Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive System
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Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive System

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4.06 Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive System

4.06 Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive System

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  • The ovaries are the primary sex organs of the female. They have two functions 1- produce the female germ cells (ova) 2- produce the female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
  • Function of the fallopian tube is carry the egg and sperm to the site if fertilization Function of fimbriae its wave like movements sweep the ovulated egg into the opening of the fallopian tube. Fimbriae are lined with cilitated mucous membrane that secrete substances that sustain the egg and sperm. These secretions also provide electrolytes and nutrients in the early stages of the embryo
  • The uterus houses the growing fetus
  • Cervix provides the opening of the uterus so the baby can come down from the uterus
  • 1- for childbirth (passageway for the baby during birth) 2- for the discharge of certain substances (the urethra located here for expelling urine from the body) 3- for sexual intercourse
  • An organ which is indirectly involved in a process Function is to secrete milk after child birth
  • A mature egg develops and is ovulated from one of the two ovaries about once every 28 days. PAGE 456 and 457 in text
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  • Causes and risk factors for cervical cancer have been identified and include human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, having many sexual partners, smoking , taking birth control pills, and engaging in early sexual contact. Pap smear (Papanicolaou smear) collects a sample of cell scrapings from the cervix are looked at under a microscope to look for cancer cells
  • A disease of the endometrium. Affects women in their reproductive years. Endometrial tissue is found to be growing outside the uterus s/s- pain before and during menstruation, during and after sexual intercourse, and irregular bleeding. Side effects include infertility, scar tissue formation, inflammation of surrounding areas of the utuerus, and internal bleeding. Tx- removal of the abnormal endometrial tissue , hormonal drugs to stop ovulation and force the endometriosis into remission during the treatment
  • Mastitis is an infection of the breast tissue that results in breast pain, swelling, warmth and redness of the breast. Causes- A blocked milk duct. If a breast doesn't completely empty at feedings, one of your milk ducts can become clogged, causing milk to back up, which leads to breast infection. Bacteria entering your breast. Bacteria from your skin's surface and baby's mouth can enter the milk ducts through a break or crack in the skin of your nipple or through a milk duct opening. Bacteria can multiply, leading to infection. These germs aren't harmful to your baby — everyone has them. They just don't belong in your breast tissues. Tx- Antibiotics. Treating mastitis usually requires a 10- to 14-day course of antibiotics. You may feel well again 24 to 48 hours after starting antibiotics, but it's important to take the entire course of medication to minimize your chance of recurrence. Pain relievers. While waiting for the antibiotic to take effect, your doctor may recommend a mild pain reliever, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others). Adjustments to your breast-feeding technique. Make sure that you fully empty your breasts during breast-feeding and that your infant latches on correctly. Your doctor may review your breast-feeding technique with you or may refer you to a lactation consultant for help and ongoing support. Self-care. Rest, continue breast-feeding and drink extra fluids to help your body fight the breast infection.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease due to infection which occur in the reproductive organs and spreads to the fallopian tubes and peritoneal cavity Causes pain fever and possible scarring of the fallopian tubes. Tx- antibiotics and analgesics
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age. The name of the condition comes from the appearance of the ovaries in most, but not all, women with the disorder — enlarged and containing numerous small cysts located along the outer edge of each ovary (polycystic appearance). Cause-Doctors don't know the cause of polycystic ovary syndrome, but these factors likely play a role: Excess insulin. Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar (glucose) — your body's primary energy supply. If you have insulin resistance, your ability to use insulin effectively is impaired, and your pancreas has to secrete more insulin to make glucose available to cells. The excess insulin might boost androgen production by your ovaries. Low-grade inflammation. Your body's white blood cells produce substances to fight infection in a response called inflammation. Eating certain foods can trigger an inflammatory response in some predisposed people. When this happens, white blood cells produce substances that can lead to insulin resistance and cholesterol accumulation in blood vessels (atherosclerosis). Atherosclerosis causes cardiovascular disease. Research has shown that women with PCOS have low-grade inflammation. Heredity. If your mother or sister has PCOS, you might have a greater chance of having it, too. Researchers also are looking into the possibility that mutated genes are linked to PCOS. Abnormal fetal development. Some research shows that excessive exposure to male hormones (androgens) in fetal life may permanently prevent normal genes from working the way they're supposed to — a process known as gene expression. This may promote a male pattern of abdominal fat distribution, which increases the risk of insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation. Researchers continue to investigate to what extent these factors might contribute to PCOS. s/s Menstrual abnormality. This is the most common characteristic. Examples of menstrual abnormality include menstrual intervals longer than 35 days; fewer than eight menstrual cycles a year; failure to menstruate for four months or longer; and prolonged periods that may be scant or heavy. Excess androgen. Elevated levels of male hormones (androgens) may result in physical signs, such as excess facial and body hair (hirsutism), adult acne or severe adolescent acne, and male-pattern baldness (androgenic alopecia). Polycystic ovaries TX- medication to: Regulate your menstrual cycle. Help you ovulate. Reduce excessive hair growth Surgery
  • Bacterial infection caused by staphylococcus s/s- fever, rash, and hypotension Tx- antibiotics
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  • Testerone Stimulates the growth and development of male reproductive organs, underlies the sex drive, and is responsible for secondary sex characteristics such as deepening of voice, growth of hair, increase in muscle mass, and thickening of bones of the skeletal system
  • Reproduction is the sexual process by which organisms generate new individuals of the same kind
  • Seminiferous tubules- the place where sperm cells develop. Epididymis- connects the testes with the vas deferens and help form the final development of the sperm cells
  • The function of the sperm is single-minded.  When ejaculated, they are supposed to swim as fast as possible to the egg in the woman’s fallopian tube, where it then penetrates the outer part of the egg in order to start the meiosis process and create a unique individual of the two gene donors.  Men continue to produce sperm. The testes normally produce hundreds of millions of sperms. The average ejaculation contains close to 100 million sperm; Females born with all the ova they will have Men continue to produce sperm
  • Vas deferens serves as a storage site for sperm cells and also a excretory duct from the testes. Ejaculatory duct discharge seminal fluid and sperm cells
  • Seminal vesicles produce secretions which helps to nourish and protect the sperm on its journey up the female reproductive system
  • Urethra serves as the passageway for expelling semen Urethra connects to the urinary bladder
  • Prostate gland secretes a thin milky alkaline fluid that enhances sperm motility Hypertrophied (enlarged) effects the ability for urine to be expelled from the body
  • Alkaline secretion to the semen The alkaline neutralizes the acidic semen and vaginal secretions
  • Serves as a passageway for semen
  • A condition in one or both testes do not pass into the scrotum Produce less sperm and have a high probability to develop cancer Tx- surgery to descend them into the scrotum
  • Most common cause is infection Painful swelling in the groin and scrotum Tx with antibiotics
  • Tx depends on the cause of the dysfunction
  • Enlarged prostate s/s- small frequent urination , retention of urine, and infection Older men due to the growing prostate Tx- usually prostatectomy
  • Common with males over the age of 50. Tx surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, cryosurgery, and chemotherapy
  • An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). Abnormal testicle development. Family history Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 34. However, it can occur at any age. Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. S/S- A lump or enlargement in either testicle A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum A dull ache in the abdomen or groin A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum
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  • The condition in which an embryo is developing within the uterus Gestational period is 9 months
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  • oxytocin
  • Ectopic means out of place. the fertilized egg implants in the fallopian tube or any where out of the uterus s/s Ectopic pregnancy can be difficult to diagnose because symptoms often mirror those of a normal early pregnancy. These can include missed periods, breast tenderness, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, or frequent urination. The first warning signs of an ectopic pregnancy are often pain or vaginal bleeding. There might be pain in the pelvis, abdomen, or, even the shoulder or neck (if blood from a ruptured ectopic pregnancy builds up and irritates certain nerves). The pain can be mild or crampy early on, and can become sharp and stabbing. It may concentrate on one side of the pelvis Tx: Treatment of an ectopic pregnancy varies, depending on how medically stable the woman is and the size and location of the pregnancy. An early ectopic pregnancy can sometimes be treated with an injection of methotrexate, which stops the growth of the embryo. If the pregnancy is farther along, you'll likely need surgery to remove the abnormal pregnancy. In the past, this was a major operation, requiring a large incision across the pelvic area, and this can still be necessary in cases of emergency or extensive internal injury. But sometimes ectopic tissue can be removed using laparoscopy, a less invasive surgical procedure. The surgeon makes small incisions in the lower abdomen and then inserts a tiny video camera and instruments through these incisions. The image from the camera is shown on a screen in the operating room, allowing the surgeon to see what's going on inside of your body without making large incisions. The ectopic tissue is then surgically removed and any damaged organs are repaired or removed.
