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The War For Europe And North Africa
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The War For Europe And North Africa

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  • 1. Pre Class
    • What strategic blunder from WWI did Hitler try to avoid by signing the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact in 1939?
  • 2. The War for Europe and North Africa
  • 3. The U.S. and Britain Join Forces
    • Churchill convinced FDR to strike Hitler first, then pour resources into Pacific
  • 4.  
  • 5. End of Battle of Stalingrad February 1943
    • Strategic error on the part of Hitler
    • Prevented Germany from taking over the Soviet Union
    • Marked the point from which the Soviet Army began to move westward toward Germany
  • 6.
    • Why North Africa?
    • (animated map)
    • “ Back door” into Western Europe for the Allies
    • Key to oil fields in Middle East (cut off Britain’s war machine)
  • 7.
    • An American fighter pilot in Tunisia, April 1943. The swastikas under the cockpit showed how many enemy planes the pilot had shot down.
    • Copyright © Robert Capa/ Magnum Photos .
  • 8.  
  • 9. Operation Torch May 1943
    • Stalin pressured Allies to open “second front”
    • Placed the Allies in control of North Africa
    • Gave the Allies a place to launch an attack against Italy
  • 10. Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • 11. Erwin Rommel “The Desert Fox”
  • 12.  
  • 13. Victory in Battle of the Atlantic Mid-1943
    • German U-boats (“wolfpacks”) targeted supply ships off the coast of the U.S.
    • Allies use “convoys”
    • Safeguarded Allied shipping of war materials to Europe
  • 14. Operating in packs, U-boats preyed relentlessly on cargo ships that crossed the Atlantic. In this photograph, a torpedoed merchant goes down on the right, while the U-boat closes in on the second vessel.
  • 15.  
  • 16. D-Day – June 6, 1944
    • What does D-Day mean??
    • “ D-Day” refers to the day that a military operation begins (the actual date and time are not known during planning stages)
  • 17. D-Day – June 6, 1944 (animated map)
    • **turning point
    • Allied Invasion of Europe
    • Operations Overlord/Neptune
    • Allies broke through Hitler’s Atlantic Wall
    • Liberation of Europe begins
  • 18.
    • Robert Capa
    • Copyright © Robert Capa/ Magnum Photos .
  • 19.
    • On board the U.S. Coast Guard transport ship Samuel Chase, June 5, 1944: U.S. soldiers plan the final details of the D-Day landings using a model of the section of the Normandy coast that had been codenamed Omaha Beach. Copyright © Robert Capa/ Magnum Photos .
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • Copyright © Robert Capa/ Magnum Photos .
  • 22.
    • Men of the 16th Infantry Regiment seek shelter from German machine-gun fire in shallow water behind "Czech hedgehog" beach obstacles, Easy Red sector, Omaha Beach. � Robert Capa/Magnum Photos.
  • 23.
    • Omaha Beach, June 6, 1944: The first wave of American troops lands at dawn. Robert Capa took over 100 photographs during the landing on Omaha Beach. Unfortunately, a darkroom technician, eager to see photographs of the invasion, dried the film too fast. The heat melted the emulsion, ruining all but 10 frames.
    • Copyright © Robert Capa/ Magnum Photos .
  • 24.  
  • 25.
    • American soldiers searching for mines near a destroyed German tank, in the region of St Lo, Normandy, June 1944.
    • Copyright © Robert Capa/ Magnum Photos .
  • 26. A Capa photo of Omaha Beach several days after the landings.
  • 27. D-Day Stats
    • U.S. landed 73,000 troops : 23,250 on Utah Beach, 34,250 on Omaha Beach, and 15,500 airborne troops
    • By the end of 11 June (D + 5), 326,547 troops, 54,186 vehicles and 104,428 tons of supplies had been landed on the beaches
    • Allied casualties on D-Day - 10,000 (2,500 dead)
      • US 6,603
  • 28. The Normandy Invasion June 6, 1944 – July 24, 1944
    • Over 425,000 Allied and German troops were killed, wounded or went missing
      • 125,847 US ground forces
  • 29.  
  • 30. Liberation of Majdanek
    • First death camp liberated by Allied forces
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33. Gas Chamber Door
  • 34. 800,000 shoes were found in the Majdanek camp
  • 35.  
  • 36.
    • Patton’s army struck with help of FFI (French resistance forces)
    • Freed the country from 4 years of Nazi occupation
    • Allies marched on to the “unbeatable” Third Reich
  • 37.
    • Chartres, France, August 18th, 1944: Just after the liberation of the town, this French woman who had had a baby with a German soldier has her head shaved as punishment.
    • Copyright © Robert Capa/ Magnum Photos .
  • 38. Capture of Aachen October 1944
    • Sept. 44 – 3 mill. Allied troops faced Siegfried line
    • Aachen – 1 st German town captured by the Americans
  • 39.
    • General Patton addresses the 16th Infantry after the liberation of Sicily. (Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, 69-230-7 Army)
  • 40.
    • Paratroopers of the U.S. 1st Airborne Division land near Wesel, Germany on March 24, 1945.
    • Copyright © Robert Capa/ Magnum Photos .
  • 41.
    • "The Americans have come to Germany not to pat childslayers on the head or to feed SS scoundrels with Spam. The Americans have come to this land of gangsters in order to bring villains to justice.
    • It is not only American divisions that have entered Germany. Justice has entered Germany and not a single German will venture to cry welcome. For justice carries a sword."
    • - Nov. 10, 1944 Stars and Stripes Editorial
  • 42.  
  • 43. Battle of the Bulge December – January 1944
    • Germany’s final desperate attempt to break Allies
    • Created 60 mi. “bulge” in Allied lines
    • 101 st held Bastogne which prevented German advance
    • Germans pushed back to Siegfried line; could do little but retreat
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.
    • Dec. 22, 1944 – badly needed supplies and ammo are dropped to the 101 st who bravely defended Bastogne
  • 47. The Malmédy Massacre
  • 48.  
  • 49.
    • Over a million men , 500,000 Germans, 600,000 Americans (more than fought at Gettysburg) and 55,000 British
    • 100,000 German casualties , killed, wounded or captured.
    • 81,000 American casualties , including 23,554 captured and 19,000 killed.
    • 1,400 British casualties   200 killed.
    • 800 tanks lost on each side, 1,000 German aircraft.
  • 50. End of Italian Campaign
    • Mussolini forced to resign after Sicily fell to Allies
    • Resulted in freedom for Italy and the execution of Mussolini
  • 51. V-E Day May 8, 1945
    • 1 week after Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide
    • The unconditional surrender of Germany
    • The end of the war in Europe!!
  • 52. Capa's shot of a victorious Yank graced the May 14, 1945 cover of LIFE.
  • 53.
    • V-E Day in Philadelphia!
  • 54.  
  • 55. Pictures of War
    • 1. What is the purpose of imposing censorship on the press in time of war? 2. Why are photos and the other visual media subject to censorship? 3. Is the public well-served by having this censorship? 4. How could the course of a war be affected if there weren't military censorship? In other words, what if newspapers and television showed uncensored photos and footage of the carnage of war? How do you think the public would react?