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WCUI Level 2
Medical-Surgical Nursing
Hematology and Lymphatic
System Disorders
Text Resources
 Christensen
• CH 47 p.1528
 ATI * CH 26- 27
Disorders- 1
 - Review Structure & Function
 - Assessment
 - Lab & diagnostics
 Coagulation
 Platelets and Count
Disorders- 1
Review Structure & Function
Disorders- 1
Anemia
- Sickle-Cell Anemia
-Transfusions
Lymphatic Disorders
 Hemophilia
 Von Willebrand’s Disease
 DIC
 Multiple Myeloma
 Lymphangitis
 Lymphedema
 Hodgkin...
ANATOMY AND
PHYSIOLOGY REVIEW
 The heart pumps 5–6 liters of blood per
minute through adult circulatory system.
ANATOMY AND
PHYSIOLOGY REVIEW
 The lymphatic system is a separate vessel
system with two main functions:
• Transport exce...
Disorders- 1
Von Willebrand’s Disease
Von Willebrand
 Definition
• most common hereditary bleeding disorder.
Von Willebrand
 Causes
• a deficiency of von Willebrand factor. Von
Willebrand factor helps blood platelets clump
togethe...
Disorders- 1
Lymphangitis
&
Lymphedema
Disorders- 1
IRON DEFICIENCY
ANEMIA
IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
 Occurs when the body does not have
enough iron to synthesize functional Hgb.
IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
 Symptoms:
• Fatigue
• Palpitations
• Tachycardia
• Exertional dyspnea
• Pica
• Stomatitis
• Gloss...
IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
 Treatment includes
• iron preparations and
• changes in diet
Disorders- 1
APLASTIC ANEMIA
APLASTIC ANEMIA
 Occurs when the bone marrow stops
making enough blood cells.
APLASTIC ANEMIA
 Symptoms:
• Fatigue
• Weakness
• Fever
• Palpitations
• Headaches
• mouth ulcers
• Petechiae
• gingival ...
APLASTIC ANEMIA
 Treatment includes
• bone marrow transplants and
• medications
Disorders-1
PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
 Inability to absorb vitamin B12 due to the
absence of intrinsic factor.
PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
 Symptoms:
• Weakness
• sore tongue
• Edema
• Ataxia
• Dizziness
• Dyspnea
• Headache
• Fever
• blurred...
PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
 Treatment includes
• lifetime replacement of vitamin B12.
Disorders-1
ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC
ANEMIA
ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
 Destruction of RBCs occurs, and iron and
hemoglobin are released.
ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
 Symptoms:
• Mild fatigue and pallor
• Jaundice
• Palpitations
• Hypotension
• Dyspnea
• Back a...
ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
 Treat to
• remove cause
• also blood transfusions
• Splenectomy
• medications
Disorders-1
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA
(INHERITED HEMOLYTIC
ANEMIA)
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED
HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)
 Genetic disorder that causes abnormally
shaped red blood cells.
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED
HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)
 Symptoms include
• anemia
• enlarged heart
• fatigue
• jaundice
• chroni...
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED
HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA) (continued)
 Treatment includes medications and
symptomatic care during c...
Disorders-1
POLYCYTHEMIA
POLYCYTHEMIA
 Increased production of red blood cells.
POLYCYTHEMIA Symptoms:
 headaches
 dizziness
 tinnitus
 blurred vision
 fatigue, weakness
 pruritis
 exertional dys...
POLYCYTHEMIA
 Treatment includes
• Phlebotomy
• Medications
• Dietary changes
Disorders-1
LEUKEMIA
LEUKEMIA
 Malignancy in which the bone marrow
produces increased numbers of
immature white blood cells that cannot
protec...
LEUKEMIA (continued)
Four categories:
 Acute myelogenous (AML)
 Acute lymphocytic (ALL)
 Chronic myelogenous (CML)
 Ch...
LEUKEMIA (continued) Symptoms
 fever
 chills
 fatigue
 pallor
 malaise
 tachycardia, tachypnea
 petechiae, bruising...
LEUKEMIA (continued)
 Treatment includes
• Chemotherapy
• Radiation
• Blood products
• Antibiotics
• Bone marrow transpla...
Disorders-1
AGRANULOCYTOSIS
AGRANULOCYTOSIS
 Reduced number of granulocytes.
AGRANULOCYTOSIS Symptoms:
 headache
 fever
 chills
 fatigue
 mucous membrane ulcerations
 low white blood counts
AGRANULOCYTOSIS
 Treat to remove the cause of bone marrow
suppression and treat or prevent infection.
