Muslim warriors who died in jihad promised paradise
Jihad – “holy war” in defense of Islam; OR internal struggle (ie. against alcoholism, drug addiction, etc.)
Existing empires – liked messages of equality
Did not force conversion (but “nonbeliever tax”)
Why did Islam spread so rapidly? By 732 – Indus River to Atlantic Ocean
Islam: After Muhammad's Death
AD 632 – Muhammad dies; dynasties emerge
Caliph – successor to Muhammad
Dispute: who will be the leader of Islam?
Sunni Muslims Shi’ite Muslims
Any devout Muslim can be caliph
Scholars interpret Koran
Caliph must be direct descendant of Muhammad
Imam – leader – interprets Koran/Hadith
Once upon a time…
The Middle East met the West
First U.S. impressions of ME came through eyes of Christian missionaries
By 1800s – ME had fallen behind
Science, technology, firepower
20 th century – OIL becomes major reason US has interests in the ME; influences our foreign policy
Nov 26 - 4
The Ottoman Empire During the 1500s
The Decline of the Empire: 1700s
List 2 reasons why Islam spread so rapidly.
Why did the West (Europe and the US) become interested in Middle Eastern affairs in the early 1900s?
Challenges to Power in the Middle East
Ottomans threatened by:
Nationalist/independence movements w/i the empire
Russia wanted land
European interest in OIL
Young Turks movement
By the start of the 20 th century, the Ottoman Empire is know as “the Sick Man of Europe”
The Young Turks Program 1908
revolutionaries, GOAL: constitutional monarchy
Pushed for reforms basic rights:
freedom of speech, assembly, press.
NOT a democratic movt – believed the STATE should create reforms, not will of people
Problem of nationalism – could not unite an empire with so many different groups of people!
Punch Cartoon of August 12, 1908
supported Turkish nationalism
Genocide of Armenian Christians
Impose Turkish culture on all Arabs
Overthrew the Sultan
What is “genocide”? Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Armenian Genocide (map) His parents have been slain: he starves Volume XXXVI, Number Five, November 1919, p. 417 This brother and sister, orphans, were begging for a train-ride to some other town, where there might be bread Volume XXXVI, Number Five, November 1919, p. 404 Images: National Geographic and Library of Congress
Begging for bread as the American relief train arrives at an Armenian station Volume XXXVI, Number Five, November 1919, p. 406 Armenian orphans at Alexandropol: They receive one-half pound of bread and a lump of sugar per day Volume XXXVI, Number Five, November 1919, p. 409
Armenian refugees in Relief Committee tents, Aintab
Remains of the Armenian corpses burnt alive in the cattle-shed in Aly-Zrna
Look at the piece of artwork that you’ve been given, and answer the following questions:
What/who is the subject of the work?
What is the story that the artist is trying to tell?
List 2 emotions that come to mind when you look at this piece of art.
How does the artist use colors, lines, etc. to convey these emotions?
Give the painting a title that you think is appropriate
The Legacy Project
Armenian Genocide Vote Irks Turkey (March 2010 )
Why did a split occur in the Muslim community following Muhammad’s death? What are the names of the 2 resulting sects?
Why was the Ottoman Empire known as “The Sick Man of Europe” by the beginning of the 20 th Century?
The Last Night by Sargis Muradyan
The Armenian Genocide Series
Barbara Yeterian's recent paintings have been inspired by stories of the Armenian Genocide, as told to her by her relatives and other survivors whom she has met. Each work in the series depicts visceral, disturbing, evocative scenes of death, sorrow, and grief; the murder of loved ones and the suffering of starving children are practically reenacted in her powerfully vivid and fluid application of contrasting colors. She uses scenes staged with a few people to index the collective suffering of her ancestors. As a series, the works represent the development of the artist's ability to process and cope with the mass psychological trauma that this event has caused. They reveal a gradual move from the traumatic experiencing of events to a more calm contemplation. Possibly, this is representative of the mind's ability to calmly reflect on real tragedy once a healing process has been initiated. The images of later works are no less disturbing or heart-wrenching than the earlier ones, but they no longer engender an uncontrollable, mass turmoil in the viewer
Artist: Barbara Yeterian Date: 1998 - 1999
Deportation Artist: Vahé Gasparyan Date: 1999
A major theme in Sergei Hovsepyan's artwork is the condemnation of war, its nameless horrors and brutal slaughter. Not just statements of facts, nor simple allegories, his art plays a key role in his quest to make people aware of their involvement in "events that shake the earth." His works use documents of war that have become icons of atrocity placed in a new environment, giving added meaning to familiar symbols of world suffering.
A Child’s World Artist: Sergey Hovsepyan Date: 1982
Gerardo Orakian's warmly somber paintings, with their solemn contrasts of light and dark, portray the deprived lives of the working people who strive each day to earn enough of living to survive until tomorrow. He presents his figures side by side, the closeness of their forms implying an embrace, or mutual support. Orakian makes expressive use of deformation; his subjects' elongated hands seem to both strive for better and to hang in defeat. In their features lie all the sad sentiments of the past and of modern times, the despair of someone who has been deprived of his birthland and who suffers the fate of the perpetual migrant. Often, Orakian put himself among the figures in the pictures, although the artist's desire to return to Armenia never materialized.
