1-Has special properties to absorb certain drugs and other chemical substances. We can apply drugs locally (tx of rashes) or can apply medications that can be absorbed through the skin and have a general effect on the body (nicotine patch). 2- Excrete waste products through sweat3-Helps to manufacture Vitamin D. The ultraviolet light on the skin is necessary for the first stage of vitamin D formation4- the covering of the underlying deeper tissues. It protects from dehydration, injury, and germ invasion. Designed to screen out harmful ultraviolet radiation contained in sunlight5-Helps to regulate body temperature by controlling the amount of heat loss. Evaporation of water from the skin, in the form of sweat helps rid the body of heat6-The site for many nerve endings. A square inch of skin contains about 72 feet of nerves and hundreds of receptors7- Has tissues for the temporary storage of fat, glucose, water and salts such as sodium chloride. Most of these substances are later absorbed by the blood and transported to other parts of the body
4 distinct cell types- Kerotinocytes- make up most of the epidermis and are responsible for producing the protein kerotinMerkel cells-these are the sensory receptors for touch Melanocytes- make the protein melanin. Melanin protects the skin against ultraviolet rays of the sunLangerhans cells- macrophages ( a cell that removes dead organisms and foreign substances by phagocytosis) which are effective in the defense of the skin against microorganisms5 layers-stratum germinativum- deepest layer of the epidermis. It is constantly undergoes cell division. Consists mostly of kerotinocytes. The cells grow upwards and become part of the more superficial layer (stratum spinosum). Melanocytes and merkle cells are allso found in this layer of the epidermis. The lower edge of this layer makes ridges known as papilla of the skin. The papillae actually begin in the dermis and push up into this layer. This ridges are so pronounced in the soles, palms, and finger that they raise the skin into permanent ridges. (fingerprints)stratum spinosum- is 8 -10 cell layers thick. It has melanocytes, keratinocytes, and Langerhans cells. Under a microscope, this layer looks prickly and so that is how it got the name spinosum meaning little spinestratum granulosum- this is where keratinization process begins and the cells begin to die. Keratinization is the process where keratinocytes cells change their shape, lose their nucleus, lose most of the water, and become mainly hard protein or keratin.stratum lucidum- is found only on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The cells in this layer appear clear under the microscope.stratum corneum- composed of dead flat scale-like keratinized cells which slough off daily. Complete cell turn over occurs every 28-30 days in young adults. But this process The surface layer consists of dead skin cells rich in keratin. Keratin is a protein that renders the skin dry and provides a waterproof covering thus resisting evaporation and preventing excessive water loss. Serves as a barrier against uv light, bacteria, abrasions, and some chemicals.Thickness of the epidermis varies throughout the body- the thinnest is the eyelids and the thickest is the palms of hands and soles of feet.
Melanocytes produce two distinct classes of melanin- pheomelanin which is red to yellow in coloreumelanin which is dark brown to blackPeople who have light skin generally have a greater proportion of pheomelanin in their skin than those who have darker skin. Both classes of melanin bind to a wide variety of compounds, including some medications. Some drugs will make the skin burn more easily because melanin will bind to the medication. Environment can also change our skin coloring. Exposure to sunlight may result in a temporary increase of eumelanin causing a darkened or tanned effect.
This is the thicker inner layer of the skin. It contains the matted masses of ……..The thickness varies over different parts of the body. It is thicker over the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands. The skin covering the shoulders and the back is thinner than that over the palms but is thicker that the skin over our abdomen and thorax.There are many nerve receptors of different types in the dermis. The sensory nerves end in nerve receptors which are sensitive to heat, cold, touch, pain, and pressure. The nerve endings vary in where they are located. The receptors for touch are closer to the epidermis so you can feels someone’s touch. However the pressure receptors are located deeper in the dermal layer. This explains why you can sit for a long period of time before you feel uncomfortable. There are also nerve receptors to sense pain located in the epidermis and around the hair follicles. These are especially numerous on the lower arm, breast and forehead. Blood vessels in the dermis help in the regulation of body temperature to maintain homeostasis. When external temps increase, blood vessels in the dermis dilate to bring more warmed blood flow to the surface of the body from deeper tissues. On a hot day the heat brought to the skin’s surface can be lost through the process of radiation –transfer of heat from a warm body to a cooler environmentconvection- air currents pick up and transfer heat away from a warm surfaceconduction- transfer of heat from a warmer object to a cooler object it is in contact withevaporation- transfer of heat into body fluids which are then evaporated from the body’s surface to the air
This lies under the dermis and is sometimes called the superficial fascia. It is not a true part of the integumentary system. It consists of loose connective tissue and contains about one half of the body’s stored fat.This layer attaches the integumentary system to the surface muscles underneath.
