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Pre Class <ul><li>What is IMPERIALISM?  Use the cartoon to help you! </li></ul><ul><li>Why would the Europeans have imperi...
The Age of European Imperialism <ul><li>Imperialism   - control by one country of the political, economic, or cultural lif...
19 th  C. European Exploration <ul><li>Europeans TOTALLY dependent on Africans – interpreters, preexisting trade networks ...
Stanley and Livingstone  (History Channel) Dr. David Livingstone Henry Morton Stanley:  Exploration by Warfare?  The Begin...
 
Economic Motives <ul><li>Markets for new manufactured goods produced by factories (Industrial Revolution) </li></ul><ul><l...
Political Motives <ul><li>Nationalism – countries competed to be the BEST and have the largest empires </li></ul><ul><li>M...
<ul><li>“ In order to rule them and keep one’s life amongst them, it is needful resolutely to regard them as children”  </...
Religious/Cultural  Motives <ul><li>Belief in cultural superiority  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthcare, schools </li></ul></...
1. According to the cartoon, which European countries were fighting for a position in Africa? 2. What led to the situation...
What Allowed the Europeans to finally penetrate the continent? <ul><li>Better treatment for diseases (malaria, yellow feve...
Leopold and Stanley explore the Congo… … and the other powers get jealous. King Leopold II of Belgium
The “Scramble for Africa”  <ul><li>Berlin Conference (1884-1885) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 European nations & U.S. </li></u...
 
Indigenous Empires (1884)
Berlin Conference
The Mad Scramble for Africa! <ul><li>It’s 1884, and you are part of the mad scramble for Africa!  Let’s remind ourselves w...
CAUCUS 1 CAUCUS 2 CAUCUS 3
Berlin Act of 1885 <ul><li>Free State of the Congo – private property of King Leopold (Belgium) </li></ul><ul><li>free tra...
 
 
By 1914 <ul><li>F = W. Africa  </li></ul><ul><li>Br = E. and S.  </li></ul><ul><li>Africa and Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li...
African resistance <ul><li>Ineffective:  </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of weaponry </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Fa...
European Rule <ul><li>Most Europeans adopted an attitude of  Paternalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>belief that Africans could ...
Pre Class <ul><li>1. What percentage of Africa was colonized by 1913? </li></ul><ul><li>2. According to the graph, Which 2...
Leopold’s “Congo Free State”:  Imperialism at its Worst <ul><li>Hired Stanley to explore Congo/make treaties </li></ul><ul...
Horrors of the Belgian Congo <ul><li>Abuse & enslavement </li></ul><ul><li>“ Red rubber” </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of nat...
Children and adults had their hands chopped off as proof that agents weren’t “wasting” their bullets
June 9, 1904: The Moment of Decision <ul><li>As we are reading aloud, keep in mind the following questions, and be prepare...
<ul><li>In 1908 the Belgian parliament annexed the Congo Free State </li></ul>Celebrities such as Mark Twain joined the Co...
A controversial legacy
Effects of Colonization <ul><li>Destruction of traditional African economy (intro. of money economy) </li></ul><ul><li>Des...
 
There were some improvements… <ul><li>Agriculture (new crops) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation (roads, railroads); Communi...
In-Class Political Cartoon Assignment 15 points <ul><li>Draw a political cartoon that shows ONE of the following: </li></u...
 
Africa Historical Maps
Pre Class <ul><li>List 3 consequences of the “scramble for Africa.”  Think about: how did the creation of borders affect t...
<ul><li>Using ALL of the information you have learned about imperialism in Africa, draw your own cartoon about the 'Scramb...
 
<ul><li>1. What is the main difference between the 2 maps? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What part did the Berlin Conference play i...
Percentage of Africa Controlled by European Countries in 1913
<ul><li>1. What percentage of Africa was colonized by 1913? </li></ul><ul><li>2. According to the graph, Which 2 European ...
 