Disorders-1
DISSEMINATED
INTRAVASCULAR
COAGULATION (DIC)
DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR
COAGULATION (DIC)
 Syndrome of alternating clotting and
hemorrhaging due to a primary disease
...
DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR
COAGULATION (DIC)
 Symptoms include
• oozing from a venipuncture mucus membrane,
wound.
DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR
COAGULATION (DIC)
 Treatment:
• blood replacement and medications, and for
primary condition.
Disorders-1
HEMOPHILIA
HEMOPHILIA
 Inherited bleeding disorder in which there is
a lack of clotting factors.
 The main symptom is bleeding.
 T...
Disorders-1
THROMBOCYTOPENIA
THROMBOCYTOPENIA
 Decrease in the number of platelets in
the blood.
THROMBOCYTOPENIA
 Symptoms:
• Petechiae
• Ecchymoses
• Bleeding from mucous membranes.
THROMBOCYTOPENIA
 Treatment:
• transfusions of platelets
• Splenectomy
• Medications
• diet changes
Disorders-1
HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA &
NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
 Rare lymphoma usually arising as painless
swelling in a lymph node.
HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
 Painless enlarged lymph nodes in neck,
groin, above clavicles, fatigue, pruritis,
fever, night sweats...
HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
 Treatment includes
• Radiation
• Chemotherapy
• Diet changes
NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
Symptoms:
 enlarged, painless lymph nodes in neck,
axillary, abdominal, and inguinal areas
 fever...
NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
 Treatment:
• Chemotherapy
• Radiation
Disorders-1
MYELOMA
MYELOMA
 Plasma cells become malignant, crowd out
normal cell production, destroy
normal bone tissue, and cause pain.
MYELOMA
 Symptoms:
• bone pain, swollen and tender joints, low-grade
fever, general malaise.
 Myeloma is not curable, so...
Coming UP…
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall
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    1. 1. WCUI Level 2 Medical-Surgical Nursing Hematology and Lymphatic System Disorders
    2. 2. Text Resources  Christensen • CH 47 p.1528  ATI * CH 26- 27
    3. 3. Disorders- 1  - Review Structure & Function  - Assessment  - Lab & diagnostics  Coagulation  Platelets and Count
    4. 4. Disorders- 1 Review Structure & Function
    5. 5. Disorders- 1 Anemia - Sickle-Cell Anemia -Transfusions
    6. 6. Lymphatic Disorders  Hemophilia  Von Willebrand’s Disease  DIC  Multiple Myeloma  Lymphangitis  Lymphedema  Hodgkin’s Disease  Non-Hodgkin’s Disease  - Leukemia  - Lymphomas
    7. 7. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY REVIEW  The heart pumps 5–6 liters of blood per minute through adult circulatory system.
    8. 8. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY REVIEW  The lymphatic system is a separate vessel system with two main functions: • Transport excess fluid from the interstitial spaces to the circulatory system. • Protect the body from infections.
    9. 9. Disorders- 1 Von Willebrand’s Disease
    10. 10. Von Willebrand  Definition • most common hereditary bleeding disorder.
    11. 11. Von Willebrand  Causes • a deficiency of von Willebrand factor. Von Willebrand factor helps blood platelets clump together and stick to the blood vessel wall, which is necessary for normal blood clotting. • affects both men and women • most cases are mild • bleeding may occur after surgery or when you have a tooth pulled.
    12. 12. Disorders- 1 Lymphangitis & Lymphedema
    13. 13. Disorders- 1 IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
    14. 14. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA  Occurs when the body does not have enough iron to synthesize functional Hgb.
    15. 15. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA  Symptoms: • Fatigue • Palpitations • Tachycardia • Exertional dyspnea • Pica • Stomatitis • Glossitis • Brittle hair.
    16. 16. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA  Treatment includes • iron preparations and • changes in diet
    17. 17. Disorders- 1 APLASTIC ANEMIA
    18. 18. APLASTIC ANEMIA  Occurs when the bone marrow stops making enough blood cells.
    19. 19. APLASTIC ANEMIA  Symptoms: • Fatigue • Weakness • Fever • Palpitations • Headaches • mouth ulcers • Petechiae • gingival bleeding • epistaxis
    20. 20. APLASTIC ANEMIA  Treatment includes • bone marrow transplants and • medications
    21. 21. Disorders-1 PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
    22. 22. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA  Inability to absorb vitamin B12 due to the absence of intrinsic factor.
    23. 23. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA  Symptoms: • Weakness • sore tongue • Edema • Ataxia • Dizziness • Dyspnea • Headache • Fever • blurred vision, etc.
