Judaism and Christianity


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Judaism and Christianity

  1. 1. Middle East Geography Overview <ul><li>Why is the Middle East a strategic location? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the crossroads of 3 continents: Africa, Asia and Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suez Canal – links the Mediterranean and Red Seas </li></ul><ul><li>Arabian Peninsula – sparsely populated because of lack of water </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile Crescent – includes valleys of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Maghreb – North African Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Most valuable resource: OIL </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs – predominant ethnic group of the region </li></ul><ul><li>Israel – Majority Jewish </li></ul>
  2. 2. Key Terms <ul><li>Oasis – fertile desert area that has enough water to support plant and animal life </li></ul><ul><li>Strait of Hormuz – Waterway at the mouth of the Persian Gulf; world’s most important water route for oil </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Tier - Region that includes Anatolian and Iranian Plateaus (Turkey, Iran) </li></ul><ul><li>Asia Minor – a large peninsula that connects Asia and Europe </li></ul>
  3. 3. Early History and Beliefs of Judaism and Christianity
  4. 4. Pre Class <ul><li>Three Religions – What do you know about the three major monotheistic religions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Founders of Judaism <ul><li>Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Abrahamic covenant; God promised: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promised Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to make Abraham a father of many nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditional (required nothing of Abraham) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Founders of Judaism <ul><li>Moses </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest prophet/teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Led the Exodus (escape of Hebrews from slavery in Egypt) </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaic covenant: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Commandments – establish Hebrews’ relationship with Yahweh, moral laws (self-restraint, family and human life) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Return to Canaan (Promised Land) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Diaspora - the scattering of Jews from the land of Israel <ul><li>revolt against Roman rule (66-70 CE) </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of Jerusalem, Temple </li></ul><ul><li>Jews forced to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Formed regional groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserved traditions, beliefs; faced similar expulsions, persecutions </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Where did the name “Palestine” come from?? <ul><li>Palestine – a name given to the Jewish province of Judea by the Romans (“Palaestina”), during Hadrian’s rule, to wipe away the identity of the state of Judea </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Western Wall <ul><li>Remains of Second Temple </li></ul><ul><li>Place of prayer (mourning for destruction of temple) </li></ul><ul><li>Disputed between Jews/Muslims </li></ul>tzetzels
  10. 10. Judaism = teachings of the Hebrews <ul><li>ethical monotheism </li></ul><ul><li>Torah – first 5 books of Old Testament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosaic Law (10 Comm) – “eye for an eye,” higher value on human life, kinder towards poor, slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics – from prophets’ messages </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. [ I. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. II. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image. III. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain. IV. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. V. Honour thy father and thy mother . VI. Thou shalt not kill. VII. Thou shalt not commit adultery. VIII. Thou shalt not steal. IX. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. X. Thou shalt not covet any thing that is thy neighbour's.
  12. 12. Beliefs/Practices <ul><li>Yahweh (God) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear – early Hebrews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to choose between good and evil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>synagogue </li></ul></ul>Every synagogue contains an Ark, which is a cupboard where the Torah Scrolls, which contain the text of the Hebrew Bible, are kept, and a desk from which to read the Torah. (BBC)
  13. 13. Christianity <ul><li>Began in Palestine (1 st Century) </li></ul><ul><li>grew out of Judaism’s traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus – founder; Gospels – stories of Jesus’ life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preacher – taught goodness, mercy; parables ; miracles attributed to him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentenced to die by Romans – “enemy of the state”; crucified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to Christians – resurrected **, ascended into heaven </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>After Jesus’ Death: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians – believe Jesus is the Messiah (one anointed by God) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews – do NOT believe this; still awaiting the Messiah </li></ul></ul>When/why did the split happen?
  15. 15. Teachings of Christianity (rooted in Judaism) <ul><li>Grounded in Jewish traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( Trinitarian ) Monotheism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>eternal life - reward for the humble, merciful, and unselfish. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sermon on the Mount (Golden Rule, Beatitudes) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. What do you remember about life in the Roman Empire at its height? Why do you think Christianity appealed to many Romans?
  17. 17. Spread of Christianity <ul><li>Christians – followers of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Disciples spread message through Jewish communities in Palestine and beyond (Paul’s letters) </li></ul><ul><li>spread quickly (Roman Empire) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hope of eternal life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control over destiny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equality in the eyes of God </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Persecution <ul><li>Romans persecuted Christians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wouldn’t worship Emperor as a god </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wouldn’t worship Roman gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PACIFISTS – wouldn’t fight to defend the Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Martyrs -people who suffer or die for their beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li># of Christians INCREASED – why?? </li></ul>
  19. 20. Development of the Church <ul><li>Empire forced to accept religion </li></ul><ul><li>312- Constantine supported Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>391 - official religion of the Roman empire </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope – patriarch of Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Schism 1054 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman Catholic (Rome) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Orthodox (Constantinople) </li></ul></ul>