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GROUP 7
GROUP MEMBERS

BS/2009/243
BS/2009/244
BS/2009/251
BS/2009/252
BS/2009/253
BS/2009/254
BS/2009/256
BS/2009/257
BS/...
CONTENT
INTRODUCTION
CLASSIFICATION
STRUCTURAL COMPLEXISITY
REPRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
 680 generas
 4000-6000 species
 Habitats:• In marine

•
•
•
•

In tropical
In warm water
In cooler region...
 Cell organization
Unicellular
Multicellular

-

Cyanidium
- Polysiphonia , Laurencia , Geledium

Geledium

Crystal struc...
CLASSIFICATION
KINGDOM- PROTISTA
DIVISION-RHODOPHYTA
CLASS-RHODOPHYCEAE
ORDER
Nemalionales
GENUS
Batrachospermum

ORDER
Ce...
STRUCTURE


Cell wall
• Rigid
• Inner component
Cellulose
Another polysaccharide

•Outer mucilaginous layer
Sulfated polymer of ...
Absence of flagella and centrioles
Floridean starch as a storage product

Chloroplast
• unstacked plastids in thylakoid...
STRUCTURAL COMPLEXISITY OF
Gracillaria


From of thalli
•Often fleshy thalli
•Cylindrical or terete
•Compressed or flatte...
 Constriction of branches
• frequently Gracilaria shows a constriction at the point
where a lateral branch joins a main a...
Types of spermatangial conceptacles
•Chorda type-superficial
•Textorii type-shallow cavity
•Verrucose type-deep pot like ...
Order – Nemalionales
Filamentous or uniaxial multicellular
Stem like thalli often dichotomously branched and
gelatinous ...
Order – Cereniales
Slender
Filamentous or uniaxial bush like plants
More complex reproductive structure is characterist...
Order- Gelediales
Thalli is cylindrical and wiry or flattened
Usually pinnately branched
Usually pseudo-parenchymatous
Order - Cryptonemales
Plants form
Dichotomously branched structure
Growing in tangled
Small clumps
Branches composed ...
Order- Gigantinales
Crustose to fruticose
Foliose types with thin, broad fronds
fruticose types with flattened
Usually ...
REPRODUCTION
OF
RHODOPHYTA
REPRODUCTION
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Discharging Spores – monospores
If conditio...
Sexual reproduction
Widely among the multicellular red algae.
Alternation of generation.
Life Cycle of Polysiphonia
Isomorphic

Gametophytes:•heterothallic
•male gametophytes
•female gametophytes

Spermatia:•...
Zygote:•oogamous
•auxillary cell become zygote
•grows in a carposporophyte

Carpospores:•type of mitospores
•produce by ...
Tetrasporsphytes:•Isomorphic to gametophyte
•Produce tetrasporangia in which
meiosis takes place
Tetrasporangia

Tetrasp...
Sexual Reproduction of
Polysiphonia
REPRODUCTON OF Gracillaria
Isomorphic generation
 Gamitophyte


• Male-spermatangia
• Female-carpogonia
• Fertilization ...
Sexual Reproduction of
Gracillaria
Order-Nemalionales
Mostly haplontic
Usually no auxiliary cells
Nurse cells perform similar
function
Nurse cells and au...
Sexual Reproduction of
Batrachospermum
Order-Gigantinales
Three phase diplohaplontic
A vegetative cell serves as auxiliary cell
Developing prior to fertilizat...
Order-Gelediales
Three phase diplohaplotic
No auxiliary cells

Gellidium
Life Cycle of
Gellidium
Order-Cryptonemales
Three phase-Diplohaplontic
Auxiliary cell in special filament
growing from a vegetative cell
Second...
Order-cereniales
Slender
Filamentous or unisexual bush like plants
lacking clear cut differentiation of cortex
and medul...
THANK YOU
Structural complexity and reproduction of rhodophytes 423
Structural complexity and reproduction of rhodophytes 423
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Transcript of "Structural complexity and reproduction of rhodophytes 423"