    24. 24. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA  Treatment includes • lifetime replacement of vitamin B12.
    25. 25. Disorders-1 ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    26. 26. ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA  Destruction of RBCs occurs, and iron and hemoglobin are released.
    27. 27. ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA  Symptoms: • Mild fatigue and pallor • Jaundice • Palpitations • Hypotension • Dyspnea • Back and joint pain
    28. 28. ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA  Treat to • remove cause • also blood transfusions • Splenectomy • medications
    29. 29. Disorders-1 SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)
    30. 30. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)  Genetic disorder that causes abnormally shaped red blood cells.
    31. 31. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)  Symptoms include • anemia • enlarged heart • fatigue • jaundice • chronic leg ulcers • tachypnea • dyspnea • arrhythmias • severe pain
    32. 32. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA) (continued)  Treatment includes medications and symptomatic care during crises.
    33. 33. Disorders-1 POLYCYTHEMIA
    34. 34. POLYCYTHEMIA  Increased production of red blood cells.
    35. 35. POLYCYTHEMIA Symptoms:  headaches  dizziness  tinnitus  blurred vision  fatigue, weakness  pruritis  exertional dyspnea, angina  increased blood pressure and pulse.
    36. 36. POLYCYTHEMIA  Treatment includes • Phlebotomy • Medications • Dietary changes
    37. 37. Disorders-1 LEUKEMIA
    38. 38. LEUKEMIA  Malignancy in which the bone marrow produces increased numbers of immature white blood cells that cannot protect the body from infections.
    39. 39. LEUKEMIA (continued) Four categories:  Acute myelogenous (AML)  Acute lymphocytic (ALL)  Chronic myelogenous (CML)  Chronic lymphocytic (CLL)
    40. 40. LEUKEMIA (continued) Symptoms  fever  chills  fatigue  pallor  malaise  tachycardia, tachypnea  petechiae, bruising  epistaxis, melena, gingival bleeding  increased menstrual bleeding.
    41. 41. LEUKEMIA (continued)  Treatment includes • Chemotherapy • Radiation • Blood products • Antibiotics • Bone marrow transplants.
    42. 42. Disorders-1 AGRANULOCYTOSIS
    43. 43. AGRANULOCYTOSIS  Reduced number of granulocytes.
    44. 44. AGRANULOCYTOSIS Symptoms:  headache  fever  chills  fatigue  mucous membrane ulcerations  low white blood counts
    45. 45. AGRANULOCYTOSIS  Treat to remove the cause of bone marrow suppression and treat or prevent infection.
    46. 46. Disorders-1 DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)
    47. 47. DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)  Syndrome of alternating clotting and hemorrhaging due to a primary disease process or condition.
    48. 48. DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)  Symptoms include • oozing from a venipuncture mucus membrane, wound.
    49. 49. DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)  Treatment: • blood replacement and medications, and for primary condition.
    50. 50. Disorders-1 HEMOPHILIA
    51. 51. HEMOPHILIA  Inherited bleeding disorder in which there is a lack of clotting factors.  The main symptom is bleeding.  Treatment includes replacement of missing clotting factors.
    52. 52. Disorders-1 THROMBOCYTOPENIA
    53. 53. THROMBOCYTOPENIA  Decrease in the number of platelets in the blood.
    54. 54. THROMBOCYTOPENIA  Symptoms: • Petechiae • Ecchymoses • Bleeding from mucous membranes.
    55. 55. THROMBOCYTOPENIA  Treatment: • transfusions of platelets • Splenectomy • Medications • diet changes
    56. 56. Disorders-1 HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA & NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
    57. 57. HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA  Rare lymphoma usually arising as painless swelling in a lymph node.
    58. 58. HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA  Painless enlarged lymph nodes in neck, groin, above clavicles, fatigue, pruritis, fever, night sweats, anemia.
    59. 59. HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA  Treatment includes • Radiation • Chemotherapy • Diet changes
    60. 60. NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA Symptoms:  enlarged, painless lymph nodes in neck, axillary, abdominal, and inguinal areas  fever, night sweats  excessive tiredness  Indigestion  abdominal pain  loss of appetite  bone pain
    61. 61. NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA  Treatment: • Chemotherapy • Radiation
    62. 62. Disorders-1 MYELOMA
    63. 63. MYELOMA  Plasma cells become malignant, crowd out normal cell production, destroy normal bone tissue, and cause pain.
    64. 64. MYELOMA  Symptoms: • bone pain, swollen and tender joints, low-grade fever, general malaise.  Myeloma is not curable, so treatment is symptomatic.
    65. 65. Coming UP…
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