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Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall

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Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall Wcui l 2 hematologic.lymphatic system disorders_0510.beall Presentation Transcript

  • WCUI Level 2 Medical-Surgical Nursing Hematology and Lymphatic System Disorders
  • Text Resources
    • Christensen
      • CH 47 p.1528
    • ATI * CH 26- 27
  • Disorders- 1
    • - Review Structure & Function
    • - Assessment
    • - Lab & diagnostics
    • Coagulation
    • Platelets and Count
  • Disorders- 1 Review Structure & Function
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  • Disorders- 1 Anemia - Sickle-Cell Anemia -Transfusions
  • Lymphatic Disorders
    • Hemophilia
    • Von Willebrand’s Disease
    • DIC
    • Multiple Myeloma
    • Lymphangitis
    • Lymphedema
    • Hodgkin’s Disease
    • Non-Hodgkin’s Disease
    • - Leukemia
    • - Lymphomas
  • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY REVIEW
    • The heart pumps 5–6 liters of blood per minute through adult circulatory system.
  • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY REVIEW
    • The lymphatic system is a separate vessel system with two main functions:
      • Transport excess fluid from the interstitial spaces to the circulatory system.
      • Protect the body from infections.
  • Disorders- 1 Von Willebrand’s Disease
  •  
  • Von Willebrand
    • Definition
      • most common hereditary bleeding disorder.
  • Von Willebrand
    • Causes
      • a deficiency of von Willebrand factor. Von Willebrand factor helps blood platelets clump together and stick to the blood vessel wall, which is necessary for normal blood clotting.
      • affects both men and women
      • most cases are mild
      • bleeding may occur after surgery or when you have a tooth pulled.
  • Disorders- 1 Lymphangitis & Lymphedema
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  • Disorders- 1 IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
  • IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
    • Occurs when the body does not have enough iron to synthesize functional Hgb.
  • IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
    • Symptoms:
      • Fatigue
      • Palpitations
      • Tachycardia
      • Exertional dyspnea
      • Pica
      • Stomatitis
      • Glossitis
      • Brittle hair.
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  •  
  • IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
    • Treatment includes
      • iron preparations and
      • changes in diet
  • Disorders- 1 APLASTIC ANEMIA
  • APLASTIC ANEMIA
    • Occurs when the bone marrow stops making enough blood cells.
  •  
  • APLASTIC ANEMIA
    • Symptoms:
      • Fatigue
      • Weakness
      • Fever
      • Palpitations
      • Headaches
      • mouth ulcers
      • Petechiae
      • gingival bleeding
      • epistaxis
  • APLASTIC ANEMIA
    • Treatment includes
      • bone marrow transplants and
      • medications
  • Disorders-1 PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
  • PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
    • Inability to absorb vitamin B12 due to the absence of intrinsic factor.
  • PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
    • Symptoms:
      • Weakness
      • sore tongue
      • Edema
      • Ataxia
      • Dizziness
      • Dyspnea
      • Headache
      • Fever
      • blurred vision, etc.
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  • PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
    • Treatment includes
      • lifetime replacement of vitamin B12.
  • Disorders-1 ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
  • ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    • Destruction of RBCs occurs, and iron and hemoglobin are released.
  • ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    • Symptoms:
      • Mild fatigue and pallor
      • Jaundice
      • Palpitations
      • Hypotension
      • Dyspnea
      • Back and joint pain
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  • ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
    • Treat to
      • remove cause
      • also blood transfusions
      • Splenectomy
      • medications
  • Disorders-1 SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)
  • SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)
    • Genetic disorder that causes abnormally shaped red blood cells.
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  • SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA)
    • Symptoms include
      • anemia
      • enlarged heart
      • fatigue
      • jaundice
      • chronic leg ulcers
      • tachypnea
      • dyspnea
      • arrhythmias
      • severe pain
  •  
  • SICKLE CELL ANEMIA (INHERITED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA) (continued)
    • Treatment includes medications and symptomatic care during crises.
