India Since Independence

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  • Nehru met Gandhi in 1916 at the annual Indian National Congress convention. He participated in the nonviolent civil disobedience campaign and spent time in jail along with Gandhi. At independence, Nehru became the nation’s first prime minister and was continually reelected until his death in 1964. Nehru pushed modernization of the country, and industrialization of its economy.
  • India has had a "mixed economy" in which both private business and government invest in and direct the economy. Today, India has been moving away from state ownership and subsidies to business. India's government has established five-year plans to set economic goals. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s made great headway, but faltered due to most farmers' lack of money to buy hybrid seeds, fertilizers, and equipment. Imports still needed.
  • Indira Gandhi was Nehru’s daughter. She married a man named Gandhi who was no relation to the Mahatma. Indira continued industrialization, begun by her father. In 1975 Gandhi was convicted on two counts of corruption in the 1971 campaign. While appealing the decision, she declared a state of emergency, imprisoned her political opponents, and assumed emergency powers. Governing by decree, she imposed total press censorship and implemented a policy of large-scale sterilization as a form of birth control. When long-postponed national elections were held in 1977, Gandhi and her party were soundly defeated. Although very popular at the polls, she faced a great challenge in dealing with nationalist movements among minority groups, especially the Sikhs in Punjab state. The Sikhs sought independence of Punjab, and when they used terrorism, Indira struck back. The Golden Temple -- an extremely holy Sikh shrine at Amritsar was being used by the terrorists as a weapons storehouse and a sanctuary. Indira ordered a military raid on the temple in which hundreds of Sikhs were brutally killed. In the process, the temple was badly damaged. In retaliation, just a few months later on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguards.
  • Indira Gandhi was Nehru’s daughter. She married a man named Gandhi who was no relation to the Mahatma. Indira continued industrialization, begun by her father. In 1975 Gandhi was convicted on two counts of corruption in the 1971 campaign. While appealing the decision, she declared a state of emergency, imprisoned her political opponents, and assumed emergency powers. Governing by decree, she imposed total press censorship and implemented a policy of large-scale sterilization as a form of birth control. When long-postponed national elections were held in 1977, Gandhi and her party were soundly defeated. Although very popular at the polls, she faced a great challenge in dealing with nationalist movements among minority groups, especially the Sikhs in Punjab state. The Sikhs sought independence of Punjab, and when they used terrorism, Indira struck back. The Golden Temple -- an extremely holy Sikh shrine at Amritsar was being used by the terrorists as a weapons storehouse and a sanctuary. Indira ordered a military raid on the temple in which hundreds of Sikhs were brutally killed. In the process, the temple was badly damaged. In retaliation, just a few months later on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguards.
  • The population of India is just over 1 billion people. It is believed that India’s population will surpass that of China by 2020. No success with family planning, birth control/abortion. Necessity of large families in agrarian subsistence lifestyle. India's economy is uneven at best: many Indians lead a subsistence lifestyle, while a sizeable middle class and a small upper class live in the cities. The situation in Kashmir is quite dangerous. Ongoing hostilities continue, and both sides continue a low-level crossfire across the border of this divided region. Three wars have been fought over Kashmir: 1948, 1965, and 1971. The 1972 partition did not settle the issue. Because both sides, India and Pakistan, have nuclear weapons, some fear that the potential for large-scale war could lead to the use of these nuclear weapons. In the summer of 2002, India and Pakistan came within a hair’s breadth of war.
  • India Since Independence

    1. 1. Gandhi’s Legacy <ul><li>Briefly explain Gandhi’s ideals and his main approach to achieving Indian independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the article and your film guide, complete this chart in your notebook: </li></ul><ul><li>What was Gandhi’s main concern about the fate of India after independence? What methods did he use to try to solve this problem? Give 2 examples. </li></ul>British Action Gandhi’s Reaction 1. 2. 3. 4.
    2. 2. British Action Gandhi’s Reaction 1. 2. 3. 4.
    3. 3. What is the message of this cartoon?
    4. 4. INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS Led India to Independence CONGRESS PARTY Dominated Indian Politics for most of the time since independence
    5. 5. India’s Government <ul><li>Central and state govt. share power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central govt. is more powerful (unlike US) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parliamentary Democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on British model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 houses – lower house (Lok Sabha) is more powerful, voters elect members directly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President – Head of State, but little power </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister – leader of party who wins most seats in Parliament </li></ul>
    6. 6. An India Ballot
    7. 7. India’s Ballot Symbols
    8. 9. Jawaharlal Nehru <ul><li>Ally of Gandhi; 1 st Prime Minister of India </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>“ Green Revolution” </li></ul><ul><li>Introduces socialism to economy </li></ul><ul><li>Nonalignment Movement </li></ul>1947-1964
    9. 10. Non-Alignment Movement
    10. 11. India’s “Green Revolution” <ul><li>Introducing higher- yielding varieties of seeds in 1965. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of fertilizers & irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>GOAL - make India self-sufficient in food grains. </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Nehru’s daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister of India, 1966-1984. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled through state of emergency (censorship, rid opposition parties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIKH nationalism – Golden Shrine attacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assassinated 1984 by Sikh Guards </li></ul></ul>Indira Gandhi
    12. 13. The Conflict with Sikhs
    13. 14. Sikhism <ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>against Caste System </li></ul><ul><li>Reincarnation </li></ul><ul><li>Karma - Good deeds/acts </li></ul><ul><li>Charitable giving (10%) </li></ul>
    14. 15. 5 K’s of Sikhism <ul><li>1. Kesh Uncut hair and beard, maintained with the kanga and usually covered by a turban. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Kanga Wooden comb for hygiene and maintenance of the Kesh. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Kara Iron bracelet, a physical reminder that a Sikh is bound to the Guru. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Kachera Specially designed cotton underwear:- Naturally comfortable and dignified attire reflective of modesty and high moral character. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Kirpan Strapped sword: Worn to defend one's faith and protect the weak, reminding one of his or her duty. It is worn to show bravery, not a mere weapon. </li></ul>
    15. 17. Sikh Military Tradition <ul><li>Developed strong military tradition because of constant attack </li></ul><ul><li>Separatist movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punjab region (Sikh majority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel they don’t receive large enough share of govt. resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amritsar (Golden Temple) 1984 – govt. ordered attack on Sikh protestors (Indira Gandhi) </li></ul></ul>BACK
    16. 18. 1985 - 1989 <ul><li>Indira’s son </li></ul><ul><li>Congress Party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged foreign investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent Indian troops into Sri Lanka to impose peace (disastrous) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assassinated by female Tamil Tiger </li></ul><ul><li>Wife, Sonia, leads Congress Party today </li></ul>Rajiv Gandhi: End of a dynasty?
    17. 19. Civil War in Sri Lanka <ul><li>Tamils – Hindu minority living in Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>80s – separatists fought Sri Lankan govt. for own state </li></ul><ul><li>Rajiv Gandhi – sent in peacekeeping troops; ended in war between Indian troops and Tamils </li></ul>BACK
    18. 20. <ul><li>India’s first Sikh Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Statesman, good record </li></ul>Manmohan Singh May 2004
    19. 21. <ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd fastest growing in the world – “opening up” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American-style consumer spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization – technology hub, outsourcing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large skilled workforce; Widespread rural poverty/illiteracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¼ of econ. Dependent on agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s largest film industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overpopulation - 1 billion & climbing; will surpass China by 2050 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu/Muslim tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caste bias - discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>against untouchables continues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tension with Pakistan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Kashmir, nukes) </li></ul></ul></ul>India Today

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