Functions and Disorders of the Endocrine System

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4.04 Functions and Disorders of the Endocrine System

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  • Glands secrete produce a secretion Hormones are a chemical secretion. They either are ductless so they travel through the blood stream or duct they are deposited to an area through the duct. Hormones have a special influence on cells tissues and organs
  • Chemicals Fsh-ovaries Tsh- thyroid Adh- kidneys
  • The nervous system controls the glands that are stimulated by nervous stimuli, as in the adrenal medulla, where the gland is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. For example, when we are frightened, the adrenal medulla secretes adrenalin,
  • Negative feedback occurs when there is a drop in the level of a hormone. This drop triggers a chain reaction of responses to increase the amount of hormone in the blood. Negative feedback is operates like an air conditioner. The thermostat for the air conditioner is set at a certain temperature and when the temperature rises above the set temperature, the thermostat sends a signal to turn on the air conditioner. Once the set temperature is reached, the thermostat sends another signal to turn it off. Example pg 216 in text
  • ACTH from the pituitary gland stimulates the activity of the cortex of the adrenal gland. The hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex are called corticoids. The corticoids are very effective as anti-inflammatory drugs. mineralocorticoids- affect the kidney tubules by speeding up the reabsorption of sodium into the blood circulation and increasing the excretion of potassium from the blood. They also speed up the reabsorption of water by the kidneys. glucocorticoids- increase the amount of glucose in the blood. This is done by the conversion of proteins and fats to glycogen in the liver followed by the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. androgens- male sex hormones which bring on masculine characteristics.
  • The adrenal medulla secretes the hormones epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine. Epinephrine is a powerful cardiac stimulant. It functions by bringing about a release of more glucose from stored glycogen for muscle activity and increasing the force and rate of the heart beat. This chemical activity increases cardiac output and venous return and raises the systolic blood pressure. The adrenal medulla responds to the sympathetic nervous system. The hormones produced are referred to as the fight or flight hormones because they prepare the body fir an emergency situation.
  • Estrogen is produced by the graafian follicle cells of the ovaries. It stimulates the development of the reproductive organs, including the breasts and the secondary sex characteristics such as pubic and axillary hair Progesterone is produced by the cells of the corpus luteum of the ovary. Progesterone works with estrogen to build up the lining of the uterus for the fertilized egg. If no fertilization occurs, menstruation takes place. This cycle depends on the secretion of the anterior pituitary gland.
  • Testosterone is produced by the interstitial cells of the testes and is responsible for the development of the make reproductive organs and the secondary sex characteristics. Testosterone influences the growth of a beard and other body hair, deepening of the voice, increase in musculature, and the production of sperm. The secretion of the hormone depends on the pituitary gland
  • Parathormone controls the concentration of calcium in the bloodstream. When the blood calcium level is lower than normal , parathormone secretion is increased. Stimulates an increase in the number and size of specialized bone cells called osteoclasts. Osteoclasts quickly invade hard bone tissue, digesting large amounts of bony material (calcium). As this process continues, calcium leaves the bone and is released into the blood stream, which in turn increases the level of calcium in the blood.
  • B cells of the Islet of Langerhans on the pancreas produce insulin. The islet cells are distributed throughout the pancreas. Insulin promotes the utilization of glucose in the cells which is necessary for maintaining normal blood glucose levels. Insulin promotes fatty acid transport and fat deposition into cells. Insulin promotes amino acid transport into cells. Insulin facilitates protein synthesis
  • ACTH- stimulates the growth and secretion of the adrenal cortex FSH- stimulates the growth of graafian follicle in the ovaries and the production of estrogen in females and stimulates the production of sperm in males
  • GH- responsible for growth and development. Also helps fat to be used for energy, saving glucose, and helping to maintain blood sugar levels LH- stimulates growth of the graafian follicle in the ovary and the production of estrogen and the formation of the corpus luteum after ovulation which produces progesterone in the female. In males, LH is also called ICSH (interstitial cell stimulating hormone). It is necessary for the production of testerone by the interstitial cells of the testes in men.