  • Disorders-1 POLYCYTHEMIA
  • POLYCYTHEMIA
    • Increased production of red blood cells.
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  • POLYCYTHEMIA Symptoms:
    • headaches
    • dizziness
    • tinnitus
    • blurred vision
    • fatigue, weakness
    • pruritis
    • exertional dyspnea, angina
    • increased blood pressure and pulse.
  •  
  • POLYCYTHEMIA
    • Treatment includes
      • Phlebotomy
      • Medications
      • Dietary changes
  • Disorders-1 LEUKEMIA
  • LEUKEMIA
    • Malignancy in which the bone marrow produces increased numbers of immature white blood cells that cannot protect the body from infections.
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  • LEUKEMIA (continued)
    • Four categories:
    • Acute myelogenous (AML)
    • Acute lymphocytic (ALL)
    • Chronic myelogenous (CML)
    • Chronic lymphocytic (CLL)
  • LEUKEMIA (continued) Symptoms
    • fever
    • chills
    • fatigue
    • pallor
    • malaise
    • tachycardia, tachypnea
    • petechiae, bruising
    • epistaxis, melena, gingival bleeding
    • increased menstrual bleeding.
  • LEUKEMIA (continued)
    • Treatment includes
      • Chemotherapy
      • Radiation
      • Blood products
      • Antibiotics
      • Bone marrow transplants.
  • Disorders-1 AGRANULOCYTOSIS
  • AGRANULOCYTOSIS
    • Reduced number of granulocytes.
  • AGRANULOCYTOSIS Symptoms:
    • headache
    • fever
    • chills
    • fatigue
    • mucous membrane ulcerations
    • low white blood counts
  • AGRANULOCYTOSIS
    • Treat to remove the cause of bone marrow suppression and treat or prevent infection.
  • Disorders-1 DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)
  • DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)
    • Syndrome of alternating clotting and hemorrhaging due to a primary disease process or condition.
  •  
  •  
  • DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)
    • Symptoms include
      • oozing from a venipuncture mucus membrane, wound.
  • DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION (DIC)
    • Treatment:
      • blood replacement and medications, and for primary condition.
  • Disorders-1 HEMOPHILIA
  • HEMOPHILIA
    • Inherited bleeding disorder in which there is a lack of clotting factors.
    • The main symptom is bleeding.
    • Treatment includes replacement of missing clotting factors.
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  • Disorders-1 THROMBOCYTOPENIA
  • THROMBOCYTOPENIA
    • Decrease in the number of platelets in the blood.
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  • THROMBOCYTOPENIA
    • Symptoms:
      • Petechiae
      • Ecchymoses
      • Bleeding from mucous membranes.
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  • THROMBOCYTOPENIA
    • Treatment:
      • transfusions of platelets
      • Splenectomy
      • Medications
      • diet changes
  • Disorders-1 HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA & NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
  • HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
    • Rare lymphoma usually arising as painless swelling in a lymph node.
  •  
  • HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
    • Painless enlarged lymph nodes in neck, groin, above clavicles, fatigue, pruritis, fever, night sweats, anemia.
  •  
  • HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
    • Treatment includes
      • Radiation
      • Chemotherapy
      • Diet changes
  • NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA Symptoms:
    • enlarged, painless lymph nodes in neck, axillary, abdominal, and inguinal areas
    • fever, night sweats
    • excessive tiredness
    • Indigestion
    • abdominal pain
    • loss of appetite
    • bone pain
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  •  
  • NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA
    • Treatment:
      • Chemotherapy
      • Radiation
  • Disorders-1 MYELOMA
  • MYELOMA
    • Plasma cells become malignant, crowd out normal cell production, destroy normal bone tissue, and cause pain.
  •  
  • MYELOMA
    • Symptoms:
      • bone pain, swollen and tender joints, low-grade fever, general malaise.
    • Myeloma is not curable , so treatment is symptomatic.
  • Coming UP…