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US Foreign Policy 1920 - 1941

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  • Under the terms of Versailles , the Rhineland had been made into a demilitarised zone. Germany had political control of this area, but she was not allowed to put any troops into it. Therefore, many Germans concluded that they did not actually fully control the area despite it being in Germany itself. In March 1936, Hitler took what for him was a huge gamble - he ordered that his troops should openly re-enter the Rhineland thus breaking the terms of Versailles once again. He did order his generals that the military should retreat out of the Rhineland if the French showed the slightest hint of making a military stand against him. This did not occur. Over 32,000 soldiers and armed policemen crossed into the Rhineland Why didn’t the Allies (Britain and France) do anything about this violation of the Versailles Treaty ?   France was going through an internal political crisis at the time and there was no political leadership to concentrate against Nazi Germany . Britain generally supported the view that Nazi Germany was only going into her own "backyard" and that this section of Versailles was not needed to be enforced in the mid-1930’s. It was believed that Germany was behaving in a reasonable and understandable manner. Therefore, no action was taken against Nazi Germany , despite Hitler’s later comment that the march into the Rhineland had been the most nerve-racking 48 hours of his life. 
  • William (Welek) Luksenburg Describes the first night of the German invasion of Poland [1990 interview] Born Dabrowa Gornicza, Poland 1923 Shortly after the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, William's family was ordered into a ghetto and his brother went to a work camp. William bribed officials to discharge his brother from a hospital destined for evacuation to Auschwitz. Later, after escaping from a prison camp to tend to his brother, William was jailed. He was sent to Blechhammer, Gleiwitz (where he met his future wife), and other camps. William collapsed during a death march near the Austrian border, but was then liberated. His parents and brother perished.
  • Transcript

    • 1. American Foreign Policy in the ’20s and ’30s
    • 2. Reviewing the 20s
      • List 3 specific examples of American foreign policies in the 1920s IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER. Next to each, write a cause and effect.
      • Example:
        • Event A (year)
          • CAUSE –
          • EFFECT -
    • 3. Isolationism: A Misleading Term?
      • Many isolationists…
        • Favored intl’ trade, bilateral intl’ laws since WWI
      • What did isolationists want?
        • No foreign entanglements
        • Neutrality
        • Defense of American liberty
        • Unilateralism – US had the right to act when and where it saw fit; protect US interests above all else
    • 4. Objectives
      • Describe the isolationist motives and effects of FDR’s early foreign policies.
      • Explain how American isolationism dominated U.S. policy in the mid-1930s.
    • 5. Foreign Policy Tensions in 20s and 30s Interventionism Disarmament
      • Collective security
      • “ Wilsonianism”
      • Business interests
      • Liberal Democrats
      • Isolationism
      • Nativists
      • American First Committee (Lindbergh)
      • Conservative Republicans
    • 6. Early FDR Policies
      • DOMESTIC relief and recovery above all else
        • Withdrawal from London Conference to protect inflationary policies @ home
      • Tydings-McDuffie (34) Freedom for (from?) the Philippines
      • Recognition of SU (late 33)
        • bolster the US against Japan/Germany?
        • would trade w/ USSR help the US economy during the Depression?
    • 7. “ Good Neighbor” Policy
      • all nations in the W. Hemisphere united bc of foreign aggressions
      • non-intervention and cooperation w/ LA
      • Reversal of _____??
      • Mexico – govt. seized US oil properties
      The good neighbor respects himself and the rights of others.
    • 8. Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (‘34)
      • Sec. of State Hull
      • low-tariff policies
      • relief and recovery by lifting American trade
      One of Our Quaint Ideas about Foreign Trade
    • 9. The Rise of Totalitarianism: government control over all aspects of life
    • 10. What is fascism?
      • “ the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same way in any country.”
      • - Hermann Göring, Nuremberg Trials, 1946
    • 11. Fascism
      • Extreme nationalism
      • Irrational
      • Promised end to problems; used scapegoats
      • Placed the well-being of the state above that of the individual
      • Vague, centered on charismatic leaders
      The Romans inherited the faces from the Etruscans. A bundle of rods bound around an ax, the faces was the physical symbol of the Imperium : The absolute authority to give commands and enforce them, to scourge and execute the disobedient.
