Theodore Rooseveltand the Square Deal "Roosevelt was a great personality, a great activist, a great preacher of the moralities, a great controversialist, a great showman. He dominated his era as he dominatedconversations....the masses loved him; he proved to be a great popular idol and a great vote getter." – Thomas Bailey, Historian
TR’s SQUARE DEAL• “square deal” – plan to help the American people through Progressive reforms• Helped create the modern presidency as we know it (an activist approach) • Felt he could influence media, and therefore legislation, from the presidential seat
Progressive Era Legacies of TR1. Food and Drug Laws2. Trust Regulation3. Conservation4. Race relations/civil rights – little reform
“It was only when the ham was spoiled that it came into the department of Elzbieta…there was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was moldy and white – it would be dosed with borax and glycerin, and dumped into the hopper, and made over again for home consumption. There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions of consumption germs. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would rip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it…a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then the rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together.” - The Jungle, Upton Sinclair
TR was influence by Sinclair’s The Jungle and took on themeatpacking industry
Meat Inspection Act (1906)• Sinclair exposed unsanitary conditions in meatpacking• TR forms commission to investigate-they back up Sinclair’s claims• TR pushes for Meat Inspection Act in 1906 • requirements for meatpackers • federal meat inspection
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)- food/drug companies making false claims-halts sale of contaminated foods,medicines-requires truth in labeling**did not ban harmful products, but labelshad to provide accurate information so theconsumer could decide
3. Trust Regulation Trusts – legal; held stocks in many countries – Lowered prices to knock out competition, then hiked up prices consumers paid (ie. Standard Oil) – Sherman Anti-Trust Acts = useless T.R. took on trusts that hurt public interest Couldn’t slow business mergers
Coal Strike of 1902 Coal = most efficient source of fuel at the time Workers strike for safer conditions, better wages, shorter work hours T.R. stepped in and threatened to take over mines (country threatened by shortage)
Workers – won 9 hour work day, 10% pay raise, but gave up closed shop and right to strike for 3 years** federal govt. was expected to intervene in strikes**
T.R.’s Idea of the Fed. Govt.’s ResponsibilitiesIntervention for the PUBLIC GOOD –Trust-busting –Strike intervention –Railroad regulation
2. Conservation Before T.R. – Late 1800s pioneers and ranchers exploited resources in West (cattle grazing, forest clearing) – Coal companies – dumped refused from mining – Cities – dumped sewage Conservation – not COMPLETE preservation like Muir (some areas used for the common good)
During/After T.R. – Muir persuaded him – Set aside over 150 million acres for preservation – Over 50 wildlife preserves – Several national parks
Pre Class What was the status of African Americans in the South after the Civil War? What challenges did African Americans face?
“Freedom: A History of US – What isFreedom?” While you’re watching the video, define these terms: Black codes Civil Rights Act 14th Amendment 1875 (and its 15th Amendment repeal) Plessy v. Ferguson Ku Klux Klan
Race Relations in the early 1900s Economic, social inequality for African Americans “Jim Crow” South – legal segregation; Plessy v. Ferguson est. “separate but equal” – Lynching used as a way to terrorize black populations North – de facto segregation – Housing, job discrimination, “racial etiquette,” race riots in northern cities
Jim Crow Come listen all you gals and boys, I’m going to sing a little song, My name is Jim Crow Well about and turn about and do jis so Eb’ry time I weel about I jump Jim Crow
Examples of Jim Crow Laws In Oklahoma, telephone booths were segregated. Mississippi had separate soft-drink machines for blacks and whites. In Atlanta, Georgia, an African American could not “swear to tell the truth” on the same Bible used by white witnesses. In North Carolina, factories were separated into black and white sections. In some Alabama towns it was against the law for blacks and whites to play cards, checkers, dominoes, or other games together on athletic teams. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/historyofus/teachers/pdfs/segment11-6.pdf
In Florida, school textbooks for white and black students were segregated in separate warehouses. In Washington, D.C., black people could not bury their dead dogs or cats in the same pet cemeteries used by whites. Public parks were segregated. Even jails and prisons had separate sections for black prisoners. BACK
You are an African American born into slavery in 1845. When you are in your twenties, the U.S. Congress ratifies the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments. Still, you know that even though the laws have changed, the hearts and minds of certain Americans in your community have not changed. Which would you do? – Get a job working on a local farm to improve your way of life; keep quiet about your status in society – Move to a city and try to get an education; join a group that speaks out against prejudiceExplain your answer…
Progressive Era Reformers W.E.B. Du BoisBooker T. Washington
W.E.B. DuBOIS: BOOKER T. – “ book smarts” WASHINGTON: GRADUAL – IMMEDIATE PROGRESS LEGAL THRU SELF- EQUALITY HELP & – IMMEDIATE EDUCATION EQUAL (agricultural, ACCESS trades) – NAACP Most respected by founder powerful whites Tuskegee
What did T.R. do for civil rights? Not an advocate of civil rights Supported a few African Americans – Appointed head of custom house in SC – Invited Booker T. Washington to dinner at White House
What if??Write a thoughtful paragraph that answers this question: What if the 1st civil rights movement had succeeded? How would US history have been changed?
Progressivism Under Taft Problems: – Conservation – appointed Sec. of Interior with poor conservation record – Tariff – tax on imported goods; increases cost of living signed Payne-Aldrich Tariff Splits the Republican Party – Support of political boss Joe Cannon – Progressives (change) v. Conservatives (no change)
Discussion1.Think about the services and technology you use, products you buy, entertainment you watch, etc. Do you think that there are still monopolies in America today. If so, what companies would you consider a monopoly? Explain.2. Do you think that monopolies should be allowed to exist at all? Come up with one example, not mentioned in class, of a monopoly that could be good for the country.3. The NFL, NBA, MLB, and NHL are all considered monopolies and have all survived until this point; however, their status is still questioned today. If you think that monopolies are bad for a capitalist economic system, how do you explain why these pro-sports leagues should be allowed to exist?
Do you have pimples? Want to grow a beard? Head hair?
Tar for a cough? No more itching? Ate too much at the holidays? BACK
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair Read the excerpts from The Jungle Then, on a separate sheet of paper (to be handed in) – sketch an image that depicts what is happening in the excerpt – Answer the 4 Discussion questions at the end of the reading