Hair is everywhere on the body except palms of hands, soles of feet, glans penis, and inner surface of the vaginal labia. The length, thickness, type, and color of hair varies with different body parts and different races. The hair on the eyelids are short whereas the hair from the scalp can grow a considerable length. Facial and pubic hair can be quite thick. The function of the hair is to protect us. Hair type and color are influenced by the pigment that is located in the cortex. In dark hair the cortex contains a lot of pigment granules. When we age, the pigment granules are replaced with air, which gives it a gray or white appearance. When the arrectorpili muscle is stimulated (as when u get a sudden chill) it contracts and causes the skin to pucker around the hair.
Some disease conditions may be revealed by the color of the person’s nails. White- liver diseaseWhite/pink- kidney diseaseRed nail bed- heart conditionYellow/thick- lung diseasePale nail bed- anemiaYellowish with a slight blush as the base- diabetesBluish in color- hypoxia
Perspiration is 99% water with only a small amount of salts and organic materials (waste products). Sudoriferous glands are distributed all over the entire skin surface. They are present in large numbers under the arms, palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and the forehead.Perspiration (sweat) is excreted through this pore. Under the control of the nervous system, sweat glands may be activated for several factors such as heat, pain, fever, and nervousness. The amount of water lost through the skin is almost 500 mL a day. Sweat smells due to bacteria being readily present on the body. Also sweat contains chemicals called pheromones which produce a smell that is said to play a role in courtship and social behavior. SEBACEOUS GLANDS- are also known as oil glands. These glands produce a thick oily substance called sebum. Sebum contains amino acids, lactic acids, lipids, salt, and urea. Sebum lubricates the skin to keep it soft and pliable.
Common and chronic disorder of the sebacous glandsSecrete excessive oil which is deposited at the opening of the glands. Eventually this oily deposit will become hard and plug up the opening. This will prevent the escape of the oily secretions and the area will become filled with leukocytes (WBC). The WBC cause an accumulation of pus. Mostly occurs during adolescence and is characterized by black heads cysts pimples and scarring. Tx- topical meds to dry up the oil and promote skin peeling. If the skin becomes infected, antibiotics.
Contagious fungal infection of the footThe fungus infects the superficial skin layer and leads to skin eruptions (blisters btw the toes) accompanied by cracking skin and scaling.Usually contracted in public shower Tx- thorough cleaning and drying of the affected area. Also the use of antifungal meds applied to feet (spray or powder).
Involves only the epidermis.s/s- redness, swelling, and painTx- applying cold waterHeals within a week
Involves epidermis and dermiss/s- pain swelling redness and blisteringTx- pain medications and dry sterile dsg applied to the open skin areas. Heals within two weeks
Complete destruction of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers. This can be a life threatening situation, depending on the amount of skin damaged, fluid lost, and blood plasma lost. s/s- loss of skin, eschar, and possibly no pain at allTx- preventing infection and contracture fluid replacement skin grafting
Measures the percent of the body burned. The body is divided into 11 areas and each area accounts for 9% of the total body surface.
Dermatitis- inflammation of the skin. The skin develops a rash.Eczema- acute or chronic noncontagious inflammatory skin disease. The skin become red dry itchy and scaly.Tx- dermatitis- remove the allergen and give an antihistamine eczema- apply topical med containing hydrocortisone- will help the symptoms but not cure it
Viral infection usually seen as a blisterHerpes simplex I occurs around the mouth and is known as a fever blister or cold sore. It can be spread through oral contactHerpes simplex 2 occurs as blisters in the genital area. This is spread through sexual contact. Tx with antiviral medications like Acyclovir. There will be periods of outbreak and remission
Acute inflammatory and highly contagious skin disease. Usually seen in babies and young kids. Caused by staphylococcus or streptococcus bacteria. Characterized by vesicles that rupture and develop a distinct yellow crust. Tx- oral antibiotics and topical antibiotics.
Chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by the development of dry reddish patches which are covered with silvery white scales. It affects the skin surface over the elbows, knees, shins, scalp, and lower back. The cause is unknown but onset is triggered by stress trauma or infection. Tx- moisturizers will help to keep the skin soft and reduce scales and thus the pain of cracking skin.
Highly contagious fungal infection that is spread by contact (touching)Characterized by a raised itchy circular patch with crusts. It occurs on the skin, the scalp, or under the nails. Tx: antifungals
Scabies is a condition of very itchy skin caused by tiny mites that burrow into your skin. See a picture of scabies.Scabies can affect people of all ages and from all incomes and social levels. Even people who keep themselves very clean can get scabies.How is scabies spread?Scabies mites spread by close contact with someone who has scabies. Scabies can also be spread by sharing towels, bed sheets, and other personal belongings. Scabies often affects several family members at the same time. You can spread it to another person before you have symptoms.What are the symptoms?Scabies causes severe itching that is usually worse at night and a rash with tiny blisters or sores. Small children and older adults tend to have the worst itching. Children typically have worse skin reactions.If this is the first time you have had scabies, it may be several weeks before you have itching and skin sores. But if you have had it before, symptoms will probably start in a few days.TREATMENTScabies will not go away on its own. You need to use a special cream or lotion that a doctor prescribes. In severe cases, your doctor may also give you pills to take.Some scabies medicines are not safe for children, older adults, and women who are pregnant or breast-feeding. To avoid dangerous side effects, be sure to follow your doctor’s instructions carefully.If you have scabies, you and anyone you have close contact with must all be treated at the same time. This keeps the mites from being passed back and forth from person to person. You must also carefully wash all clothes, towels, and bedding.After treatment, the itching usually lasts another 2 to 4 weeks. It will take your body that long to get over the allergic reaction caused by the mites. If you still have symptoms after 4 weeks, you may need another treatment.
A herpes zoster virus infection of the nerve endings. The same virus that causes chicken pox. Seen on chest and abdomen and is accompanied by severe pain. Tx- meds for the pain and itching and protecting the area.
Skin cancer has been associated with exposure to ultraviolet light. Stay out of excessive sun, wear sun screen
The most common and least malignant type of skin cancer and it usually occurs on the face. The abnormal cells start in the epidermis and extend into the dermis or the subcutaneous layerTx by surgical removal, radiation, or cryosurgery. 99% have full recovery
Arises from the epidermis and occurs most often on the scalp and lower lip. This type grows rapidlly and metastasizes to the lymph nodes. Tx with surgery or radiationChance of recovery is good if found early
Occurs in the pigmented cells of the skin- melanocytesThe cancer cells metastasize to other areas quickly. This type of tumor may appear as a brown or black irregular patch which occurs suddenly. A color or size change in a preexisting wart or mole may indicate a melanoma. Tx- surgical removal of the area and surrounding area also chemotherapy.