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  • Blocked epididymis or vas deferens, a low sperm count, hormonal imbalance, or swollen veins in the scrotum Tx- hormone replacement to raise testerone level, artificial insemination, medications , or surgery to repair the swollen veins in the scrotum
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Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive System Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive System Presentation Transcript

  • 4.06 Understand the functionsand disorders of thereproductive system
  • Understand the functions anddisorders of thefemale reproductive system
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 3Essential questions What are the functions of the femalereproductive system? What are some common disorders of the femalereproductive system? How do you relate the body’s hormone control tothe female reproductive system? How do you relate the body’s use of nutrients tothe female reproductive system?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 4Functions of the female reproductive system Ovary What is the function ofthe ovary? What are the ovarianhormones?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 5Functions of the female reproductive system Fallopian tubes What is the function ofthe Fallopian tubes? What are fimbriae andwhat is their function?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 6Functions of the female reproductive system Uterus What is the function ofthe uterus?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 7Functions of the female reproductive system Cervix What is the function ofthe cervix?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 8Functions of the female reproductive system Vagina Discuss three functionsof the vagina.
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 9Functions of the female reproductive system External genitalia Provide protection for theinternal femalereproductive organs
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 10Functions of the female reproductive system Mammary glands(breasts) What is an accessoryorgan? What is the function ofthe breasts?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 11Functions of the female reproductive system Menstrual Cycle Usually 28 days Four stages Follicle stage Ovulation stage Corpus luteum stage Menstruation stage
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 12Functions of the female reproductive system Follicle stage Usually lasts about 10days Follicle-stimulating(FSH) hormone isreleased by theanterior pituitary FSH stimulates thefollicle and ovum tomature Resulting in the releaseof estrogen andpreparation of theuterine lining
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 13Functions of the female reproductive system Ovulation stage The pituitary stopsproducing FSH andstarts producingluteinizing hormone(LH) At day 14 in themenstrual cycle, thefollicle ruptures and theovum is released
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 14Functions of the female reproductive system Corpus Luteumstage Secretes progesteroneand continues to do soif the egg is fertilized,preventing furtherovulation andmaintaining the uterinelining Lasts about 14 days
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 15Functions of the female reproductive system Menstruation stage Final stage iffertilization of the ovahas not taken place The corpus luteumdiminishesprogesteroneproduction The uterine lining isbroken down anddischarged over thecourse of 3 to 6 days
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 16Functions of the female reproductive system
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 17Disorders of the female reproductive systemBreast cancer The leading cause ofdeath in woman betweenthe ages of 32 and 52 Treatment Chemotherapy Radiation therapy Partial or fullmastectomy Lumpectomy Life saving measures Monthly breast exams Mammogram UltrasoundNormal Abnormal
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 18Disorders of the female reproductive system1. Using a mirror, inspect your breastswith your arms at your sides2. Look for any changes in contour,swelling, dimpling of skin, orappearance of the nipple.3. Using the pads of your fingers, pressfirmly on your breast, checking theentire breast and armpit area.4. There are three patterns you can useto examine your breast: the circular,the up-and-down, and the wedgepatterns.5. Gently squeeze the nipple of eachbreast and report any discharge toyour doctor immediately.6. Examine both breasts lying down. Toexamine the right breast, place a pillowunder your right shoulder and placeyour right hand behind your head.Using the pads of your fingers, pressfirmly, checking the entire breast andarmpit area.12 543 6