    • 12. The Political Spectrum
    • 13. Il Duce – Benito Mussolini (Italy) 1922 Der Fuhrer -Adolf Hitler (Germany) 1933 Josef Stalin (USSR) 1920 Emperor Hirohito and PM Hideki Tojo (Japan) 1921
    • 14.  
    • 15. The Impact of Versailles on Germany Desire to resist/overthrow Treaty Limitation of German sovereignty Hyperinflation Massive war reparations No support from military Democratic govt. in Germany ( Weimar Republic ) Soldiers willing to fight again German army never surrendered Impact Consequence of WWI/Treaty
    • 16. Hyper-Inflation in Germany: 1923
    • 17.
        • Militaristic expansionism (“Italian lake”)
        • Charismatic
        • Private property with strong government controls
        • Anti-communist
      Nazi Germany: Adolf Hitler Fascist Italy: Benito Mussolini
        • Creation of communist state, await world revolution by workers
        • Eventual rule by working class
        • State ownership of property
      Communist SU: Josef Stalin
        • Extreme nationalism racial purification
        • Militaristic expansion
        • Private property with strong government controls
        • Promises FULL EMPLOYMENT to an economically depressed Germany
      **All are anti- Democratic
    • 18.
      • Hitler becomes embodiment of German state
      • Message depended not on truth but on FANATICISM AND PASSION with which it was delivered
    • 19. Examining the Interwar Period (1918-41)
      • In your group of 3, each person will tackle one geographic area (Asia, Europe, US)
      • Using the readings and your notes, complete the timeline for your area.
      • share as a group, and answer the questions that follow.
      • Be prepared to share and discuss with the class!
    • 20. The Ducktators
    • 21. Objectives
      • Explain how America gradually began to respond to the threat from totalitarian aggression while still trying to stay neutral.
      • Describe Roosevelt’s increasingly bold moves toward aiding Britain in the fight against Hitler and the sharp disagreements these efforts caused at home.
    • 22. Nye Committee Hearings (1934-1936)
      • The Nye Committee I investigated the charge that WW I was needless and the US entered so munitions owners could make big profits [“merchants of death.”]
      • The Committee charged that bankers wanted war to protect their loans & arms manufacturers to make money.
      • Claimed that Wilson had provoked Germany by sailing in to warring nations’ waters.
      • Resulted in Congress passing several Neutrality Acts.
      Senator Gerald P. Nye [R-ND]
    • 23. America on the Sidelines: The US and World Affairs 1935-41 (interactive timeline)
    • 24. Make this chart in your notebook: US Reaction Event in Europe Kearny Incident Greer Incident German invasion of SU Brits suffer losses at sea British gold reserves run low Fall of France (June 39) German invasion of low countries Invasion of Poland (Sept. 39) German threatens Poland (39) Civil War in Spain (35) Italy invades Ethiopia (35)
    • 25.  
    • 26. US Reaction Event in Europe Neutrality Act 41 – merchant vessels armed Kearny Incident Shoot on Sight order (FDR) Greer Incident Lend Lease aid to SU, Atlantic Charter German invasion of SU US convoy system Brits suffer losses at sea Lend Lease Act British gold reserves run low Destroyer Deal Fall of France (June 39) Exp. Armed forces; 1 st peacetime draft German invasion of low countries Neutrality Act (39) – cash and carry Invasion of Poland (Sept. 39) Expansion of armed forces German threatens Poland (39) Neutrality Act (37) – includes “civil strife” Civil War in Spain (35) Neutrality Act (35) – arms embargo on all belligerents; no loans, Amer. Can’t travel on vessels of nations @ war Italy invades Ethiopia (35)
    • 27. A Dangerous Patten of Events…
        • Remilitarization of the Rhineland (‘36)
        • Anschluss (’38)– Germany’s “unification” with Austria
      The “link up” “… the Nazi Swastika was whipping in the air in every town and hamlet of the Rhineland.”
    • 28. Appeasement gives way to aggression…
        • Munich Agreement (Sept. 1938) – doctrine of appeasement – giving up principles to pacify an oppressor
          • Allies turned the
          • Sudetenland
          • over to Germany
          • 6 months later,
          • German troops
          • invade Czechoslovakia
    • 29. Striking a deal with the Soviets
        • Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact
          • Why would Hitler become “friends” with a bitter enemy? (hint: think Germany’s biggest strategic mistake in WWI)
    • 30.  
