Making the President seem “real”Michelle clip – 2:00Ann Romney clip – 8:00
The Presidency - Qualifications, Powers and Roles
State of the Union 2013
Pre Class ** Use the packet that you did while I was out to help you!• According to Article II of the Constitution: – What are the qualifications a person must meet in order to become President? – What are 3 powers that the President has?• Who votes directly for the President?
Executive Branch of the United States…“Take care that the laws be faithfullyexecuted” (carried out, enforced) - enforces laws, treaties and court decisions
The PresidentConstitutionalRequirements • Must be 35 years old • Must have lived in the United States for 14 years • Must be a natural born citizen President Obama is the 44th President of the United States
The Vice-PresidentPresides over Senate and casts avote in the event of a tie.Assumes Presidency shouldPresident be unable to finish histerm.Role Vice-President plays mostlydetermined by President:VP Biden: “behind the scenes”counselor for ObamaVP Cheney: national security; oneof the most visible VP’s in U.S.HistoryVP Gore: advisor to President onenvironmental issues Daniel Webster: “I do not choose to be buried until I am already dead”.
How much do they make?President: $400,000 per year-- $50,000 expense account-- $100,000 nontaxable for travel-- $19,000 official entertainment-- free housing (1600 Pennsylvania Ave.)• Secret Service protection (up to 10 years after leaving office)• Country home (Camp David)• Personal airplane (Air Force One)• Staff of 400-500 full-time employees Retired president: $196,700 per year-- $150,000 to maintain staff
Vice President: $227,300 per year-- $10,000 expense account-- free housing (Number One Observatory Circle)
The CabinetFirst established by George Washington in1789. The “inner cabinet” has the mostpower:-- Secretary of State-- Secretary of Treasury-- Secretary of War (now Defense)-- Attorney Generalcabinet secretaries: provide oversight of agovernmental department.• appointed by the President and approved by the Senate.
More on the President’s cabinet…• 1789: 4 Cabinet posts• TODAY: 15 Cabinet members• Last cabinet department was created in 2002 -- the Department of Homeland Security.
Created in 2002, un responseto September 11, 2001 attacks
Obama’s “Inner” Cabinet Secretary of State Secretary of the Treasury John Kerry (incoming) Jack Lew (incoming)
Obama’s “Inner” Cabinet Secretary of Defense Attorney GeneralLeon Pantella (outgoing) Eric Holder
The President’s Expressed PowersCommander in Chief• Commander in Chief of Army, Navy & National Guard President Eisenhower sends the 101st airborne division of the Army to desegregate Central High in Little Rock, Arkansas (1957)
Chief Executive 9/8/74 – Ford pardons Nixon• “faithfully execute” the laws• grant pardons for federal offenses except for cases of impeachment• nominate judges of the Supreme Court and all other officers of the U.S. (Senate confirms)• fill vacancies that may happen in Senate My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over...Our Constitution works; our great Republic is a government of laws and not of men.
Diplomatic (Foreign Affairs) Powers• appoint ambassadors, ministers and consuls• make treaties subject to Senate confirmation• receive ambassadors Pres Obama gives Japanese emperor a bow
Legislative Powers• Give State of the Union address to Congress• Recommend “measures” to the Congress• Upon “extraordinary occasions” convene both houses of Congress
Pre Class• List 2 expressed powers of the President.• The President also has powers that are not in the Constitution. Can you give an example of one?
