100 years… 1900 2008US population 76 million 305,260,787 millionMedian Age 23 35.3Average weekly $9.60 $611.90earningsmarriages 709,000 2.2 milliondivorces 55,751 1,169,000 (1998)# of farms 5.7 million 2,076,000
My how things have changed…In 1900… - 1 in 7 homes had a bathtub - 1 in 13 homes had a telephone - lb.of sugar: 4 cents - dozen eggs: 14 cents - lb. of butter: 24 cents - 8,000 cars and about 10 miles of paved roads - first overseas telephone call In 1998… - 2.3 TVs per household - 20% of the U.S. is connected to the Internet (55% in 2003) - lb. of sugar: $0.43 - dozen eggs: $1.12 - lb. of butter $2.35
In 1901 the average American male… British ancestry with a trace Drank 7 gallons of liquor of German and 75 gallons of beer per 5’9” (2” taller than average year European) Smoked 20 lbs. of tobacco 3 living children, 1 who died City males earned $750/yr in infancy Farmers earned $550/yr Protestant Paid 3% in taxes Republican Subscribed to a newspaper Owned a 2 story 7 room **Americans were better off house financially than Europeans Estate = $5,000 (partially because of lower taxes)
What did Americans spend? $30 on clothes ($738.41*) $82 on food ($2018.32*) $4 on doctors/dentists ($98.45*) $9 on religion/welfare ($221.52*) $6 on tobacco ($147.68*)– MORE THAN PERSONAL CARE/FURNITURE COMBINED!! *adjusted for inflation (2007)
“What May Happen in the Next Hundred Years” Ladies Home Journal, December 1900What would the future bring?
In 1900, America was prosperous (for some…) Domination of world markets (iron, steel, coal) Falling prices + rising wages= growth of middle class New technologies, more leisure time Industrialization created problems Big business took advantage of labor, consumers Working class (adults AND children) slaved away Influx of immigrants (1/3 returned home) Cities failed to support swelling populations
TheProgressiveEra Progressive movement: Aimed to use the govt. as an agency of human welfare End “laissez faire” policy
Progressives1. Middle class; “squeezed” by big trusts above, cheap labor done by hoards of immigrants2. Took aim at: 1. Monopolies 2. Political corruption 3. Inefficiency 4. Social injustices
DBQ Evaluate the effectiveness of Progressive Era reformers and the federal government in bringing about reform at the national level. Inyour answer be sure to analyze the successes and limitations of these efforts in the period 1900- 1920.
"There are, in the body politic, economic and social, many and grave evils, and there is urgent necessity for the sternest war upon them. There should be relentless exposure of and attack upon every evil man whether politician or business man, every evil practice, whether in politics, in business, or in social life. I hail as a benefactor every writer or speaker, every man who, on the platform, or in book, magazine, or newspaper, with merciless severity makes such attack, provided always that he in his turn remembers that the attack is of use only if it is absolutely truthful." -T.R. Muckrake Speech of 1906
Muckrakers – journalists who wrote about corrupt side of business and public life in mass magazines Ida Tarbell – took down Rockefeller’s “Standard Oil” monopoly Upton Sinclair – exposed unsanitary conditions of the meat-packing industry in his portrayal of working conditions for immigrants in Chicago Lewis Hine – photojournalist whoshowed reality of child labor Jacob Riis – showed how “the otherhalf” lived (impoverished)
Lewis Hine – Crusade Against Child Labor Quit his teaching job in 1903 Employed by the National Child Labor Committee to travel the country documenting child labor abuses ** Helped convince the public of the need for child labor regulations** Boy Lost Arm Running Saw in Box Factory
"I went to Kensington, Pennsylvania, where seventy-five thousand textile workers were on strike. Of this number at least ten thousand were little children. The workers were striking for more pay and shorter hours. Every day little children came into the Union Headquarters, some with their hands off, some with the thumb missing, some with their fingers off at the knuckle. They were stooped little things, round shouldered and skinny.... I asked some of the parents if they would let me have their little boys and girls for a week or ten days, promising to bring them back safe and sound.... a few men and women went with me.... One little fellow had a drum and another had a fife.... We carried banners that said: "We want time to play.“ Mother Jones
What do you find most striking? Why do you think Hine was a successful photographer?Spindle boys – climbed atop movingmachinery to replace parts
Jacob RiisNew York City at the turn of thecentury… only 3 miles separated Rector’s on Broadway where $20 ($443 today) would buy you a dinner for 5 and Orchard St. where soup, meat and bread was 13 cents ($2.88 today) Rich didn’t mingle with the “the other half” who lived in ethnic tenement homes Tenement homes – 10/14 rooms received NO sunlight, ventilation (STENCH)
"Bandits Roost" (1888) at 59 1/2 Mulberry Street, was a refuge for criminals and considered the most dangerous place in New York City.
Jacob A. Riis, Street Arabs in Sleeping Quarters, c.1880s
Treatment of Immigrants Cultural pluralism* v. assimilation “Americanization” campaigns Advertising campaigns Recreation (ie. Coney Island) Emphasis on cleanliness *TR and others fear mass, pluralistic culture (“threat to morality”)
Dame Britannia: "Yes; the very same boy that has given me so much trouble in my School. Well, Miss Columbia, Now you know how it is yourself!"
Using your notes from Monday,complete this web in your notebook. Social Economic Welfare reform Progressive GOALS Moral Efficiency improvement (govt., industry)
4. Efficiency in Industry Progressives – put faith in experts Social scientists – “costs” of long work days Scientific management – studies to see how quickly tasks could be performed Assembly line – high turnover Ford – reduced workday to 8 hours and paid $5/day
4. (cntd.) Cleaning Up Government Political machines/bosses running cities (ie. Tammany Hall – NY) Rewarded supporters with jobs and kickbacks Helped immigrant groups rise in politics Bought votes with favors, bribes Reforms grew from Desire for efficiency Distrust of immigrants’ participation in politics
Local Govt. Galveston, TX - Botched attempt by city govt. to provide relief from hurricane/tidal wave City councils replaced with commissions Dayton, OH – flood Council manager - People elect city council who appoint manager to run city departments
Reform @ the State Level Robert M. LaFollette -regulated RR Industry Nat’l Child Labor Committee -Keating-Owen Act – prohibited transportation of goods produced by child labor across state lines Louis D. Brandeis -limited women’s work day to 10 hrs. Workman’s Comp./Benefits in Death
Election Reform Direct primary – voters choose candidates’ for general election 17th Amendment - Senators elected by the people Image Courtesy of: www.wku.edu
Women and the Election of 1912“ With a suddenness and force that have left observers gasping, women have injected themselves into the national campaign this year in a manner never before dreamed of in American politics.” New York Herald, Aug. 11, 1912 “Never before in the history of the United States have women taken a deeper interest in a presidential campaign than this year.” New Orleans Picayune, Aug. 19, 1912 “Unprecedented in this country is the prominent part which women are taking in the presidential campaign this year.” Calumet Michigan News, Aug 21, 1912 "Womans Day in national politics seems to many an editorial observer to be now dawning." N.Y. Literary Digest, Aug. 31, 1912