    • 31. BLITZKRIEG in Poland!! September 1, 1939 Personal Account On 1st September 1939, German forces invaded Poland. Blitzkrieg was now put into practice. German forces attacked on a number of fronts. The map below illustrates these assaults. Black arrows - primary assaults red arrows - secondary assaults arrows to the right hand side of the map - signify the Soviet advance into Poland that followed the German invasion.
      • “ lightning war”
      • Fast tanks, powerful aircraft – swift defeat before Allies could mount a defense
      Junkers Ju 188 medium bomber
    • 32. “ My friends, there has come back from Germany peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time” – Neville Chamberlain “ Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war .” – Winston Churchill
    • 33. German offenses begin…
        • Invasion of Czechoslovakia – in violation of Munich Pact
        • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact – NO 2 FRONT WAR!
          • Blitzkrieg in Poland – Luftwaffe rained bombs over Poland on Sept. 1, 1939
          • Sept 3 – Britain/France dec. war on Germany
        • The Phony War – “sitting war”
          • Maginot and Siegfried Lines
    • 34. Maginot Line DA Ardennes: blockhouse with the graves of four French soldiers in the foreground
    • 35. France Falls
        • France falls to the Germans and Italians
          • Nazi controlled puppet govt. established at Vichy
          • Charles de Gaulle – govt.-in-exile in England
      “ In three weeks England will have her neck wrung like a chicken.” - Marshal Petain, 1940 .
    • 36.
      • The Battle of Britain
        • Germ. Prepared navy and launched air attack on Britain
        • Luftwaffe targeted
        • airfields, aircrafts
        • and neighborhoods
        • RAF was victorious
          • radar
      "radio detecting and ranging"
    • 37. Battle of Britain: A Spotter on London Rooftop
    • 38. St. Paul's Cathedral in London Air Raid
    • 39. Children in East London After a Night Air Attack
    • 40. Berkshire Almshouse Residents After a Night Air Attack
    • 41. Which agreements has Hitler broken?
        • Treaty of Versailles
        • Munich Agreement
        • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
      • Realizing he cannot defeat the RAF… Hitler invades the Soviet Union (June 1941)
      • elimination of the perceived Communist threat
      • seizure of prime land (oil) within Soviet borders for long-term German settlement
    • 42. America Abandons Neutrality…
      • Before German victories of 1940
        • Neutrality acts (1935-39) – no monetary/
        • military aid to ANY belligerent
        • “ cash and carry” (1939)
    • 43. “ The Great Arsenal of Democracy”
        • After German victories…
        • Selective Service Act – 1st peacetime draft
        • FDR runs for a 3rd term promising to keep US out of war
        • Destroyer Deal w GB
        • Lend-Lease Plan – US would lend or lease arms to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States” (GB and SU received aid)
        • Atlantic Charter (“United Nations”)
        • Shoot on sight
      “ No man can tame a tiger into a kitten by stroking it.”
    • 44. Why was aid to the Soviets so controversial?? “ If Hitler invaded Hell, the British would be prepared to work with the devil himself” ~ Winston Churchill
    • 45. “ America First” Committee Charles Lindbergh
    • 46. “ Lend-Lease” Act (1941) Great Britain.........................$31 billion Soviet Union...........................$11 billion France......................................$ 3 billion China.......................................$1.5 billion Other European.................$500 million South America...................$400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000
    • 47. FDR’s “Four Freedoms” Speech We look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression--everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way-- everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want . . . everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear . . . anywhere in the world. --President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Message to Congress, January 6, 1941
    • 48. Discussion Questions
      • Why did the neutrality laws fail to prevent America’s growing involvement with the military conflicts in Europe and Asia?
      • How did the process of American entry into World War II compare with the entry into World War I?
      • Would it have been more straightforward of Roosevelt to have openly called for a declaration of war against Hitler rather than increasing involvement gradually while claiming that he did not want war?
      • Would the United States have entered World War II even if the Japanese had not attacked Pearl Harbor?
    • 49. Neutrality Acts: 1935, 1936, 1937
      • When the President proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect:
        • Prohibited sales of arms to belligerent nations.
        • Prohibited loans and credits to belligerent nations.
        • Forbade Americans to travel on vessels of nations at war [in contrast to WW I].
        • Non-military goods must be purchased on a “cash-and-carry” basis  pay when goods are picked up.