  • PRL- develops breast tissue and stimulates the production of milk after childbirth. The function in males is unknown. TSH- stimulates the growth and secretion of the thyroid gland
  • Vasopressin- converts ADH in the bloodstream. This will cause the kidneys to retain water Oxytocin- stimulates muscle contractions in the uterus and assists with milk release
  • Thymosin helps to stimulate the lymphoid cells that are responsible for the production of T- lymphocytes fight certain disease Thymus gland is critical in the development of the immune system
  • Thyroxine (T4) controls the rate of metabolism, heat production, and oxidation of all cells with the exception of the brain and spleen cells. Co Controls the rate of metabolism in the body- how cells use glucose and oxygen to produce heat and energycontro;s Calcitonin controls the calcium ion concentration in the body by maintaining a proper calcium level in the bloodstream. Calcium is needed for blood clotting holding cells together, and neuromuscular function. PAGE 222 in text
  • Addison’s disease caused by the hypofunction of the adrenal cortex s/s excessive pigmentation which results in a bronzing of the skin decreased blood glucose levels low blood pressure which falls further when standing pronounced muscle weakness and fatigue diarrhea wt loss vomitting severe drop in sodium in the blood and tissue fluids which causes a sever electrolyte imbalance tx replacement of the deficient hormones
  • Caused by a hypersecretion of the glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal cortex. It can be caused by a tumor or prolonged use of prednisone. s/s high blood pressure, muscle weakness, obesity, poor healing of skin lesions, a tendency to bruise easily, excessive hair growth (hirsutism), menstrual disorders, and hyperglycemia. Classic characteristic is the moon face and buffalo hump due to the redistribution of body fat Tx surgical removal of the adrenal cortex tumor
  • Risk for males liver changes decrease in spleen production atrophy of the testicles breast enlargement increased risk for cardiovascular disease Risk for females loss of menstrual cycle (amenorrhea) abnormal placement of body hair baldness voice changes Both c/o headaches, dizziness, hypertension, mood swings, and aggressiveness
  • Condition caused by decreased secretion of insulin from the islets of Langerhans cells of the pancreas or by the ineffective use of insulin. Insulin is necessary for the cells to use glucose. Carbohydrate metabolism in diabetes is disturbed and thus has an adverse effect on protein and fat metabolism. Insulin deficiency causes glucose to accumulate in the bloodstream rather than be transported to the cells and converted to energy. Eventually the excess becomes too much for the kidneys to reabsorb and the excess glucose is excreted in the urine. Normal blood glucose range is 80-100 Most common s/s of type I polydypsia- excessive thirst polyuria- excessive urination polyphagia-excessive hunger weight loss blurred vision
  • Tx is focused on diet, blood glucose monitoring and medication administration Since the pancreas is not producing insulin, the person will need to be given insulin in order for the cells to use the glucose
  • Type I – no insulin produced Type II- decreased amount of insulin produced Type II treatment is focused on diet, weight reduction, glucose monitoring, and medication administration. Oral meds can stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin, increase the effectiveness of the insulin that is produced, slow the digestion of carbohydrates and control liver production of glucose. Complications of diabetes includes damage to coronary arteries and blood vessels high blood pressure poor circulation blindness (diabetic retinopathy) kidney damage amputations nerve damage
  • Acromegaly- increased secretion of growth hormone occurring during adulthood. Overdevelopment of the bones in the face , hands , and feet. Tx- drug therapy to inhibit the release of GH and radiation therapy
  • Pituitary dwarfism growth of long bones is abnormally decreased by an inadequate production of GH. The body is normally proportioned and intelligence is normal but physique appears juvenille and sexually immature. Tx includes early diagnosis and injections of human growth hormone. It is treated for 5 or more years.
  • Gigantism is increased secretion of GH during preadolescence. Causes an overgrowth in the long bones leading to excessive tallness Tx- drug therapy to inhibit growth hormone and radiation therpay
  • Caused by a hypofunctioning of the parathyroid which leads to a decreased level of calcium in the blood. Tetany occurs when there is a severe deficiency of calcium in the blood which affects the function of nerves S/s convulsive twitching of muscles develop this may include the muscles of the respiratory system which can cause death Tx administration of vitamin d, calcium, and parathormone to restore the normal calcium balance
  • Over activity of the thyroid gland. Too much thyroxin (T4) is secreted which leads to an enlargement of the thyroid gland. s/s- loss of body fat, weight loss, feeling too hot, fast growing and rougher fingernails, weakened muscles, increased blood pressure, increased heart beat, hand tremors, perspiration, and irritability. The classic signs would be enlarged thyroid gland (goiter), bulging of the eyeballs (exopthalmos), dilation of the pupils, and wide opened eyelids. Tx- medications to reduce the secretion of thryoxin (T4) partial or total removal of the thyroid gland
  • Thyroid gland does not secrete enough thryoxin (T4) S/S- dry itchy skin dry brittle hair constipation muscle cramps at night Tx daily medication of thyroid hormone
  • Functions and Disorders of the Endocrine System

    1. 1. 4.04 Understand the Functions and Disorders oftheENDOCRINE SYSTEM4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system
    2. 2. 4.04 Understand the Functions and Disorders oftheENDOCRINE SYSTEMWhat are the functions of the endocrinesystem?What are some disorders of the endocrinesystem?How do you relate the body’s hormones to theendocrine system?4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system
    3. 3. Functions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMGlandsGlandsWhat do they do?Target Organ/CellsTarget Organ/CellsWhat are they?HormonesHormonesWhat do they do?How do they get towhere they need to go?4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system
    4. 4. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMGlands secreteGlands secretehormoneshormonesHormonesHormonesWhat are they?What are someexamples of targetorgans/cells?
    5. 5. Functions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMHormone ControlHormone ControlNervous SystemNervous SystemSympathetic nervousSympathetic nervoussystem:system:How does it effect theendocrine system?4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system
    6. 6. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMHormone ControlHormone ControlWhat is negative feedback?
