Lead up to WWI


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Lead up to WWI

  1. 1. <ul><li>O bjectives: </li></ul><ul><li>State the basic features of Wilson’s “moral diplomacy” and explain how they first drew him into intervention in Latin America. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe America’s initial response to World War I, and explain the increasingly sharp conflict over America’s policies toward Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how domestic and foreign controversies affected Wilson’s narrow victory over Hughes in 1916. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what caused America to enter WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how Wilsonian idealism turned the war into an ideological crusade that inspired fervor and overwhelmed dissent. </li></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>Improve financial opportunities for American businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Use US investments to boost political interests abroad </li></ul><ul><li>L.A. – “Yankee Lake” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence– U.S. would intervene to protect investments when countries became unstable </li></ul></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Turns away from aggressive foreign policies of predecessors </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condemn colonialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote self-determination </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>No special support to US investors in LA and China </li></ul><ul><li>persuaded Congress to repeal the Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912 </li></ul><ul><li>Jones Act (1916) - full territorial status to the Philippines </li></ul>Wilson’s “ Bucket of Cold Water”
  5. 7. An Anti-Imperialist? <ul><li>US Marines to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haiti – treaty – US supervision of finances/police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominican Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchased US Virgin Islands (1917) </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><ul><li>Mexico was exploited by U.S. investors in oil, railroads, and mines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large gap between rich and poor , </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson – supports counterrevolutionaries (self-determination); ABC mediate dispute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carranza came to power – resented U.S. military intervention </li></ul>
  7. 9. Emiliano Zapata Francisco I Madero Venustiano Carranza Porfirio Diaz Pancho Villa
  8. 10. General John J. Pershing with Pancho Villa in 1914. <ul><li>“ Pancho” Villa - murdered 35 Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson sends General John J. Pershing to capture Villa </li></ul><ul><li>unsuccessful </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Why did Wilson fail in his attempt to develop a more “moral,” less imperialistic policy in Latin America? </li></ul><ul><li>Were his involvements really an attempt to create a new mutual relationship between the United States and the neighboring republics, or was it just an alternative form of American domination? </li></ul>
  10. 14. Why was this “scale” balance of power so dangerous?? Any incident that could spiral out of control could result in a continental war!!
  11. 15. <ul><li>This 1887 American political cartoon depicts Bismarck balancing the figures of war and peace on a teeter-totter made up of a powder keg and a board named &quot;European politics&quot;. At the same time, he is juggling the great powers of Europe. An artillery piece lies in the foreground. </li></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Militarism </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomatic Failures </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Competition – economic growth </li></ul>
  13. 17. The Total Defense Expenditure of the Powers (in million £ ) (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Britain, France and Russia) <ul><li>from 1910 to 1914, while France increased her defense expenditure by 10%, Britain by 13%, Russia by 39%, and Germany was the most militaristic as she increased by 73% (http://www.thecorner.org/hist/wwi/military.htm) </li></ul>BACK 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398
  14. 19. Central Powers Allied Powers <ul><li>Austria Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Russia (until 1918) </li></ul><ul><li>US (1917) </li></ul>BACK
  15. 20. <ul><li>Austria Hungary annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicted with Pan Slavism movement in Serbia (creation of Slavic state) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serbia threatened war with AH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Balkan Wars (1912-13) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Serbia’s desire for part of AH with Slavic peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left Ottomans wanting revenge </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated by Slavic nationalist, Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia. </li></ul>
  17. 23. <ul><li>2 German armies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 – hold Russia in East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 – quickly defeat France and GB in West </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BOTH armies defeat Russia </li></ul>
  18. 25. An Uneasy Neutrality <ul><li>Immigrant ties to Europe, propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson administration and US investors -credits to Allies </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of London </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Powers accept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GB refused, North Sea = war zone! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutral Rights of US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Illegal” British blockade interrupted US trade </li></ul></ul>
  19. 26. German Sub Warfare <ul><li>U-Boats (unterseeboot) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In response to British blockade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief advantage – SURPRISE (no guarantee of safety of passengers/crews) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lusitania incident </li></ul><ul><li>US response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of army/navy </li></ul></ul>
  20. 27. “ He kept us out of war” – 1916 campaign R - Charles Evans Hughes Wilson: Neutrality, social legislation, reasonable preparedness, League of Nations Hughes: progressive, played both sides on foreign policy (TR), subject to party bosses
  21. 28. <ul><li>US Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and economic ties to Europe (immigrants, trade) </li></ul><ul><li>Unrestricted German sub warfare threatened U.S. trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinking of Lusitania, Sussex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Loans made to Allies </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-German sentiment (propaganda) </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of U.S. military/weaponry </li></ul><ul><li>Zimmerman Note </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Revolution </li></ul>
  22. 29. War declared, 1917: “THE WAR TO END ALL WAR” <ul><li>Congress votes overwhelmingly </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson calls for 14 war goals or “14 Points” </li></ul><ul><li>1917-1918 </li></ul>
  23. 30. Propaganda <ul><li>Nation must convince the people there is a good reason for war </li></ul><ul><li>Can be movies, songs, posters, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Common themes are: danger, patriotism, manhood, outrage </li></ul>
  24. 34. War Hysteria <ul><li>ANTI-GERMAN SENTIMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frankfurter=HOT DOG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sauerkraut=LIBERTY CABBAGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamburger=SIRLOIN STEAK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dachshund dogs = LIBERTY PUPS </li></ul></ul>
  25. 35. &quot;I want to congratulate you for doing your bit to make the world safe for democracy . . . and unsafe for hypocrisy .“ – A. Philip Randolph Lt. James Reese Europe, famous jazz band leader, back with the 369th Regiment Suffragists picketing the White House 1917