Quiz  <ul><li>Define imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>List one political, economic and cultural motive for European Imperiali...
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The Scramble for Africa

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Transcript of "The Scramble for Africa"

  1. 1. Pre Class <ul><li>What is IMPERIALISM? Use the cartoon to help you! </li></ul><ul><li>Why would the Europeans have imperial interests in Africa? </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Age of European Imperialism <ul><li>Imperialism - control by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd wave of Imperialism – began in the late 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Motives for Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural/Religious </li></ul></ul>Pre Class: What is IMPERIALISM? Why would the Europeans have imperial interests in Africa in the 19 th century?
  3. 3. 19 th C. European Exploration <ul><li>Europeans TOTALLY dependent on Africans – interpreters, preexisting trade networks (Arab-Swahili in East, Arab-Portuguese in West) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stanley and Livingstone (History Channel) Dr. David Livingstone Henry Morton Stanley: Exploration by Warfare? The Beginning of the “American Era”
  5. 6. Economic Motives <ul><li>Markets for new manufactured goods produced by factories (Industrial Revolution) </li></ul><ul><li>raw materials for factories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm oil (soaps), cotton (textiles), gum (paper, fabrics), rubber, ivory, hardwoods </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Political Motives <ul><li>Nationalism – countries competed to be the BEST and have the largest empires </li></ul><ul><li>Militarism – build up of large armies/navies to defend these empires </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>“ In order to rule them and keep one’s life amongst them, it is needful resolutely to regard them as children” </li></ul><ul><li>- Stanley </li></ul>© Royal Geographical Society – Stanley and African Exhibition;The Swazi-Land Boys, &quot;Gootoo&quot; and &quot;Inyokwana&quot; Date: 1890
  8. 9. Religious/Cultural Motives <ul><li>Belief in cultural superiority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthcare, schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected Africans to adopt their ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire to spread Christianity and “civilization” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries had the MOST contact with African tribes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. 1. According to the cartoon, which European countries were fighting for a position in Africa? 2. What led to the situation shown in this cartoon? Pre Class
  10. 11. What Allowed the Europeans to finally penetrate the continent? <ul><li>Better treatment for diseases (malaria, yellow fever) </li></ul><ul><li>The maxim gun (advantage over African muskets/spears) </li></ul>
  11. 12. Leopold and Stanley explore the Congo… … and the other powers get jealous. King Leopold II of Belgium
  12. 13. The “Scramble for Africa” <ul><li>Berlin Conference (1884-1885) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 European nations & U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO Africans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompted by Scramble for Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berlin Act 1885 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Indigenous Empires (1884)
  14. 16. Berlin Conference
  15. 17. The Mad Scramble for Africa! <ul><li>It’s 1884, and you are part of the mad scramble for Africa! Let’s remind ourselves why… </li></ul><ul><li>Country groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read about the country you’ve been assigned, and make a placard (sign) with your country’s name. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete the first side of the worksheet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caucus Groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce yourselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss your countries’ goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete the other side of the worksheet. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. CAUCUS 1 CAUCUS 2 CAUCUS 3
  17. 19. Berlin Act of 1885 <ul><li>Free State of the Congo – private property of King Leopold (Belgium) </li></ul><ul><li>free trade in the Congo Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Niger and Congo Rivers free for ship traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Countries agree to end of the slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>New territories: had to make treaties with local rulers, est. political rule and make use of the colony economically </li></ul><ul><li>Divided Africa amongst the European powers… </li></ul>Only write down what is underlined!
  18. 22. By 1914 <ul><li>F = W. Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Br = E. and S. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa and Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium = Congo </li></ul>
  19. 23. African resistance <ul><li>Ineffective: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of weaponry </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Famine (E. Africa) </li></ul>
  20. 24. European Rule <ul><li>Most Europeans adopted an attitude of Paternalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>belief that Africans could not govern themselves; Euro. control over all levels of govt. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assimilation (French) </li></ul>“ In order to rule them and keep one’s life amongst them, it is needful resolutely to regard them as children” - Stanley © Royal Geographical Society – Stanley and African Exhibition;The Swazi-Land Boys, &quot;Gootoo&quot; and &quot;Inyokwana&quot; Date: 1890