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 19Disorders of the female reproductive system Cervical Cancer What is a major causeof cervical cancer? How is it diagnosed?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 20Disorders of the female reproductive systemEndometriosis Discuss endometriosis. What are somesymptoms? What are some sideeffects? How is it treated?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 21Disorders of the female reproductive systemMastitis What is mastitis? What causes it? How is it treated?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 22Disorders of the female reproductive systemPelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Define PID. What are somecomplications of PID? How is PID treated?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 23Disorders of the female reproductive systemPolycystic ovarian syndrome Define this disorder. What is the primary cause? There are many symptoms.What are the classicsymptoms? How is it treated?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 24Disorders of the female reproductive systemToxic shock syndrome Define toxic shock syndrome. What causes it? What are the symptoms? How is it treated?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 25Disorders of the female reproductive systemVaginal yeast infection What is the cause? How can it beprevented? How is it treated?Not a sexually transmitted illness.However, sexual partners may be infectedand need to be treated to prevent re-infection.
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 26Relevance of nutrients tothe female reproductive system The femalereproductive systemplays a vital role inhomeostasis Help regulate hormonalbalance and fetaldevelopment duringpregnancy
  • Understand the functionsand disorders of themale reproductive system
  • Essential questions What is the function of the male reproductive system? What are some common disorders of the malereproductive system? How do you relate the body’s hormone control to themale and female reproductive systems4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 28
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive systemHormone productionWhat is the male sexhormone?What does it do?Functions of the male reproductive system29
  • Function of the male reproductive systemDefine reproduction4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 30
  • Functions of the male reproductive system:Discuss the functions ofthese structures:Testes Seminiferous tubules Epididymis4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 31
  • Functions of the male reproductive systemSpermWhat is the function of thesperm?How many sperm does theaverage male have?How is this different from thefemale reproductive system?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 32
  • Functions of the male reproductive system:Discuss the functionsof these structures:Vas DeferensEjaculatory duct4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 33
  • Functions of the male reproductive system:Seminal vesiclesWhat is the function ofthe seminal vesicles?What would happen ifthis was not working?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 34
  • Functions of the male reproductive system:UrethraHow does the urethraserve the reproductivesystem?Connects with whatstructure of the urinarysystem?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 35
  • Functions of the male reproductive system:Prostate glandWhat is the function ofthe secretion producedby the prostate gland?What would happen itthis hypertrophied?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 36
  • Functions of the male reproductive system:Bulbourethral glandsAlso called Cowper’s glandWhat is the function of thesecretion produced by thebulbourethral glands?How is it important toreproduction?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 37
  • Functions of the male reproductive system:What is thereproductivefunction of thepenis?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 38
  • Disorders of the male reproductive systemand their treatmentsCryptorchidism How will someonehave this condition? What are the risks ifleft untreated? What is the treatment?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 39
  • Disorders of the male reproductive systemand their treatmentsEpididymitis What are the mostcommon causesepididymitis? What is the symptom? How is it treated?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 40
  • Disorders of the male reproductive system andtheir treatmentsErectile DysfunctionAlso known as impotenceFailure of the penis tobecome rigid enough forintercourse to occur.How is it treated?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 41
  • Disorders of the male reproductive systemand their treatmentsBenign prostatichypertrophy (BPH) What are the usualsymptoms? Who is most likely todevelop BPH? How is it treated?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 42
  • Disorders of the male reproductive systemand their treatmentsProstate cancer What age group ismost susceptible toprostate cancer? How is it treated?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 43
  • Disorders of the male reproductive system andtheir treatmentsTesticular cancer What the risk factorsfor developingtesticular cancer? What are the mostlikely symptoms?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 44
  • Disorders of the male reproductive system andtheir treatments4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 45Testicular self-examinationTesticular self-examination is an examination of thetesticles. The testicles (also called the testes) are the malereproductive organs that produce sperm and the hormonetestosterone. They are located in the scrotum under thepenis.Perform this test during or after a shower. This way, thescrotal skin is warm and relaxed. Its best to do the testwhile standing.
