movement 3.02 Understand the functions and 11 disorders of the nervous system
    • 12. Functions of the central nervous system: Brain discuss tHe relevance of tHe brain stem for tHese functions? 3.02 Understand the functions and 12 disorders of the nervous system
    • 13. Functions of the central nervous system: Spinal Cord Discuss the functions of the spinal cord. Brain Body Structures 3.02 Understand the functions and 13 disorders of the nervous system
    • 14. Functions of the Peripheral nervous system led o cal c Cranial mati Als ory-sostem Spinal sens u s sy nervoWhat do the peripheral nerves do?What is their relevance to health? 3.02 Understand the functions and 14 disorders of the nervous system
    • 15. Functions of the peripheral nervous system Autonomic nervous system Discuss the functions of the autonomic nervous system. 3.02 Understand the functions and 15 disorders of the nervous system
    • 16. Functions of the nervous system Discuss the relevance of the nervous system to the body’s communication systems. 3.02 Understand the functions and 16 disorders of the nervous system
    • 17. Disorders of the nervous system and their treatments Alzheimer’s Disease What are the symptoms? How is it treated? How is it prevented? 3.02 Understand the functions and 17 disorders of the nervous system
    • 18. Disorders of the nervous system Multiple Causes cause cause Cerebral Palsy cause cau cause seWhat is cerebral palsy?How is it treated? 3.02 Understand the functions and 18 disorders of the nervous system
    • 19. Disorders of the nervous system EpilepsyWhat is epilepsy?What are the symptoms?How is it treated? with a person ould lowe d to Sh be al epil epsy dr ive? 3.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the nervous system 19
    • 20. Disorders of the nervous system HydrocephalusHydro- cephal -us 3.02 Understand the functions and 20 disorders of the nervous system
    • 21. Disorders of the nervous system MeningitisWhat causes of meningitis?What are the symptoms?How is it treated? 3.02 Understand the functions and 21 disorders of the nervous system
    • 22. Disorders of the nervous system Multiple sclerosisWhat are the symptoms?How is it treated?What is the prognosis? 3.02 Understand the functions and 22 disorders of the nervous system
    • 23. Disorders of the nervous system Neuritis 3.02 Understand the functions and 23 disorders of the nervous system
    • 24. Disorders of the nervous system ParalysisWhat are the symptoms?What is the prognosis? 3.02 Understand the functions and 24 disorders of the nervous system
    • 25. Disorders of the nervous system Parkinson’s disease 3.02 Understand the functions and 25 disorders of the nervous system
    • 26. Disorders of the nervous system Poliomyelitis 3.02 Understand the functions and 26 disorders of the nervous system
    • 27. Disorders of the nervous system Spinal cord injuryWhat are the symptoms?What determines a patient’s symptoms? How is it treated? What are the risk factors for teens? 3.02 Understand the functions and 27 disorders of the nervous system
    • 28. Disorders of the nervous system 3.02 Understand the functions and 28 disorders of the nervous system
    • 29. 3.02 Essential Questions What are the functions of the nervous system? What are some disorders of the nervous system? How are nervous system disorders treated? How does the nervous system relate to the body’s communication systems? 3.02 Understand the functions and 29 disorders of the nervous system
    • 30. 3.02 Understand the functions and disorders of the nervous system The end 3.02 Understand the functions and 30 disorders of the nervous system

    ×