Under the terms of Versailles , the Rhineland had been made into a demilitarised zone. Germany had political control of this area, but she was not allowed to put any troops into it. Therefore, many Germans concluded that they did not actually fully control the area despite it being in Germany itself. In March 1936, Hitler took what for him was a huge gamble - he ordered that his troops should openly re-enter the Rhineland thus breaking the terms of Versailles once again. He did order his generals that the military should retreat out of the Rhineland if the French showed the slightest hint of making a military stand against him. This did not occur. Over 32,000 soldiers and armed policemen crossed into the Rhineland Why didn’t the Allies (Britain and France) do anything about this violation of the Versailles Treaty ? France was going through an internal political crisis at the time and there was no political leadership to concentrate against Nazi Germany . Britain generally supported the view that Nazi Germany was only going into her own &quot;backyard&quot; and that this section of Versailles was not needed to be enforced in the mid-1930’s. It was believed that Germany was behaving in a reasonable and understandable manner. Therefore, no action was taken against Nazi Germany , despite Hitler’s later comment that the march into the Rhineland had been the most nerve-racking 48 hours of his life.
William (Welek) Luksenburg Describes the first night of the German invasion of Poland [1990 interview] Born Dabrowa Gornicza, Poland 1923 Shortly after the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, William's family was ordered into a ghetto and his brother went to a work camp. William bribed officials to discharge his brother from a hospital destined for evacuation to Auschwitz. Later, after escaping from a prison camp to tend to his brother, William was jailed. He was sent to Blechhammer, Gleiwitz (where he met his future wife), and other camps. William collapsed during a death march near the Austrian border, but was then liberated. His parents and brother perished.
“ the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country.”
Placed the well-being of the state above that of the individual
Vague, centered on charismatic leaders
The Romans inherited the faces from the Etruscans. A bundle of rods bound around an ax, the faces was the physical symbol of the Imperium : The absolute authority to give commands and enforce them, to scourge and execute the disobedient.
The Impact of Versailles on Germany Desire to resist/overthrow Treaty Limitation of German sovereignty Hyperinflation Massive war reparations No support from military Democratic govt. in Germany ( Weimar Republic ) Soldiers willing to fight again German army never surrendered Impact Consequence of WWI/Treaty
The Nye Committee I investigated the charge that WW I was needless and the US entered so munitions owners could make big profits [“merchants of death.”]
The Committee charged that bankers wanted war to protect their loans & arms manufacturers to make money.
Claimed that Wilson had provoked Germany by sailing in to warring nations’ waters.
Resulted in Congress passing several Neutrality Acts.
Senator Gerald P. Nye [R-ND]
America on the Sidelines: The US and World Affairs 1935-41 (interactive timeline)
Make this chart in your notebook: US Reaction Event in Europe Kearny Incident Greer Incident German invasion of SU Brits suffer losses at sea British gold reserves run low Fall of France (June 39) German invasion of low countries Invasion of Poland (Sept. 39) German threatens Poland (39) Civil War in Spain (35) Italy invades Ethiopia (35)
US Reaction Event in Europe Neutrality Act 41 – merchant vessels armed Kearny Incident Shoot on Sight order (FDR) Greer Incident Lend Lease aid to SU, Atlantic Charter German invasion of SU US convoy system Brits suffer losses at sea Lend Lease Act British gold reserves run low Destroyer Deal Fall of France (June 39) Exp. Armed forces; 1 st peacetime draft German invasion of low countries Neutrality Act (39) – cash and carry Invasion of Poland (Sept. 39) Expansion of armed forces German threatens Poland (39) Neutrality Act (37) – includes “civil strife” Civil War in Spain (35) Neutrality Act (35) – arms embargo on all belligerents; no loans, Amer. Can’t travel on vessels of nations @ war Italy invades Ethiopia (35)
BLITZKRIEG in Poland!! September 1, 1939 Personal Account On 1st September 1939, German forces invaded Poland. Blitzkrieg was now put into practice. German forces attacked on a number of fronts. The map below illustrates these assaults. Black arrows - primary assaults red arrows - secondary assaults arrows to the right hand side of the map - signify the Soviet advance into Poland that followed the German invasion.
“ lightning war”
Fast tanks, powerful aircraft – swift defeat before Allies could mount a defense
Junkers Ju 188 medium bomber
“ My friends, there has come back from Germany peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time” – Neville Chamberlain “ Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war .” – Winston Churchill
“ Lend-Lease” Act (1941) Great Britain.........................$31 billion Soviet Union...........................$11 billion France......................................$ 3 billion China.......................................$1.5 billion Other European.................$500 million South America...................$400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000
FDR’s “Four Freedoms” Speech We look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way-- everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want . . . everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear . . . anywhere in the world. --President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Message to Congress, January 6, 1941
2 intl’ treaties violated: Nine Power, Kellogg Briand
Japan withdraws from League
Grew’s Warning to Sec. of State Stimson (1932)
the Japanese military "has been built for war, feels prepared for war and would welcome war. It has never yet been beaten and possesses unlimited self confidence. I am not an alarmist but I believe that we should have our eyes open to all possible future contingencies. The facts of history would render it criminal to close them."
THE FIRST MESSAGE OF THE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR: The original message sent by the "Commander Aircraft, Scouting Force", Lt. Cmdr. Logan Ramsey, from Pearl Harbor to "All U.S. Navy Ships present Hawaiian area" , giving the first news: " AIRRAID ON PEARL HARBOR X THIS IS NO DRILL."
“ Air raid on Pearl Harbor. This is not a drill.”
180 Japanese planes (6 carriers)
2,403 Americans dead
300 aircraft destroyed – 3 carriers survived!!
Total devastation by 9:30 am
News photo of the wreckage-strewn American naval air station at Pearl Harbor during the Japanese raid.
Dorie Miller Pin honoring Pearl Harbor hero Dorie Miller. A black messman who was untrained in machine gun use due to rigid Naval segregation policies, Miller took over a machine gun aboard the USS West Virginia and was officially credited with downing two Japanese planes. Miller was honored as one of the first heroes of World War II, and six months after the attack was given the Navy Cross by Admiral Chester Nimitz.