Presidential Decision Making1. U.S. Army troops are trapped on an island off the coast of South Korea. How can they be rescued? Commander in Chief2. A breakfast is scheduled with top leaders from Congress to check on two educational bills introduced by the White House. How can support be gained?Chief Legislator 3. A summit meeting is scheduled with a new Russian leader. What canbe done to improve U.S. Russian relations?Head of State4. Many people are complaining about high taxes. How can taxes becut and the government’s programs maintained? Economic Leader5. A U. S. embassy has been bombed and several Americans have beenkilled. What should be done? Commander in Chief of Foreign-Policy Leader
Decision Making, cntd6. A senatorial candidate from the President’s party is in financial trouble. Howcan she be helped? Party Chief7. One of the large automobile manufacturers is going bankrupt. Should it begiven a government loan? Economic Leader8. A meeting is scheduled with the Secretary of Defense and two Armygenerals to discuss plans for developing new weapons. Should their plans besupported? Commander in Chief9. There is an oil spill off the coast of California, how should it be cleaned up? Chief Executive10. A presidential press conference is planned for next week. How should plansto cut down on government paperwork be announced? Chief Executive
Informal Powers• Those powers not explicitly written in the Constitution• Similar to “necessary and proper” powers of Congress• In the modern era (since 1933), the President’s informal powers may be significantly more powerful than his formal powers
Why has the President’s power grown?• Article II is vague – “to take care that the laws be faithfully executed.”• Expanded bureaucracy – 15 cabinets, independent agencies (ie. CIA)• 20th century – US faced Depression and wars; had to act in emergencies• Modern media (TV) allows candidates to appeal directly to the American people for support of his agenda• The President in pop culture – we perceive him to be all-powerful
Executive Orders• Orders issued by the President that carry the force of law• Clinton’s “Don’t ask don’t tell” gays in the military policy• FDR’sinternment of Japanese Americans (EO 9066)• GWB trying suspected terrorists in military tribunals Notice for Japanese “relocation,” 1942
Executive Agreements• International agreements, usually related to trade, made by a president that has the force of a treaty; does NOT need Senate approval• Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana in 1803• GWB announced cuts in the nuclear arsenal, but not in a treaty; usually trade agreements between US and other nations
Executive Privilege• Claim by a president that he has the right to decide that the national interest will be better served if certain information is withheld from the public, including the Courts and Congress• Nixon did not want to turn over private tapes in the midst of Watergate – claimed EP
President v. Congress• Prez’s power has grown tremendously, BUT – Congress has oversight power – Prez has a TERM LIMIT (22nd amendment), Congress does NOT
Closing Questions• Why are informal powers more important than formal powers, particularly to modern presidents?• Identify several advantages and disadvantages of the use of the president’s informal powers.• Has the use and perhaps abuse of the informal powers created an “Imperial Presidency?” Defend your answer.
Reminders – QUIZ WEDNESDAY on the executive branch • Presidential qualifications • Expressed and informal powers of the Presidents • 7 roles/jobs of the President– Following the President on social media journal due MONDAY!!!! BE WORKING ON IT!
Scenario #1• The President issues an order that women in the armed forces may now serve in a direct combat capacity during wartime.
EXPRESSED (formal) Powers in the Informal PowersConstitutionCommander in Chief – civilian Executive Order – similar toleader of the military Truman’s desegregation of the military & Clintons "Don’t Ask Don’t Tell" policyChief Executive – responsible forthe Department of Defense
Scenario #2• The president and the Secretary of State negotiate an agreement with North Korea to end its designs on building a nuclear weapon. In exchange, the U.S. will commit $15 billion in humanitarian aid to the North Korean people suffering from mass starvation, and forgive up to $25 billion in loans by the North Korean government to U.S. banks. The president consulted Congress, but did not request a treaty.
EXPRESSED (formal) Powers in the Informal PowersConstitutionCommander in Chief – involves Executive Agreement - POTUSmilitary negotiates agreement with N. KoreaForeign Powers:Appoint ministers (Secretary ofState) Chief Legislator – needs $ fromNegotiate treaties – though may Congressnot require formal treaty
Scenario #3• A major earthquake hits 80 miles south of San Francisco incurring enormous damage with hundreds feared dead or missing, and billions of dollars in property damage. The president mobilizes the National Guard as well as regular army units to assist in the rescue effort and to help maintain order. He instructs agencies of the federal government (ex. FEMA, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security) to send aid. After visiting the “Quake Zone,” the President addresses a joint session of Congress and requests short and long term financial assistance for the affected areas.
EXPRESSED (formal) Powers in the Informal PowersConstitutionCommander in Chief – mobilizes Chief Legislator – takes lead byNational Guard & military addressing CongressChief Executive – mobilizesagencies of federal governmentLegislative Powers – recommendmeasures to Congress
Scenario #4• In his State of the Union Address, the president outlines a comprehensive plan to overhaul the Social Security system including an option to privatize Social Security accounts. He expects Congress to pass his plan in its entirety.
EXPRESSED (formal) Powers in the Informal PowersConstitutionLegislative powers: Chief Legislator – PresidentState of the Union address initiates his domestic agenda toRecommend measures to the CongressCongressChief Executive – head of all Political Party Leader – expectsexecutive depts.. including Social the assistance and loyalty ofSecurity Administration members of his party in Congress
Scenario #5• In a 7-2 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court strikes down an Oklahoma law requiring the teaching of intelligent design in public schools. As an act of defiance, the governor of Oklahoma orders the closing of several public schools which had refused to teach the intelligent design curriculum. The president of the United States commits National Guard troops to forcibly open the public schools and restore order.
