Europe Goes to War The newspaper: Daily Mirror (British) The date: September 4th 1939 The news event: WWII begins This 'WANTED' poster presents Adolf Hitler as a 'reckless criminal ... wanted - dead or alive'.
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
What was its impact on Europe?
How do you think it set the stage for WWII?
What were the goals of each of these men? What did they all have in common?
Fascist Italy: Benito Mussolini
well-being of the state above that of the individual
Militaristic expansionism (“Italian lake”)
Private property with strong government controls
Extreme nationalism and racism
Private property with strong government controls
Promises FULL EMPLOYMENT to an economically depressed Germany
Becomes Chancellor 1933
Nazi Germany: Adolf Hitler
Creation of communist state, await world revolution
Revolution by workers
Eventual rule by working class
State ownership of property
Communist SU: Joseph Stalin
A Dangerous Patten of Events…
Remilitarization of the Rhineland (‘36)
Anschluss (’38)– Germany’s “unification” with Austria
The “link up” “… the Nazi Swastika was whipping in the air in every town and hamlet of the Rhineland.”
Appeasement gives way to aggression…
Munich Agreement (Sept. 1938) – doctrine of appeasement – giving up principles to pacify an oppressor
Allies turned the
over to Germany
6 months later,
Striking a deal with the Soviets
Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact
Why would Hitler become “friends” with a bitter enemy? (hint: think Germany’s biggest strategic mistake in WWI)
BLITZKRIEG in Poland!! September 1, 1939 Personal Account On 1st September 1939, German forces invaded Poland. Blitzkrieg was now put into practice. German forces attacked on a number of fronts. The map below illustrates these assaults. Black arrows - primary assaults red arrows - secondary assaults arrows to the right hand side of the map - signify the Soviet advance into Poland that followed the German invasion.
“ lightning war”
Fast tanks, powerful aircraft – swift defeat before Allies could mount a defense
Junkers Ju 188 medium bomber
WWII in Europe (Flash)
WAR!! Munich Agreement Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression pact France surrenders to Germany Britain and France Declare War on Germany Hitler invades Czechoslovakia Germany invades Poland PRECLASS – Put these events in order (Use reasoning – not your notes!!)
Munich Agreement Hitler invades Czechoslovakia Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression pact Germany invades Poland Britain and France Declare War on Germany France surrenders to Germany
“ My friends, there has come back from Germany peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time” – Neville Chamberlain “ Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war .” – Winston Churchill
German offenses begin…
Invasion of Czechoslovakia – in violation of Munich Pact
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact – NO 2 FRONT WAR!
Blitzkrieg in Poland – Luftwaffe rained bombs over Poland on Sept. 1, 1939
Sept 3 – Britain/France dec. war on Germany
The Phony War – “sitting war”
Maginot and Siegfried Lines
Maginot Line DA Ardennes: blockhouse with the graves of four French soldiers in the foreground
France falls to the Germans and Italians
Nazi controlled puppet govt. established at Vichy
Charles de Gaulle – govt.-in-exile in England
“ In three weeks England will have her neck wrung like a chicken.” - Marshal Petain, 1940 .
The Battle of Britain
Germ. Prepared navy and launched air attack on Britain
RAF was victorious
"radio detecting and ranging"
Battle of Britain: A Spotter on London Rooftop
St. Paul's Cathedral in London Air Raid
Children in East London After a Night Air Attack
Berkshire Almshouse Residents After a Night Air Attack
Which agreements has Hitler broken?
Treaty of Versailles
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Realizing he cannot defeat the RAF… Hitler invades the Soviet Union (June 1941)
elimination of the perceived Communist threat
seizure of prime land within Soviet borders for long-term German settlement
What is happening in the cartoon?
What is the opinion of the cartoonist?
Would you call them an isolationist or an interventionist?
ISOLATIONISM Neutrality WHY?? What was the role of the U.S. up to this point?
America Abandons Neutrality…
Before German victories of 1940
Neutrality acts (1935-39) – no monetary/
military aid to ANY belligerent
“ cash and carry” (1939)
“ The Great Arsenal of Democracy”
After German victories…
Selective Service Act – 1st peacetime draft
FDR runs for a 3rd term promising to keep US out of war
Lend-Lease Plan – US would lend or lease arms to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States” (GB and SU received aid)
Atlantic Charter (“United Nations”)
Shoot on sight
“ No man can tame a tiger into a kitten by stroking it.”
Why was aid to the Soviets so controversial?? “ If Hitler invaded Hell, the British would be prepared to work with the devil himself” ~ Winston Churchill
FDR’s “Four Freedoms” Speech We look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way-- everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want . . . everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear . . . anywhere in the world. --President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Message to Congress, January 6, 1941
With your partner, read the Point/Counterpoint selection on p. 758 in your text and answer the following questions.
What did isolationists believe about America’s role in the world?
What was the interventionist position?
In what ways did Lindbergh believe democracy would be saved?
Why did FDR think the US was threatened by what was happening in Europe?
Do you recommend the U.S. practice isolationism today? Why or why not?