South Africa under Apartheid

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South Africa under Apartheid

  1. 1. South Africa under Apartheid
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ [Apartheid] is the museum piece in our time, a hangover from the dark ages… a relic of an age that everywhere else is dead or dying … These ideas survive in South Africa because those who sponsor them profit from them” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert J. Lutuli, 1960 Nobel Peace Prize Winner </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Zulus – Africans; migrated south; defeated by the Afrikaners (Dutch settlers) and British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GOLD/DIAMONDS!! Resulted in Anglo-Boer War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brits win – grant S. Africans self-rule in 1910; only whites get suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afrikaners (Dutch, white minority) took control of the govt. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>1948-1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt. classifications – white, black, “coloured” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregated homelands- Bantustans </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. back
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>With your partner, read through the various apartheid laws in each category. Which do you find most upsetting in each category? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which law do you think would be the most difficult to follow? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What legacies do you think these policies have left behind in South Africa? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Strict Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segregated residential areas (forced removals) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>movement (passbooks) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior education for blacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ban on interracial marriages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seg. working conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited strikes by blacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seg. Public amenities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Children of Soweto, a black township some ten miles away from Johannesburg. The Zulu word &quot;Amandla&quot; scrawled on the wall means &quot;Power&quot; and has been adopted as a rallying call in the struggle for black rights. (http://www.unmultimedia.org/photo/detail/108/0108701.html) Location: Soweto, South Africa Date: 01 January 1982
  9. 9. Graveyard outside Ekuvukene, a village in KwaZulu &quot;homeland&quot;, Natal. The infant mortality rate for white South Africans is one of the lowest in the world, for blacks it is one of the highest. In the so-called black &quot;homelands&quot; like KwaZulu - remote, fragmented, unproductive bits and pieces of land scattered around the country - almost half of the children die before age five. Location: Natal, South Africa Date: 01 January 1982
  10. 10. 1960 - 5-7,000 people meet to protest passbooks. Police opened fired; 69 blacks were killed. ANC and PAC banned. **TURNING POINT : South Africa found themselves shunned more and more by the international community
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Archbishop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desmond Tutu </li></ul><ul><li>- non violent resistance </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>African National Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>he included non-blacks; jailed by govt.; symbol of S. Africa’s oppression </li></ul>Nonviolent passive resistance is effective as long as your opposition adheres to the same rules as you do,&quot; he said. &quot;But if peaceful protest is met with violence, its efficacy is at an end. For me, non-violence was not a moral principle but a strategy; there is no moral goodness in using an ineffective weapon.&quot; ( Long Walk to Freedom , chapter 17)
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>1962 – UN condemned apartheid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic sanctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ 64 Olympic ban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ 80s Arms embargo </li></ul></ul>Singer and actor Harry Belafonte speaks at a news conference at the United Nations Headquarters to announce the formation of Artists and Athletes Against Apartheid. At left are actors Gregory Hines and Tony Randall and tennis notable Arthur Ashe. (1983)
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Deteriorating economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortage of labor (poorly educated blacks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of dealing with insurgency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat of civil war </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>1993 – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a new constitution </li></ul></ul>President F W de Clerk and Nelson Mandela – the end of apartheid
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Non-racial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandela elected </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Africa’s largest economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ superpower of Africa” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% live in poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in 7 adults have HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor education system </li></ul></ul>South Africa Today
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>What is the legacy of apartheid in South Africa, according to the article? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What steps are some people/groups taking to improve life in South Africa? </li></ul></ul>

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