EXPRESSED (formal) Powers in the Informal PowersConstitutionChief Executive - “faithfullyexecute the laws;” in this case aSupreme Court decisionCommander in Chief – commitsNational Guard troops
Scenario #6• For several months, there have been credible reports that there is a mass genocide bring carried out by an African nations government against ethnic minorities. Amnesty International estimates that more than 500,000 have been murdered thus far. In a speech to a joint session of Congress, the president of the US declares that he will commit 25,000 American troops to t assist the United Nations in an effort to stop the violence against civilians and restore peace to the country. In his speech, the president contends “as the last remaining superpower, the US has a moral obligation and the means to stop the murders of countless innocent men, women and children.”
EXPRESSED (formal) Powers in the Informal PowersConstitutionCommander in Chief – commit UStroopsHead of State – Chief diplomataddressing UN
Demographic Characteristics of U. S. Presidents• Male - 100%• Caucasian – 99.98%• Protestant - 97%• British ancestry - 82%• College education - 77%• Politicians - 69%• Lawyers - 62%• Top 3% wealth & social class - At least 50%• Elected from large states - 69%
“Fortunate Son” (CCR)• What do you think this song is about, i.e. what’s going on? (Hint: You may incorporate historical information into your answer .)• Compare and contrast these lyrics to the demographic characteristics of presidents. What connections can you make between the lyrics and those statistics?• What do you think is the overall message of the songwriter?
Essential Question• Is it important for the President to be able to identify with YOU?• What would you change about the demographics of the American presidents? (ie. More women, a latino President, more African American presidents, wealth, religion, etc.)
Agree/Disagree• It is important for a Presidential candidate to look good.• An effective President must be an excellent public speaker.• All Presidents must have military experience.• America is ready to vote for a woman President.• The President should be able to declare war without the permission of Congress.• Let’s abandon the Electoral College and just have the winner be one who receives the most votes from the people
Agree/Disagree• Presidential candidates should be limited on how much they can spend on their campaign.• The system would work better if the President and Vice President were from different parties.• America would benefit from having a legitimate 3rd party option.• I would not give the President the power to pardon.
Agree/DisagreeNumber your page 1-5. Next to each #, writewhether you agree or disagree with each statement listed.1. All Presidents must have military experience.2. America is ready to vote for a woman President.3. The President should be able to declare war without the permission of Congress.4. Let’s abandon the Electoral College and just have the winner be one who receives the most votes from the people5. The system would work better if the President and Vice President were from different parties.
White House Office• White House staff members/aides that President appoints and works with daily. Appointed without Senate confirmation.• Includes “assistant to the President”, “press secretary”, and “special consultant”.Organization of White House Office:Circular: Pyramid:President deals directly A “hierarchy” thatwith staff members communicates through a “chief of staff”. First Lady also has her own office/staff.
NY Times Exdorsements• http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/10 /28/opinion/presidential-endorsement- timeline.html
Executive Office of the President (EOP)Originated with FDR, created in 1939President’s personal “bureaucracy”Monitors work done in cabinet departmentsand federal agencies.A group of offices, councils, boards devotedto specific areas (nationalsecurity, trade, budget, etc…)Approximately 2,000 employees
EOP Overview cont’d…• Chief of Staff: Bill Daley (formerly Rahm Emanuel)-- Highest ranking member of office. Serves managerial and advisory role.-- Senior aide to President. “Second Most Powerful Person in Washington”. Office of Management & Budget (OMB)-- Largest office in EOP- prepares budget & monitors funds spent by Congress.-- Oversees budgets/records of Executive agencies.
Independent Agencies• Exist outside federal executive departments but are still considered part of Executive branch. Created by Congress President appoints people to them and they are confirmed by the Senate. Examples include…• CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)• EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)• FEC (Federal Election Commission)• FTC (Federal Trade Commission)
How much do they make?President of the United States $400,000Executive ScheduleLevel 1: Cabinet-level officials $196,700 Level II: Deputy secretaries of departments,secretaries of military departments, & heads of $177,000major agenciesLevel III: Under secretaries of departments &heads of middle-level agencies $162,900 Level IV: Assistant secretaries & generalcounsels of departments, heads of minoragencies, members of certain boards & $153,200commissionsLevel V: Administrators, commissioners,directors, & members of boards, commissions, or $143,500units of agencies