Human papilloma viral infection that affects the skin surrounding or underneath the nail. PainfulTx- freezing it off or applying med to dissolve itSoles of Foot-plantar wartGenital warts- STD
Functions and disorders of the Integumentary System
Essential Questions: What are the functions of the integumentary system? What are some disorders of the integumentarysystem? How are integumentary system disorders treated? How do you relate the integumentary system to thebody’s communication systems?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 2
Functions of theintegumentary systemWhat are the seven functionsof the skin?1- Absorption2- Excretion3- Production4- Protection5- Regulation6- Perception7-Storage3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 34
Functions of theintegumentary system Epidermis 4 cell types Kerotinocytes Merkel cells Melanocytes Langerhans cells 5 layers Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum germinativum/Stratum basale Function of Epidermis3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 4
Functions of theintegumentary system Epidermis Why are some people dark and others fair? Can that be changed?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 5
Functions of the integumentarysystemDermisConnective tissueCollagen tissue bandsElastic fibers (where blood vessels pass)Nerve endingsMusclesHair folliclesOil glandsSweat glandsFat cells3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 6
Functions of theintegumentary system Subcutaneouslayer Hypodermal layerHypo- dermal What are the benefits ofthe subcutaneous layerof skin?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 7
Functions of theintegumentary system Hair What is the function ofhair? What factors influencehair type and color? What happens to yourhair when you are cold?Why?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 8
Functions of theintegumentary system Nails Not just a pretty color! What does the condition ofa person’s nails tell abouttheir general health?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 9
Functions of theintegumentary system Glands Sudoriferous glands Why does sweat smellbad? Sebaceous glands3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 10Pimple
Functions of theintegumentary system What are the functionsof the skin? What structures areinvolved in thesefunctions?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 114review
Functions of theintegumentary systemThe skin has remarkableability to heal itself.How does this happen?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 12
Disorders of theintegumentary systemAcne vulgaris: What is acne vulgaris? How is it treated? Can it be prevented?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 13
Disorders of theintegumentary systemAthlete’s foot What causes athlete’sfoot? Does everyone havethe same symptoms? How is it treated?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 14
Disorders of theintegumentary systemBurns: First-degree Second-degree Third-degree3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 15
Disorders of theintegumentary systemBurns: First-degree3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 16
Disorders of theintegumentary systemBurns: Second degree3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 17
Disorders of theintegumentary systemBurns: Third-degree3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 18
Disorders of theintegumentary systemBurns: Compare thedifferentdegrees ofburns.3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 19
Disorders of theintegumentary systemBurns:Rule of Nines Used to quicklyassess percentageof body surfaceburned. Can be used todetermine extent oftreatment needed.3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 20
Disorders of theintegumentary systemDermatitis/Eczema dermat- -itis What is dermatitis? What is eczema? How are they different? What is the treatment?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 21
Disorders of theintegumentary systemHerpesHerpes simplex virus Two types of HSV: HSV type 1 HSV type 2 What are the symptoms? How is it spread? What is the prognosis?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 22
Disorders of theintegumentary systemImpetigo What two bacteriacause impetigo? How is it treated?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 23
Disorders of theintegumentary systemPsoriasis Describe thispicture What is thetreatment?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 24
Disorders of theintegumentary systemRingworm How is it spread? What causes ringworm? How is it treated?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 25Two examples of ringwormHow would this be diagnosed?
Disorders of theintegumentary systemScabies What is the cause ofscabies? Is it contagious? How is it treated? How is it prevented?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 26
Disorders of theintegumentary systemShingles What is the cause ofshingles? Who is most at risk? How is it prevented?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 27
Disorders of theintegumentary systemSkin cancer What are the risk factors fordeveloping skin cancer? How can it be prevented? Three types: Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Malignant melanoma3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 28
Disorders of theintegumentary systemSkin cancerBasal cell carcinoma What is distinctiveabout this type of skincancer? Where does it usuallyform?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 29
Disorders of theintegumentary systemSkin CancerSquamous cellcarcinoma How is squamous cellcarcinoma different frombasil cell carcinoma?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 30
Disorders of theintegumentary systemSkin cancerMalignant melanoma How is malignantmelanoma different fromthe other skin cancers? How are skin cancerstreated?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 31
Disorders of theintegumentary systemSkin lesions:Discuss thecharacteristics of thedifferent skin lesions.3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 32
Disorders of theintegumentary systemSkin lesions:Compare these types of skin lesions.MaculePapulePustule3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 33VesicleUlcer
Disorders of theintegumentary systemSkin lesion:Decubitus ulcer What is an ulcer? What are decubitusulcers? How can they beprevented? How are they treated?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 34
Disorders of theintegumentary systemwarts What causes warts? Are they contagious? Can they be prevented?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 35There are many different types!
Essential Questions: What are the functions of the integumentary system? What are some disorders of the integumentarysystem? How are integumentary system disorders treated? How do you relate the integumentary system to thebody’s communication systems?3.06: Understand the functions and disorders ofthe integumentary system 36