  1. 1. GROUP 7 GROUP MEMBERS BS/2009/243 BS/2009/244 BS/2009/251 BS/2009/252 BS/2009/253 BS/2009/254 BS/2009/256 BS/2009/257 BS/2009/260
  2. 2. CONTENT INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION STRUCTURAL COMPLEXISITY REPRODUCTION
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  680 generas  4000-6000 species  Habitats:• In marine • • • • In tropical In warm water In cooler regions In fresh water  Eukaryotic  Nutrition mode • Autotrophic
  4. 4.  Cell organization Unicellular Multicellular - Cyanidium - Polysiphonia , Laurencia , Geledium Geledium Crystal structure of Cyanidium • Thalli openly branching filaments Fleshy and foliose erect thalli Encrusting thalli (calcarious forms ) thallus
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION KINGDOM- PROTISTA DIVISION-RHODOPHYTA CLASS-RHODOPHYCEAE ORDER Nemalionales GENUS Batrachospermum ORDER Cereniales ORDER ORDER ORDER Gelediales Cryptonemales Gigantinales GENUS Polysiphonia GENUS Geledium GENUS Jania GENUS Gracillaria
  6. 6. STRUCTURE
  7. 7.  Cell wall • Rigid • Inner component Cellulose Another polysaccharide •Outer mucilaginous layer Sulfated polymer of galactose – agar or carrageenan •Some deposit calcium carbonate - family – Corallinaceae (Coralline algae) Cell structure
  8. 8. Absence of flagella and centrioles Floridean starch as a storage product Chloroplast • unstacked plastids in thylakoids •Pigment Chlorophyll a,phycoerithrin,phycocyanin allophycocyanin presence of the phycobilin or phycoerithin
  9. 9. STRUCTURAL COMPLEXISITY OF Gracillaria  From of thalli •Often fleshy thalli •Cylindrical or terete •Compressed or flattened •Foliose  Branching •Alternate •Di or trichotomous •Secund •Irregular
  10. 10.  Constriction of branches • frequently Gracilaria shows a constriction at the point where a lateral branch joins a main axis. Branch apex •Attenuate •Rostrate •Tapering •Apiculate •Obtuse •Blunt
  11. 11. Types of spermatangial conceptacles •Chorda type-superficial •Textorii type-shallow cavity •Verrucose type-deep pot like cavity •Polycavernosa type-compound verrucosa type Characteristics of cystocarps •Form •Basal constriction •With or without rostum Anatomy of cystocarp •Pericarp •Gonimoblast cells •Carposporangia •Absorbing filament Types of cystocarps
  12. 12. Order – Nemalionales Filamentous or uniaxial multicellular Stem like thalli often dichotomously branched and gelatinous in texture Batrachospermum
  13. 13. Order – Cereniales Slender Filamentous or uniaxial bush like plants More complex reproductive structure is characteristic of this order Polysiphonia
  14. 14. Order- Gelediales Thalli is cylindrical and wiry or flattened Usually pinnately branched Usually pseudo-parenchymatous
  15. 15. Order - Cryptonemales Plants form Dichotomously branched structure Growing in tangled Small clumps Branches composed of rigid Cylindrical segments with flexible joints
  16. 16. Order- Gigantinales Crustose to fruticose Foliose types with thin, broad fronds fruticose types with flattened Usually dichotomously branched Often fleshy thalli Tissues as in cryptonemiales
  17. 17. REPRODUCTION OF RHODOPHYTA
  18. 18. REPRODUCTION SEXUAL REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Discharging Spores – monospores If condition are suitable monospores may attach to a substrate. By mitosis they produce new seaweeds.
  19. 19. Sexual reproduction Widely among the multicellular red algae. Alternation of generation.
  20. 20. Life Cycle of Polysiphonia Isomorphic Gametophytes:•heterothallic •male gametophytes •female gametophytes Spermatia:•unite with the tricohogyne spermatangia
  21. 21. Zygote:•oogamous •auxillary cell become zygote •grows in a carposporophyte Carpospores:•type of mitospores •produce by carposporophyte •settle out of water column •grow in to tetrasporophyte carcosporangia
  22. 22. Tetrasporsphytes:•Isomorphic to gametophyte •Produce tetrasporangia in which meiosis takes place Tetrasporangia Tetraspores:•produce by meiosis •shed to the water •settle out of the water column •grow up in to gametophytes
  23. 23. Sexual Reproduction of Polysiphonia
  24. 24. REPRODUCTON OF Gracillaria Isomorphic generation  Gamitophyte  • Male-spermatangia • Female-carpogonia • Fertilization structure-cystocarp  Cystocarp •Carposporangia-carpospores Germinate to tetrasporophytes Formation of tetrasporangium-tetraspores Germinate to new thalli
  25. 25. Sexual Reproduction of Gracillaria
  26. 26. Order-Nemalionales Mostly haplontic Usually no auxiliary cells Nurse cells perform similar function Nurse cells and auxiliary cells form prior to fertilization
  27. 27. Sexual Reproduction of Batrachospermum
  28. 28. Order-Gigantinales Three phase diplohaplontic A vegetative cell serves as auxiliary cell Developing prior to fertilization Secondary pit often elongated in to an ooblast
  29. 29. Order-Gelediales Three phase diplohaplotic No auxiliary cells Gellidium
  30. 30. Life Cycle of Gellidium
  31. 31. Order-Cryptonemales Three phase-Diplohaplontic Auxiliary cell in special filament growing from a vegetative cell Secondary pits elongated to an ooblast forming prior to fertilization
  32. 32. Order-cereniales Slender Filamentous or unisexual bush like plants lacking clear cut differentiation of cortex and medulla tissues Simpler anatomy accompanied by more complex reproductive structure is characteristic of this order
  33. 33. THANK YOU
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