        • Banned involvement in the Spanish Civil War.
      • This limited the options of the President in a crisis.
    • 50. FDR’s “I hate war” Speech (1936)
    • 51. US Neutrality
    • 52.  
    • 53. Objectives
      • Discuss the events and diplomatic issues in the Japanese American conflict that led up to Pearl Harbor
    • 54. 1920s Japan
      • Plagued by:
        • Overpopulation
        • Economic crisis
      • Militarists gain momentum
        • Advocate invasion of Manchuria for raw materials and settlements
        • Claimed 5 Power Treaty was unfair (5:5:3)
    • 55. Japanese Attack Manchuria (1931)
      • League of Nations condemned the action.
      • 2 intl’ treaties violated: Nine Power, Kellogg Briand
      • Japan withdraws from League
    • 56. Grew’s Warning to Sec. of State Stimson (1932)
      • the Japanese military "has been built for war, feels prepared for war and would welcome war. It has never yet been beaten and possesses unlimited self confidence. I am not an alarmist but I believe that we should have our eyes open to all possible future contingencies. The facts of history would render it criminal to close them."
    • 57. Panay Incident (1937)
      • December 12, 1937.
      • Japan bombed USS Panay gunboat & three Standard Oil tankers on the Yangtze River.
      • The river was an international waterway.
      • Japan was testing US resolve!
      • Japan apologized, paid US an indemnity, and promised no further attacks.
      • Most Americans were satisfied with the apology.
      • Results  Japanese interpreted US tone as a license for further aggression against US interests.
    • 58. Ludlow Amendment (1938)
      • A proposed amendment to the Constitution that called for a national referendum on any declaration of war by Congress.
      • Introduced several times by Congressman Ludlow.
      • Never actually passed.
      Congressman Louis Ludlow [D-IN]
    • 59. Japan’s Policy in 1940
      • relationship w/ Germany (Tripartite Pact – promised assistance if anyone found themselves in a conflict w/ any country not in European war – UNITED STATES)
      • push GB to block China’s supply lines
      • “southern advance” for resources – natural deterioration of relationship w/ US
    • 60. FDR’s Response
      • to occupation of Northern/Southern Indochina:
      • embargo on scrap iron and steel to any country outside W. Hemisphere except GB – anti-Japanese
      • executive order freezing all Japanese assets in the US – most devastating part for Tokyo was OIL (couldn’t fuel war machine, so needed D. East Indies and British colony of Malaya)
    • 61. Issues Preventing Peace with Japan 1941
      • U.S. Aid to China
      • Japanese occupation of French Indochina
      • Tripartite Pact
      • International Trade – scrap metal, oil embargo; FDR wouldn’t normalize trade relations
    • 62. US Offer to Japan
      • will normalize trade relations IF Japan withdrew its forces from China and Indochina
      • Japan concludes US is not serious in negotiations
      • Why this hardline approach? US had broken Japanese diplomatic code, and knew that Japan had already decided on attack against D E Indies or Philippines
    • 63.  
    • 64. THE FIRST MESSAGE OF THE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR: The original message sent by the "Commander Aircraft, Scouting Force", Lt. Cmdr. Logan Ramsey, from Pearl Harbor to "All U.S. Navy Ships present Hawaiian area" , giving the first news: " AIRRAID ON PEARL HARBOR X THIS IS NO DRILL."
    • 65. “ Air raid on Pearl Harbor. This is not a drill.”
      • 180 Japanese planes (6 carriers)
      • 2,403 Americans dead
      • 1,178 wounded
      • 300 aircraft destroyed – 3 carriers survived!!
      Total devastation by 9:30 am
    • 66. News photo of the wreckage-strewn American naval air station at Pearl Harbor during the Japanese raid. 
    • 67. Dorie Miller Pin honoring Pearl Harbor hero Dorie Miller. A black messman who was untrained in machine gun use due to rigid Naval segregation policies, Miller took over a machine gun aboard the USS West Virginia and was officially credited with downing two Japanese planes.  Miller was honored as one of the first heroes of World War II, and six months after the attack was given the Navy Cross by Admiral Chester Nimitz.
    • 68.
      • Declaration of War on
      • December 8, 1941
        • 3 days later Germany and Italy declare war on U.S. (Tripartite Pact)
    • 69.  
    • 70. Pearl Harbor
    • 71. Women of the Reich