  21. 25. Pre Class <ul><li>1. What percentage of Africa was colonized by 1913? </li></ul><ul><li>2. According to the graph, Which 2 European countries held the most territory in Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What percentage Africa was controlled by the rest of the countries (excluding the 2 countries mentioned in #2)? </li></ul><ul><li>  4. What effect did the creation of arbitrary political boundaries by the Europeans have on Africa today? </li></ul>Percentage of Africa Controlled by European Countries in 1913
  22. 26. Leopold’s “Congo Free State”: Imperialism at its Worst <ul><li>Hired Stanley to explore Congo/make treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by Leopold’s forces </li></ul>
  23. 27. Horrors of the Belgian Congo <ul><li>Abuse & enslavement </li></ul><ul><li>“ Red rubber” </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of natives died </li></ul>Men who failed to bring enough rubber for agents were killed
  24. 28. Children and adults had their hands chopped off as proof that agents weren’t “wasting” their bullets
  25. 29. June 9, 1904: The Moment of Decision <ul><li>As we are reading aloud, keep in mind the following questions, and be prepared to discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the reception, in Great Britain, of Casement’s report? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why were feeling mixed in regards to Leopold’s Congo? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What was the central issue facing Parliament in 1904? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What were the three main points of view circulating in Parliament? </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. <ul><li>In 1908 the Belgian parliament annexed the Congo Free State </li></ul>Celebrities such as Mark Twain joined the Congo Reform Association. It was the first mass human rights movement of the 20th century. It played a large role in convincing the Belgian Parliament to annex the Congo 2 years early in 1908. George Washington Williams – brings attn to the Congo, but is ignored because he is African American
  27. 31. A controversial legacy
  28. 32. Effects of Colonization <ul><li>Destruction of traditional African economy (intro. of money economy) </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of family life </li></ul><ul><li>Modern political boundaries created </li></ul><ul><li>Resource exploitation </li></ul>
  29. 34. There were some improvements… <ul><li>Agriculture (new crops) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation (roads, railroads); Communication (telegraphs) </li></ul><ul><li>Medical care, sanitation, water systems </li></ul><ul><li>But even these caused problems… </li></ul><ul><li>travel was easier BUT Africans had to work on public works projects for low wages </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged migration of workers (weakened families) </li></ul>
  30. 35. In-Class Political Cartoon Assignment 15 points <ul><li>Draw a political cartoon that shows ONE of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of Imperialism in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Scramble for Africa” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of Imperialism in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your cartoon should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate your knowledge of Imperialism in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be carefully drawn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a caption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You have today, in-class, to work. If you do not finish, it must be completed for homework! </li></ul>
  31. 37. Africa Historical Maps
  32. 38. Pre Class <ul><li>List 3 consequences of the “scramble for Africa.” Think about: how did the creation of borders affect the people of Africa? How did outside rule affect people’s lives? </li></ul>
  33. 39. <ul><li>Using ALL of the information you have learned about imperialism in Africa, draw your own cartoon about the 'Scramble for Africa'. Your cartoon should show: </li></ul><ul><li>Motives for imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Countries involved </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences of the Berlin Conference </li></ul>
  34. 41. <ul><li>1. What is the main difference between the 2 maps? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What part did the Berlin Conference play in the creation MAP 2? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What happened to the native African political entities by 1914? </li></ul><ul><li>4. According to Map 2-- Which 2 European countries held the most territory in Africa? </li></ul>
  35. 42. Percentage of Africa Controlled by European Countries in 1913
  36. 43. <ul><li>1. What percentage of Africa was colonized by 1913? </li></ul><ul><li>2. According to the graph, Which 2 European countries held the most territory in Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What percentage Africa was controlled by the rest of the countries (excluding the 2 countries mentioned in #2)? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Think about it: Would the information in MAP 2 and the pie chart above be the same if there had never been a Berlin Conference? </li></ul>
  37. 45. Quiz <ul><li>Define imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>List one political, economic and cultural motive for European Imperialism in Africa </li></ul>

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