  • Disorders of the male reproductive system andtheir treatments4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 46Testicular self-examination 1.Gently feel your scrotal sac to locate a testicle. 2.Hold the testicle with one hand while firmly but gently rolling thefingers of the other hand over the testicle to examine the entiresurface. 3.Repeat the procedure with the other testicle.You may perform a testicular self-exam every month if you have any ofthe following risk factors:•Family history of testicular cancer•Past testicular tumor•Undescended testicle•You are a teenager or young adult
  • Reproductive process: conception4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 47
  • Reproductive processConception-when the sperm andthe egg unite-pregnancy occurs4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 48
  • Reproductive process: fertilization Discuss the processof conception.4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 49
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 50Functions of the female reproductive systemPregnancy Define pregnancy What is the humangestational period? Terms to remember: Embryo 1-8 weeks Fetus 9-40 weeks Newborn At birth
  • Reproductive process: fetal development 6-8 weeks 12-14 weeks 17-19 weeks 5-6 months4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 51
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 52Functions of the female reproductive systemLabor Dilation stage The uterine smoothmuscle begins tocontract Contractions move thefetus down the uterusand cause the cervix todilate The cervix is completelydilated at 10 centimeters
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 53Functions of the female reproductive system Placental stage The last stage of labor Also known as afterbirth Delivered due to finaluterine contractions
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 54Functions of the female reproductive system Expulsion stage The baby is actuallydelivered Natural Cesarean
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 55Disorders of the female reproductive systemEctopic pregnancy What does ectopicmean? What are somesymptoms of ectopicpregnancy? What is the mostcommon treatmentoption? What are the riskfactors?
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 56Disorders of the female reproductive systemPostpartum depression New mothers often feelrestless, anxious, fatigued andworthless Some new moms worry theywill hurt themselves or theirbabies Unlike the "baby blues,"postpartum depression doesnot go away quickly
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 57Disorders of the female reproductive systemInfertility Unable to becomepregnant after a year oftrying If a woman keeps havingspontaneous abortions, itis also called infertility
  • Disorders of the male reproductive systemInfertility Failure for pregnancy tooccur after one year oftrying to conceive Discuss the causes ofinfertility in the male. What are some treatmentoptions?4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 58
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 59Reproductive process: Female contraceptionAbstinenceSterilization Tubal ligationBarrier methods Female condom Spermicides Diaphragm Cervical cap Contraceptive spongeHormonal Methods Birth Control Pills Depo-Provera Lunelle NuvaRing/Vaginal Ring Ortho Evra Patch/BirthControl Patch Intrauterine Device (IUD)
  • Reproductive process: male contraceptionAbstinenceVasectomy Vas / ectomy PermanentCondomsCompare the benefits andconcerns with each form ofmale contraception.4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 60
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 61Sexually transmitted infections Chlamydia Genital warts Gonorrhea Herpes HIV Syphilis TrichomonasEffects females and males.May or may not present symptoms.May or may not have a cure!
  • 4.06 Understand the functions and disordersof the reproductive system 62Essential questions What are the functions of the female reproductivesystem? What are some common disorders of the femalereproductive system? What is the function of the male reproductive system? What are some common disorders of the malereproductive system? How do the male and female reproductive systemwork together? How do you relate the body’s hormone control to themale and female reproductive systems?