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The Cold War at Home
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The Cold War at Home

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The Cold War at Home The Cold War at Home Presentation Transcript

    • How does this cartoon reflect American sentiments in 1950s?
    • List 2 factors/events that contributed to the “witch hunts” of the 50s.
  • “ Witch hunts” and Duck and Cover: The ’50s Cold War in the United States
  • Fear of Communists
    • Motivated by Soviet domination of E. Europe, communist takeover in China
    • Loyalty Review Board – Truman’s response to criticism; investigated govt. employees
    • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
    A HUAC “friendly” witness
  • The Hollywood 10
  • The Hollywood 10
    • Accused of:
      • Disloyalty, being Communists, exposing moviegoers to Communist propaganda (“unfriendly” HUAC witnesses)
    • How were they affected by accusations?
      • Imprisoned, blacklisted (careers and reputations destroyed)
  •  
  • Alger Hiss
  • Alger Hiss
    • Accused of:
      • Spying for the Soviet Union, passing government documents to the SU as member of State Dept.; perjury
    • How was he affected by accusations?
      • Convicted of perjury and jailed
    • Whittaker Chambers sitting with newspaper
    • Who’s this guy?!
    • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, separated by heavy wire screen as they leave U.S. Court House after being found guilty by jury
  • The Rosenbergs
    • Accused of:
      • Spying for the SU, helping to pass information to the Soviets about the atomic bomb
    • How were they affected by accusations?
      • Convicted and sent to the electric chair
  •  
  •  
    • Senator Joseph McCarthy
    • Wisconsin Republican (1946-1954)
    • Made sensational news in Wheeling, WV speech, February 9, 1950:
    • “ I have here in my hand the names of 205 people that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist party, and who, nevertheless, are still working and shaping the policy of the State Department.”
  • McCarthy to Truman
  • Truman’s Response (probably unsent)
  • “ And even if there were only one communist in the State Department, it would be one communist too many.” -Joseph McCarthy, speech at 25 th Republican National Convention, Chicago, July 9, 1952
  • McCarthyism: Irrational Intolerance
    • What motivated it?
      • McCarthy’s desire to be reelected, Republicans desire to win Pres. election
    • How was it carried out?
      • Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations held hearings; individuals, companies (GE), Army Signal Corps all accused
    • What led to McCarthy’s downfall?
      • He took on the army!; exposure in media -was seen on camera bullying people
    • “ You have done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?”
    • - Army Special Counsel Joseph Welch, June 19, 1954
  • Questioning James Glatis                                          
  • McCarthy & his counsel, Roy Cohn
  • The pile of hearing transcripts!
  • The conduct of the senator from Wisconsin, Mr. McCarthy, is unbecoming a member of the United States Senate, is contrary to senatorial traditions and tends to bring the Senator into disrepute, and such conduct is hereby condemned.” -Senator Ralph Flanders’ resolution, July 30 1954
  • Watkins Committee (wrote the censure)
  • Legacy of McCarthyism?
    • 12,000+ people lost jobs during McCarthy era
    • Ruined reputations of government officials
    • Undermined freedom of speech
    • Does “McCarthyism” exist today?
  • What was the Cold War like for average Americans? Source: U.S. News and World Report, December 1957.
  • “ The Nuclear Age” – Tim O’Brien
    • Describe the steps that Cowling took to protect himself.
    • Why do you think his thoughts differed from that of his parents?
    • How did Cowling, who was a child, come to realize the dangers of the Cold War era?
    • Discuss a time when you were frightened about something happening in the world. How did you react to that fear? Was it similar or different to Cowling’s reaction?
  • A Pre Fab Fallout Shelter Kids Learn Duck and Cover
    • Kids Learn Duck and Cover