Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall

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  • Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall

    1. 1. WCUI Level 2 Medical-Surgical Nursing Hematology and Lymphatic System Disorders
    2. 2. Text Resources  Christensen • CH 47 p.1528  ATI * CH 26- 27
    3. 3. Disorders- 1  - Review Structure & Function  - Assessment  - Lab & diagnostics  Coagulation  Platelets and Count
    4. 4. Disorders- 1 Review Structure & Function
    5. 5. Disorders- 1 Anemia - Sickle-Cell Anemia -Transfusions
    6. 6. Lymphatic Disorders  Hemophilia  Von Willebrand’s Disease  DIC  Multiple Myeloma  Lymphangitis  Lymphedema  Hodgkin’s Disease  Non-Hodgkin’s Disease  - Leukemia  - Lymphomas
    7. 7. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY REVIEW  The heart pumps 5–6 liters of blood per minute through adult circulatory system.
    8. 8. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY REVIEW  The lymphatic system is a separate vessel system with two main functions: • Transport excess fluid from the interstitial spaces to the circulatory system. • Protect the body from infections.
    9. 9. Disorders- 1 Von Willebrand’s Disease
    10. 10. Von Willebrand  Definition • most common hereditary bleeding disorder.
    11. 11. Von Willebrand  Causes • a deficiency of von Willebrand factor. Von Willebrand factor helps blood platelets clump together and stick to the blood vessel wall, which is necessary for normal blood clotting. • affects both men and women • most cases are mild • bleeding may occur after surgery or when you have a tooth pulled.
    12. 12. Disorders- 1 Lymphangitis & Lymphedema
    13. 13. Disorders- 1 IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
    14. 14. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA  Occurs when the body does not have enough iron to synthesize functional Hgb.
    15. 15. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA  Symptoms: • Fatigue • Palpitations • Tachycardia • Exertional dyspnea • Pica • Stomatitis • Glossitis • Brittle hair.
    16. 16. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA  Treatment includes • iron preparations and • changes in diet
    17. 17. Disorders- 1 APLASTIC ANEMIA
    18. 18. APLASTIC ANEMIA  Occurs when the bone marrow stops making enough blood cells.
    19. 19. APLASTIC ANEMIA  Symptoms: • Fatigue • Weakness • Fever • Palpitations • Headaches • mouth ulcers • Petechiae • gingival bleeding • epistaxis
    20. 20. APLASTIC ANEMIA  Treatment includes • bone marrow transplants and • medications
    21. 21. Disorders-1 PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
    22. 22. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA  Inability to absorb vitamin B12 due to the absence of intrinsic factor.
    23. 23. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA  Symptoms: • Weakness • sore tongue • Edema • Ataxia • Dizziness • Dyspnea • Headache • Fever • blurred vision, etc.
    24. 24. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA  Treatment includes • lifetime replacement of vitamin B12.
    25. 25. Disorders-1 ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    26. 26. ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA  Destruction of RBCs occurs, and iron and hemoglobin are released.
    27. 27. ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA  Symptoms: • Mild fatigue and pallor • Jaundice • Palpitations • Hypotension • Dyspnea • Back and joint pain
    28. 28. ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA  Treat to • remove cause • also blood transfusions • Splenectomy • medications
    29. 29. Disorders-1 SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)
    30. 30. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)  Genetic disorder that causes abnormally shaped red blood cells.
    31. 31. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)  Symptoms include • anemia • enlarged heart • fatigue • jaundice • chronic leg ulcers • tachypnea • dyspnea • arrhythmias • severe pain
    32. 32. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA) (continued)  Treatment includes medications and symptomatic care during crises.
    33. 33. Disorders-1 POLYCYTHEMIA
    34. 34. POLYCYTHEMIA  Increased production of red blood cells.
    35. 35. POLYCYTHEMIA Symptoms:  headaches  dizziness  tinnitus  blurred vision  fatigue, weakness  pruritis  exertional dyspnea, angina  increased blood pressure and pulse.
    36. 36. POLYCYTHEMIA  Treatment includes • Phlebotomy • Medications • Dietary changes
    37. 37. Disorders-1 LEUKEMIA
    38. 38. LEUKEMIA  Malignancy in which the bone marrow produces increased numbers of immature white blood cells that cannot protect the body from infections.
    39. 39. LEUKEMIA (continued) Four categories:  Acute myelogenous (AML)  Acute lymphocytic (ALL)  Chronic myelogenous (CML)  Chronic lymphocytic (CLL)
    40. 40. LEUKEMIA (continued) Symptoms  fever  chills  fatigue  pallor  malaise  tachycardia, tachypnea  petechiae, bruising  epistaxis, melena, gingival bleeding  increased menstrual bleeding.
    41. 41. LEUKEMIA (continued)  Treatment includes • Chemotherapy • Radiation • Blood products • Antibiotics • Bone marrow transplants.
    42. 42. Disorders-1 AGRANULOCYTOSIS
    43. 43. AGRANULOCYTOSIS  Reduced number of granulocytes.
    44. 44. AGRANULOCYTOSIS Symptoms:  headache  fever  chills  fatigue  mucous membrane ulcerations  low white blood counts
    45. 45. AGRANULOCYTOSIS  Treat to remove the cause of bone marrow suppression and treat or prevent infection.
    46. 46. Disorders-1 DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)
    47. 47. DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)  Syndrome of alternating clotting and hemorrhaging due to a primary disease process or condition.
    48. 48. DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)  Symptoms include • oozing from a venipuncture mucus membrane, wound.
    49. 49. DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)  Treatment: • blood replacement and medications, and for primary condition.
    50. 50. Disorders-1 HEMOPHILIA
    51. 51. HEMOPHILIA  Inherited bleeding disorder in which there is a lack of clotting factors.  The main symptom is bleeding.  Treatment includes replacement of missing clotting factors.
    52. 52. Disorders-1 THROMBOCYTOPENIA
    53. 53. THROMBOCYTOPENIA  Decrease in the number of platelets in the blood.
    54. 54. THROMBOCYTOPENIA  Symptoms: • Petechiae • Ecchymoses • Bleeding from mucous membranes.
    55. 55. THROMBOCYTOPENIA  Treatment: • transfusions of platelets • Splenectomy • Medications • diet changes
    56. 56. Disorders-1 HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA & NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
    57. 57. HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA  Rare lymphoma usually arising as painless swelling in a lymph node.
    58. 58. HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA  Painless enlarged lymph nodes in neck, groin, above clavicles, fatigue, pruritis, fever, night sweats, anemia.
    59. 59. HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA  Treatment includes • Radiation • Chemotherapy • Diet changes
    60. 60. NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA Symptoms:  enlarged, painless lymph nodes in neck, axillary, abdominal, and inguinal areas  fever, night sweats  excessive tiredness  Indigestion  abdominal pain  loss of appetite  bone pain
    61. 61. NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA  Treatment: • Chemotherapy • Radiation
    62. 62. Disorders-1 MYELOMA
    63. 63. MYELOMA  Plasma cells become malignant, crowd out normal cell production, destroy normal bone tissue, and cause pain.
    64. 64. MYELOMA  Symptoms: • bone pain, swollen and tender joints, low-grade fever, general malaise.  Myeloma is not curable, so treatment is symptomatic.
    65. 65. Coming UP…

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