Credits: Courtesy National Gallery of Armenia
Orphans by Gerardo Orakian
The Artist and His Mother Artist: Arshile Gorky Date: circa 1926 - 1936
Gorky toiled over this representation of his relationship with his mother for almost a decade. The inspiration for this picture was a photograph of the artist with his mother, which had been taken prior to her tragic death during the Armenian Genocide. Upon his arrival in New York, he began to reproduce the photo, making changes in composition and incorporating surrealist, expressive elements. Comparing the painting with the photo, one realizes that contact between the two persons does not exist anymore. The melancholic boy stands separated from his mother. His face seems to express deep sorrow over the separation. This might also be understood as a metaphorical separation. The flowers in his hand look like an offering to the timeless, monumental figure of the mother. The representation of the mother is interesting: there is a contrast between her colorful face and fragile, almost transparent body. The mask-like character of her face is underlined by the dark window at the back, and her body seems to dissolve outside the picture. Her position, both suspended in air and enthroned in a seat recalls a traditional presentation of the Madonna, accompanied by a worshipping figure.
Having first set foot in his wounded homeland when he was over forty, Hagopian depicts both the suffering and hard-earned wisdom of Armenia. His works never fail to be dramatic, revealing an all-encompassing disquiet that permeates his contemporary landscapes. Basing his technique on sound linear construction, with a tendency toward realism, he manages to permeate simple objects with complex, sorrowful emotions.
The Captured Artist: Hagop Hagopian Date: 2000
Essential Question: How did events during/after WWI create conflicting views regarding the fate of Palestine in the early 20 th century?
Turkish Nationalism (led by Young Turks) Arab Nationalism in OE – groups of people want to break away from the empire FUELS
The Ottoman Empire in 1914
How did WWI affect the Middle East?
Destroyed the Ottoman empire
Treaty of Versailles – stripped of all Arab territories
Arab armies assist British forces, promise of independence
Iran – under influence of GB (OIL interests)
Pres. Wilson backs down from his goal – SELF DETERMINATION for Ottoman territories
GB and France divided the defeated OE
Former OE territories not prepared for self govt.
“ Big 4” at the Paris Peace Conference
Europeans Carve Up the Ottoman Empire After WWI
The League of Nations Mandates
mandate: a territory administered by, but not owned by, another country
Britain - Iraq, Palestine
France – Transjordan, Syria
Zionism Theodore Herzl 1860-1904
movement among Jews to set up a Jewish homeland in Palestine
Freedom from Western anti- Semitism.
Strengthened after the Holocaust
Begin buying land for Jewish settlements
Conflict Over Palestine! Early 20 th century Palestine Arabs: Hussein Mc-Mahon Letters - – promise of Arab Independence in exchange for support in WWI Jews: Balfour Declaration - British support creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine British/French: Sykes-Picot Agreement – Br and Fr will split Ottoman territories amongst themselves; NO MENTION of Arab Independence
Hussein-McMahon Letters, 1915 .... Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca.... Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca
Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916
British Promise to the Jews: Balfour Declaration, 1917 Sir Arthur James Balfour British Foreign Secretary
His Majesty ’ s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine …
Pre-Class List and explain the three conflicting agreements made by the British during WWI, which led to the fight over Palestine.
Conflict Over Palestine
The Zionist movement came into conflict with Arab Nationalism in Palestine
6 million Jews die in the Holocaust, strengthening the movement
Sympathy from the West
At the same time, Palestinian Arabs feared they’d become a minority
The British turn the fate of Palestine over to the United Nations…
Jews & Arabs in Palestine, 1920
In 1920, there was 1 Jew to every 10 Arabs in Palestine.
By 1947, the ratio was 2 Arabs for every Jew.
Palestine’s Population in 1946
Creating a Partition Plan…
Together, with your group members you will consider several factors involved in dividing land between the Jews and Palestinians.
You will create a map of Palestine that you feel fits the needs of both groups.
We will vote for the group whose plan we feel is most fair!
Review the maps you’ve been given
Create your partition plan – draw your map
Below your map, write 3 sentences explaining your partition plan
For example – what factors did you take into account when creating it?
What was the most difficult part about developing your partition plan?
Look at the maps in your packet. If you were a Jew in Palestine in 1947, would you support this UN Partition Plan? A Palestinian? Explain.
The Partition Plan…
The territory of Palestine should be divided as follows:
A Jewish State covering 56.47% of Mandatory Palestine (excluding Jerusalem) with a population of 498,000 Jews and 325,000 Arabs;
An Arab State covering 43.53% of Mandatory Palestine (excluding Jerusalem), with 807,000 Arab inhabitants and 10,000 Jewish inhabitants;
An international trusteeship regime in Jerusalem , where the population was 100,000 Jews and 105,000 Arabs.
The partition plan also laid down:
A guarantee of the rights of minorities and religious rights, including free access to and the preservation of Holy Places ;
A constitution of an Economic Union between the two states: custom union, joint monetary system, joint administration of main services, equal access to water and energy resources.