What is Culture?

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What is Culture?

  1. 1. What is “culture”?
  2. 2. Essential Question <ul><li>How and why do cultures change? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In your small group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>list 3 examples of things you consider to be part of “American” culture. </li></ul></ul>What is “culture”? Music Zumba Bollywood
  4. 4. CULTURE <ul><li>A people’s total way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Everything an individual has learned and will pass on to future generations </li></ul><ul><li>Influences personality and behavior </li></ul>
  5. 5. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION: FAMILY <ul><li>NUCLEAR: </li></ul><ul><li>Wife, husband, children </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial societies </li></ul><ul><li>EXTENDED: </li></ul><ul><li>Grandparents, parents, aunts, uncles, children </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural societies </li></ul>BACK
  6. 6. Who Rules the Family? Matriarchal Patriarchal BACK
  7. 7. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION: Social Classes Way in which cultures rank people in terms of their importance. Social Mobility : Moving from one social class to another Money, Land, Education, Ancestry Occupation BACK
  8. 8. Customs and Traditions - Society’s rules of behavior Laws Social Pressure BACK <ul><li>Folkways – ordinary rules of behavior (dress, courtesy, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Mores – necessary for welfare of society </li></ul><ul><li>Laws – regulate behavior; carry penalties if violated; based on norms </li></ul>
  9. 9. Language <ul><li>Positive: </li></ul><ul><li>The cornerstone of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Means of communication </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTITY </li></ul><ul><li>Negative: </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a great deal of tension as countries attempt to develop a unified culture </li></ul>BACK
  10. 10. Arts & Literature <ul><li>Teach about a particular culture </li></ul><ul><li>Used to pass along values </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen IDENTITY </li></ul>BACK
  11. 11. Religion <ul><li>Monotheism: </li></ul><ul><li>Worship of one god </li></ul><ul><li>Monism: </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in one unifying force </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheism: </li></ul><ul><li>Worship of more than one god </li></ul>Christianity Hinduism Judaism Islam BACK Egyptians, Greeks, Romans
  12. 12. Religion and Art Giotto: Madonna and child 15th-century manuscript illustration of Muhammad (not shown) preaching to followers
  13. 13. Governments <ul><li>Person/People who hold power in a society </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for the common need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect society from outside threats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Society’s laws and political institutions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Government <ul><li>Democracy – rule by the people; govt. must have consent of the governed </li></ul><ul><li>Republic – people choose leaders to represent them </li></ul><ul><li>Dictatorship – ruler or group holds absolute power sometimes – not always - by force </li></ul><ul><li>Communist state - a state governed a single Communist party (believe in Marx/Lenin) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Government <ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Athens, Greece </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Government <ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Athens, Greece </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Government <ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Athens, Greece </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul>BACK
  18. 18. Economics – how people use limited (scarce) resources to satisfy their wants and needs Traditional – people produce most of what they need Market – buying/selling occurs to satisfy wants/needs (ie. Village market) Command – govt decides what is produced, how they are produced and the cost (many communist countries have this (ie. Soviet Union) Mixed – govt makes some economic decisions and individuals make others (ie. United States) BACK
  19. 19. UNDERSTANDING OTHER CULTURES Why is it so difficult?
  20. 20. ETHNOCENTRISM Judging other cultures by one’s own standards.
  21. 21. RACISM The belief that one group or culture is superior to another.
  22. 22. What does society need? Appreciation of CULTURAL DIVERSITY Cultural relativism – understanding the customs of another group of people according to their point of view; decreases ethnocentrism.
  23. 23. WHY DOES CULTURE CHANGE? CAUSES: Technology Changing Environment New Ideas Cultural Diffusion – the movement of customs and ideas from one place to another
  24. 24. The Power of Culture <ul><li>“ How can anyone govern a nation that has two hundred and forty-six different kinds of cheese?&quot; — Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970), French general, president. Quoted in: Newsweek (New York, 1 Oct. 1962) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Social Organization CULTURE Economic Systems Government Customs/Traditions Religion Language Arts/Literature DO NOW: Complete this mind map with details from our discussion yesterday by recalling details about each element of culture.
  26. 26. Social Organization CULTURE Economic Systems Government Customs/Traditions Religion Language Arts/Literature
  27. 27. Cultural Universals <ul><li>Rank what you consider to be the “top 5” elements of culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Which cultural universals do you feel are most essential? Which could a group of people not do without? </li></ul>

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