    7. 7. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMAdrenal cortexAdrenal cortexCorticoids:Corticoids:What is the function ofcorticoids?AndrogensAndrogens:What do androgens do?Who has them?
    8. 8. Functions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMAdrenal medullaAdrenal medullaEpinephrine:Epinephrine:How does epinephrine effectthe body?Norepinephrine:Norepinephrine:Compare epinephrine tonorepinephrine.(p.224)4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system
    9. 9. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMGonadsGonadsOvariesOvaries (female)Estrogen:Estrogen:What does it do?Progesterone:Progesterone:What does it do?Compare the function ofestrogen to progesterone.
    10. 10. Functions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMGonadsGonadsTestes (male)Testosterone:What is the function oftestosterone?4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemBeards are the fastestgrowing hairs on thehuman body. Whatcauses a beard togrow?
    11. 11. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMParathyroid GlandsParathyroid GlandsParathormoneParathormoneWhat does parathormonedo?
    12. 12. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPancreas(Islets of Langerhans)InsulinInsulinWhat does insulin do?What factors influence itsproduction?What is its relevance toyour health?
    13. 13. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPituitary GlandPituitary Gland (Master Gland)Two Lobes (Anterior and Posterior)
    14. 14. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPituitary glandPituitary gland(Anterior Lobe)Adrenocorticotropichormone (ACTH)What is the function of ACTH?Follicle-stimulatinghormone (FSH)Discuss the function of FSH.
    15. 15. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPituitary glandPituitary gland(Anterior Lobe)Growth hormoneWhat does it do?Luteinizing hormone (LH)What does it do?
    16. 16. Functions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPituitary glandPituitary gland(Anterior Lobe)ProlactinProlactinWhat is the function of prolactin?Thyroid-stimulatingThyroid-stimulatinghormonehormone (TSH)What is the function of TSH?4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system
    17. 17. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPituitary glandPituitary gland(Posterior Lobe)VasopressinVasopressinWhat does it do?OxytocinOxytocinWhat does it do?
    18. 18. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMThymus GlandThymus GlandT-lymphocyte productionWhat are they?What do they do?
    19. 19. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemFunctions of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMThyroid GlandThyroid GlandThyroxineWhat does thyroxinedo?CalcitoninWhat is the function ofcalcitonin?
    20. 20. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemDisorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEM
    21. 21. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemDisorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMAdrenal CortexAdrenal CortexAddisons diseaseAddisons diseaseWhat is the cause of Addison’sdisease?What are the most commonsymptoms of Addison’sdisease?How is Addison’s diseasetreated?
    22. 22. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemDisorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMAdrenal CortexCushings SyndromeCushings SyndromeWhat are some commonsymptoms of Cushing’ssyndrome?How is Cushing’s syndrometreated?Compare the before and afterpictures at the right.BeforeAfter
    23. 23. Disorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMAdrenal GlandsSteroid AbuseSteroid Abusein Sportsin SportsWhat are the risks?MalesFemales4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system
    24. 24. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemDisorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPancreasDiabetes MellitusDiabetes MellitusWhat is the normal bloodsugar range?What are the most commonsymptoms of Type I?Define these terms:polyuriapolyphagiapolydipsia
    25. 25. Disorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPancreasDiabetes MellitusDiabetes Mellitus(Type I)(Type I)How is it treated?4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system
    26. 26. Disorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPancreasDiabetes Type IIDiabetes Type IICompare Type I to Type II diabetesHow is Type II diabetes treated?Discuss some of the complicationsof diabetes?4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system
    27. 27. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemDisorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPituitary GlandAcromegalyAcromegalyCompare acromegaly togigantism.How is acromegaly treated?
    28. 28. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemDisorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPituitary GlandGrowth HormoneGrowth HormoneDeficiencyDeficiency(childhood)What are some commonsymptoms?How is it treated?Why is important to treat itearly?
    29. 29. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemDisorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMPituitary GlandGigantismGigantismWhat causes gigantism?What are the symptoms?How is it treated?
    30. 30. Disorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMParathyroidTetanyTetany (hypoparathyroid):What are the symptoms?What are the treatments?Discuss complications oftetany.4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system
    31. 31. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemDisorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMThyroid GlandHyperthyroidismHyperthyroidismWhat does hyper- mean?Discuss the symptoms ofhyperthyroidism.How is it treated?
    32. 32. 4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine systemDisorders of theENDOCRINE SYSTEMThyroid GlandHypothyroidismHypothyroidismCompare hypo- to hyper-.Discuss the symptoms ofhypothyroidism.How is it treated?
    33. 33. 4.04 Understand the Functions and Disorders oftheENDOCRINE SYSTEMWhat are the functions of the endocrine system?What are some disorders of the endocrine system?How do you relate the body’s hormones to theendocrine system?4.04 Understand the functions and disordersof the endocrine system

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